Beowulf land, had ruled for a long

Beowulf land, had ruled for a long

Beowulf http://www. heorot. dk/beowulf-rede-text. html Prologue Listen! We –of the Spear-Danes      in the days of yore, of those clan-kings–      heard of their glory.

how those nobles      performed courageous deeds. Often Scyld, Scef’s son,      from enemy hosts 5 from many peoples      seized mead-benches; and terrorised the fearsome Heruli      after first he was found helpless and destitute,      he then knew recompense for that:- he waxed under the clouds,      throve in honours, until to him each      of the bordering tribes 10 beyond the whale-road      had to submit, nd yield tribute:-      that was a good king! To him an heir was      born then young in the yards,      God sent him to comfort the people;      He had seen the dire distress 15 that they suffered before,      leader-less a long while;      them for that the Life-Lord, Ruler of Glory,      granted honour on earth: Beowulf (Beaw) was famed      –his renown spread wide– Scyld’s heir,      in Northern lands. 20 So ought a young man      by good deeds deserve, (and) by fine treasure-gifts,      while in his father’s keeping, that him in old age      shall again stand by, illing companions,      when war comes, people serve him:      by glorious deeds must, 25 amongst his people, everywhere,      one prosper. Then Scyld departed      at the destined time, still in his full-strength, to fare      in the protection of the Lord Frea; he they carried      to the sea’s surf, his dear comrades,      as he himself had bid, 30 when he yet wielded words,      that friend of the Scyldings, beloved ruler of the land,      had ruled for a long time; there at the harbour stood      with a ringed-prow, icy and keen to sail,      a hero’s vessel; they then laid down      the beloved prince, 5 the giver of rings and treasure,      in the bosom of the boat, the mighty by the mast;      many riches were there, from far-off lands      ornate armour and baubles were brought; I have not heard of a comelier      keel adorned with weapons of battle      and war-dress, 40 bill-blades and byrnies;      there lay on his breast many treasures,      which with him must, in the power of the waves,      drift far off; in no way had they upon him fewer      gifts bestowed with the wealth of a nation,      than those did 45 who him in the beginning      had sent forth alone upon the waves      being but a child; et then they set up      the standard of gold, high over head;      they let the sea bear, gave to the ocean,      in them were troubled hearts, 50 mourning minds;      men cannot say for certain,      (neither) court-counsellors (nor) heroes under heaven,      who received that cargo.

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Then was in boroughs,      Beowulf the Scylding (Beaw),   beloved king of the people      a long age 55 famed among the folk      –his father having gone elsewhere,   elder on earth–      until unto him in turn was born   high Half-Dane,      he ruled so long as he lived old and battle-fierce,      the glad Scyldings; o him four sons      in succession 60 woke in the world,      the leader of the legions: Heorogar and Hrothgar      and good Halga; I heard that Yrse      was Onela’s queen, the War-Scylfing’s      beloved embraced in bed. Then was to Hrothgar      success in warcraft given, 65 honour in war,      so that his retainers eagerly served him      until the young war-band grew   into a mighty battalion;      it came into his mind that a hall-house,      he wished to command, a grand mead-hall,      be built by men 70 which the sons of men      should hear of forever, and there within      share out all o young and old,      such as God gave him, except the common land      and the lives of men; Then, I heard, widely      was the work commissioned 75 from many peoples      throughout this middle-earth,   to furnish this hall of the folk. For him in time it came to pass,   early, through the men,      that it was fully finished,   the best of royal halls;      he named it Heorot, he whose words weight      had everywhere; 80 he did not lie when he boasted;      rings he dealt out,   riches at his feasts.

