2. treatment of problem behaviours and disorders.

2. treatment of problem behaviours and disorders.

2. 3 Some of the theories of development and how the frameworks to support development can influence practice: Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Jean Piaget believed that intelligence is a process that helps an organism adapt to its environment. His “Cognitive-Developmental Theory” suggested four major periods of cognitive development. Piaget’s influence created a revolution in human development theory. He proposed the existence of four major stages, or “periods,” during which children and adolescents are able to use symbols and to reason in abstract ways. This was the most influential of he six major theories in the 1970s and 1980s, and dominated the study of child development.

Albert Bandura claimed that humans are cognitive (concerned with acquisition of knowledge) beings. Individuals process information from the environment and this plays a major role in learning and human development. This is the essence of his “Social Learning Theory”. This theory modified the traditional learning theory developed by B. F. Skinner and others, which was based on ‘stimulus-response’ relationships. They thought that learning was no different among infants, children, adults, or even animals.

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Bandura’s approach is influential in the analysis of media violence on children and the treatment of problem behaviours and disorders. Freud and Eriksson Early experience and stages of development – Sigmund Freud challenged prevailing notions of human nature and human development. The proposed that individuals are driven by motives and emotions of which they are largely unaware. He believed that individuals are shaped by their earliest experiences in life.

This “Psychodynamic Theory” includes concepts such as the “Oedipus Complex” and Freud’s five stages of psycho-sexual development.Freudian thinking is deeply embedded in our culture and constantly influences our view of human nature but his ideas are now widely disputed. Gessell – Genetic and biological processes and developments – Arnold Gessell was a developmental psychologist. He believed that development was genetically determined, and that genetic abilities and characteristics unfolded alongside an individual’s biological maturation. His most important work involved the study of twins where one of the girls was trained and allowed to practise manipulative skills while the other twin was not.

The experiment concluded that they both developed at the same rate regardless of the additional support given to one twin. Maslow – Hierarchy of Needs is a theory in psychology that Abraham Maslow proposed in his 1943 paper A Theory of Human Motivation, which he subsequently … http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Maslows_hierarchy_of_needs – en.

wikipedia. org Theories relevant to the human growth and development and its effect on communication are that because they have communication difficulties,lack of sight or no sight,vocal or hearing skills the individual would not be able to understand or comrehend what is being communicated….

.By adapting the way I communicate with individuals to suit their needs and level of understanding would enable the service user to participate in some if not all aspects of their daily lives, being aware of their reaction and what that could mean. Never assuming that they had no way of communicating because of their difficulties, but being aware that communication may be difficult but it is a two way process as as a support worker, it is my responsibility of the more able communicator in an interaction to recognise communication difficulties and find the approach that best suits the needs of the service user.Also to recognise communication breakdown and effect repair, which will require time, effort and sensitivity. Language differences and difficulties can affect individuals in many different ways, they can cause the omission of the individuals cultural preferences,the personal care they need/want, the types of food they preferred, opportunity to have a choice, all of which can affect the self esteem,identity and self image of the individual.Power can be used/abused by not allowing the individual the chance to communicate, speaking for them belittling them when they have difficulty expressing their thoughts,fears or problems, not giving them the time or the facilities/aids that enable them to communicate would put the individual in a position of being controlled by anpother, taking away their self esteem, independance and dignity, all of which are forms of abuse.

Also explain how you holistically use these theories to work together ‘social pedagogy’. The theorist whose theory is physical development is Arnold Gesell.His theory is that most physical skills cannot be taught but is programmed in our genetics, which means we will learn different physical skills when our body is ready to. In our setting, we support this by encouraging children but not forcing them to develop a physical skill. We provide a soft, cushioned area so that children can develop themselves physically without risk of hurting themselves.

language development The theorist who theory is language development is B. F. Skinner.

His theory is that children use cognitive behavior when understanding and giving communication.They will use trial and error to get the right words out until they succeed. He believes that children observe adults and other children for the correct way to communicate and repeat the actions they have seen until they get it right. We support this at nursery by speaking clearly and simply and nodding or praising a child for getting a word, sentence or request correct.

This is to encourage them to use the correct terms when they wish to communicate. intellectual development The theorist whose theory is intellectual development is Lev Vygotsky. His theory is that children learn new skills by being guided by cares and arents. An example of this is when a parent sings ’pat-a-cake’ to their child and helps them clap their hands until the child can clap their hands themselves. He believes that every new scene or interaction is a learning experience to children that they must be guided through until they know how react correctly. staff supports this by giving support if children are having difficulty managing a particular task.

We also give praise when children handle social interactions with good behavior to prove that we are happy and that what they have done is the correct way to behave.Social Development The theorist whose theory is Social Development is Albert Bandura. His theory is that children learn by observing how the main people in their life behave and imitating them. People they will observe are parents/cares/siblings/friends/etc.

A child will repeat the behavior they have seen if it is rewarded with attention or praise. Staff behave calmly and use quiet communication to settle any disagreements. Inappropriate behavior or language is not permitted, as children will copy this. Emotional Development The theorist whose theory is Emotional Development is John Bowlby.

His theory is that early relationships with caregivers play a major role in child development and will influence how children react to social interactions with other people. He believes that children who are securely attached to their main cares generally have high self esteem and will be able to enjoy intimate relationships where the ability to share feelings will develop and will seek out social support. We support this theory by easing children into nursery life slowly with visits that get longer and longer as the child becomes more comfortable.This is to prevent separation anxiety Behavioral Development The theorist whose theory is Behavioral Development is B. F.

Skinner. His theory was that if the main cares in a child’s life implemented behavioral modifications, the children would quickly learn the correct way to behave. Staff support this by praising and rewarding good behavior and giving time out and no attention to naughty behavior. However, staffs are aware that our behavioral modifications will only work effectively if parents apply them at home as well

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