The hall towered, high and horn-gabled;      it awaited the cruel surges   of hateful flames;      nor was the time yet nigh hat the furious edge-malice      of son-in-law and father-in-law, 85 arising from deadly enmity      would inevitably awaken. Part One: Beowulf versus Grendel Attack on Heorot Then the bold spirit,      impatiently endured dreary time,      he who dwelt in darkness, he that every day      heard noise of revelry loud in the hall;      there was the harmony of the harp, 90 the sweet song of the poet;      he spoke who knew how   the origin of men      to narrate from afar; said he that the almighty one      wrought the earth,   (that) fair, sublime field      bounded by water; et up triumphant      the sun and moon, 95 luminaries as lamps      for the land-dwellers and adorned      the corners of the earth with limbs and leaves;      life too He formed for each of the species      which lives and moves. So the lord’s men      lived in joys, 100 happily,      until one began to execute atrocities,      a fiend in hell; this ghastly demon was      named Grendel, infamous stalker in the marches,      he who held the moors,   fen and desolate strong-hold;      the land of marsh-monsters, 105 the wretched creature      ruled for a time since him the Creator      had condemned ith the kin of Cain;      that killing avenged the eternal Lord,      in which he slew Abel; this feud he did not enjoy,      for He drove him far away, 110 the Ruler, for this crime,      from mankind; thence unspeakable offspring      all awoke: ogres and elves      and spirits from the underworld;   also giants,      who strove with God for an interminable season;      He gave them their reward for that. 115He then went to visit and see      –when night came– the high house      how it, the Ring-Danes after the beer-feast,      had occupied; he found then therein      the nobles’ company lumbering after the feast;      they did not know sorrow, 120misery of men;      that damned creature, grim and greedy,      soon was ready, savage and cruel      and from their rest seized thirty thanes;      thence back he went proud in plunder      to his home, faring 125with the banquet of bodies      to seek his shelter.

Then was in the dark of dawn      before the day Grendle’s war-might      revealed to the men; then it was after their feasting      they raised up lament in a great morning-cry. The mighty chieftain, 130the prince, old and good,      sat in sorrow,The great mighty one suffered,      anguish of thane-loss   oppressed him when they the foe’s      tracks beheld, of the wicked ghoul;      that strife was too strong, loathsome and lingering. Nor was it a longer time 135but after a single night      again he perpetuated more brutal slaughter,      and it grieved him not, violence and viciousness,      he was too entrenched in these. Then was it easily found,      one who would somewhere else, further away,      seek rest: 140a bed among the bowers,      when it was made clear to him, truly told,      by an unmistakable token he enmity of the hall’s occupier;      he held himself then further and safer,      he who shunned that fiend. Thus he ruled      and challenged justice, 145one against all,      until empty stood that finest of houses;      the time was long –the space of twelve winters–      that bitter anguish endured the friend, the shielder,      –every woe, immense miseries;      therefore to men became 150to sons of men,      clearly known in mournful ballads,      that Grendle had contended long against Hrothgar,      sustained fierce enmity, felony and feud,      for many seasons ontinual strife;      he did not want peace 155with any man      of the Danish contingent, to desist in life-destruction,      to settle it with payment, none of the counsellors      had any need to hope for noble recompense      from the slayer’s hands, but the wretch      was persecuting 160–the dark death-shade–      warriors old and young; he lay in wait and set snares,      in the endless night he held the misty moors;      men do not know where such hellish enigmas      slink in their haunts. Thus many offences      that foe of mankind, 65that terrible lone traveller,      often committed, hard humiliations;      he dwelt in Heorot, the richly-adorned hall,      in the black nights –by no means he the gift-throne      was compelled to approach respectfully, the treasure, by the Maker,      nor did he feel love for it– 170That was great misery      for the Friend of the Scyldings, a breaking of his spirit.

Many often sat the mighty at counsel;      pondered a plan, what by strong-minded men      would be best, against the sudden horror,      to do; 175sometimes they pledged      at holy temples sacred honouring,      in words bid hat them the demon-slayer      would offer succour from the plight of the people;      such was their habit: the hope of heathens;      on hell they pondered 180 in the depths of their hearts;      the Creator they did not know, the Judge of deeds,      they were not aware of the Lord God, nor yet they the Helm of the Heavens      were able to honour, Glory’s Wielder. Woe be to him who must, through dire terror,      thrust his soul 185into fire’s embrace;      hope not for relief, or to change at all;      well be he who may after death-day      seek the Lord nd in his Father’s arms      yearn towards Nirvana. Beowulf Comes to Heorot So then over the sorrow of the time      the son of Half-Dane  190 continually brooded;      the wise hero could not   turn away woe;      that strife was too strong, hateful and enduring,      that on the people came fearfully cruel, violent trouble,      the greatest night-evil. That from home heard      Hygelac’s thane, 195 a good man of the Geats,      of Grendel’s deeds;   he was of mankind      of the greatest strength, on that day      in this life, noble and mighty;      he ordered them a wave-crosser   –a good one– prepare;      he said: the war-king 00 over swan-road      he wished to seek, that mighty clan-chief,      since he was in need of men;   that adventure him,      the clear-headed chaps, very little begrudged      though he was dear to them,   they urged on the valiant-hearted one,      and observed the omens. 205 The worthy one had,      from the Geatish peoples,   chosen champions,      those who were the boldest he   could find;      fifteen together, they sought the sea-wood,      he led the warriors, that sea-skilled man,      to the boundary of the shore. 210 Time passed by;      the ship was on the waves, the boat under the cliffs;      the ready warriors tepped up into the prow      –the currents curled round,   sea against sand–      the men bore into the bosom of boat      bright arms and armour, 215 noble war-gear;      the fellows shoved off, men on a welcome voyage,      in a well-braced ship. Then they went over the water-waves      urged by the wind,   the foamy-necked floater,      remarkably bird-like until in due time,      on the second day, 220 the curved-prow      had made the journey, so that the sailors      sighted land, bright sea-cliffs,      towering shores, wide headlands;      then was the sea traversed, heir sea-voyage at an end.

Thence up quickly 225 the Wederas-warriors      stepped onto land; moored their vessel;      their mail-shirts clanked those war-garments;      they thanked God that for them the wave-paths      had been smooth. Then from the wall saw      the ward of the Scyldings,  230 he who the sea-cliffs      had the duty to guard,   borne over the gang-plank,      bright bossed-shields,   eager war-devices;      in him curiosity broke the thoughts of his heart:      what these men were;   then he went to the shore      riding his horse, 235 the thane of Hrothgar;      he forcefully shook is mighty wooden shaft,      and with formal words asked:   ‘What are you      armour-wearers bound in byrnies,      who thus your tall keel over the sea-street      leading came, 240 hither over the waters? ‘ He was the coast-guardian,      he held the sea-watch,   so that on Danish land      no enemies at all with a navy      would not be able to ravage. ‘Not here more openly      began to come 245 lindenwood shield-bearers,      nor you the leave-word   of our war-makers      certainly don’t know our kinsmen’s consent;      never have I seen greater   noble on earth      than the one that you are, arrior in armour;      this is no a mere retainer 250 made worthy by weapons;      unless he is belied by his looks,   a unique appearance! Now I must your lineage learn,      ere you far hence, deceiving spies      in the land of the Danes further fare;      now you far-dwellers 255 you sea-sailors,      hear my one-fold thought:      speed is best for reporting,      whence your comings are. ‘ He the eldest      answered, the crew’s captain,      he unlocked his word-hoard:  260 ‘We are of the tribe      of the Geat people and Hygelac’s      hearth-companions; y father was      known to the folk, a noble vanguard-warrior,      called Edgetheow, who saw many winters      ere he passed away, 265 old, from our courtyards;      he is readily recalled   by each one of the wise      widely throughout the world. We, by resolute resolve, your lord, the son of Half-Dane      have come to seek, that protector of the people;      be you a good guide to us;  270 we have, to that grand one,      a great errand to the Danish lord;      there shouldn’t some secret   be of this, I think. You know if it is as we truly      have heard said, hat amongst the Scyldings,      some enemy, I know not what,  275 a furtive despoiler,      in dark nights, sickeningly reveals      unknown enmity, suffering and slaughter. I can on this matter, to Hrothgar,   from a spacious spirit,      give counsel, how he, wise and good,      overcome the fiend– 280 if for him a change      ever should, from this suffering of miseries      to remedy, come after–   and his hot wellings of melancholic care      grow cooler;   or else ever after,      a time of torment, horrible hardship he will endure,      so long as there remains,  285 in its high place,      that best of houses.

The guard made a speech,      sitting there on his horse,   –the unhesistating officer:      ‘He will –every sharp shield-warrior–      know the distinction between words and works,      he who reasons rightly. 290 I hear it,      that this is a legion loyal to the lord of the Scyldings;      go forth bearing weapons and armour;      I shall guide you; likewise, I  the kin-thanes      of mine will order,   against any foes      your vessel, 295 –newly tarred,      ship on the sand– to guard in honour,      until it bears back, over the sea-streams,      the dear man, –the swoop-necked wood —      to Wedermark; hose who perform noble deeds–      to such as these it shall be granted  300 that the battle-rush      he survive in one piece. ‘   Then they went faring      –the boat at rest awaited,   it rode on the sand      the broad-bosomed ship, on anchor fast–      boar-figures shone atop cheekguards      adorned with gold; 305 glittering and fire-hard;      life-guard they held;   war-spirits raised;      the men hastened, marched forward together,      until they the timbered hall,   glorious and gold-trimmed,      were able to glimpse;   that was the foremost      –for earth-dwellers– 10 of halls under the heavens,      in it the ruler dwelt;   its light glimmered      over many lands. Then to them the fierce fellow     –to that court of great men   glorious– he lead,      that they to it could go directly;      the worthy warrior 315 turned his horse,      thereupon spoke words: ‘Time it is for me to go. The Father all-ruling,   with grace      may He hold you sound on your sojourns! I will to the sea, against brutal dacoits      keep watch. ‘ 320 The street was paved with stones,      the path guided   the men together;      war-byrnie shone arsh, linked by hand,      ring-iron glittering, they sang in their arms,      as they to the hall straight   in their grim gear      came marching; 325 they set down, sea-weary,      their wide shields,   the rims wondrous-hard      against the wall of the hall,   and bent down then to a bench;      corslets rang– the war-clothes of warriors;      spears stood, seamen’s weapons,      all together, 330 silvery above a grove of ash;      the iron-clad troop was   honoured in weapons;      then a proud noble the elite soldiers      asked about the heroes: ‘Whence ferry you      plated shields, teel-hued shirts of mail      and masked-helms, 335 this host of army-shafts? I am Hrothgar’s herald and officer;      I have not seen from a foreign land   this many men      looking braver in spirit; I expect that you from valour,      not from exile, but from greatness of heart      have sought out Hrothgar. ‘  340 Then him the renowned one      answered –that proud prince of the Wedera nation–      spoke thereafter words,   severe beneath his helmet:      ‘We are Hygelac’s companions at table;      Beowulf  is my name; I wish to proclaim to      the son of Half-Dane, 45 –that famed sovereign–      my errand to your lord,      if he wishes to grant us that we him, the virtuous one,      might greet.

‘ Wulfgar began to speak      –he was the Wendels’ leader,   his courage was      well-known to many, 350 war-skill and wisdom–:      ‘I this from friend of the Danes,   lord of the Scyldings,      will inquire, from the giver of rings,      –as you are petitioners–   from that famed sovereign      about your quest, and to you the answer      promptly make known 355 which to me the virtuous one      sees fit to give. ‘   He turned then quickly      to where Hrothgar sat, ld and very grey,      amid his company of earls; he strode grandly      so that he stood by the shoulders   of the Danes’ lord:      he knew the custom of veteran-warriors;   360 Wulfgar made this speech      to his friend and lord:   ‘Here have ventured,      come from far away, over the expanse of the sea,      men of the Geats; the eldest one      of these elite warriors is called Beowulf;      they are asking 365 that they, my lord,      with you might exchange words;      give them not refusal from your answers,      gracious Hrothgar; they by their war-gear      seem worthy f the esteem of nobles;      indeed, the prince is powerful,  370 who the warriors      led hither. ‘ Hrothgar spoke,      –the Helm of the Scyldings–: ‘I knew him      when he was a youth; his old father was      called Ecgtheow, to whom gave into his home      Hrethel of the Geats  375 his only daughter;      now his heir is come here bravely,      seeking a steadfast friend. Further, it has been said by      sea-farers, they who our gifts of coins      ferried for the Geats   thither in thanks,      that he thirty 380 men’s strength      in the grip of his hand, enowned in war, has;      him holy God, in benevolence,      has sent to us, to the West-Danes,      of this I have hope, against Grendel’s terror;      I the good man must 385 for his great daring      offer precious treasures. Be you in haste,      order to come in to see me the noble band of kinsmen      all together;   Say to them also in words,      that they are welcome   to the Danish land.

‘ A word from within announced:   391 ‘To you I am commanded to say      by my valorous lord,   the leader of the East Danes,      that he knows your noble history,   and you are to him,      over sea-swells, -bold in thought–      welcome hither; now you may enter      in your war-gear, 396 under visored-helmets,      to see Hrothgar; let battle-boards      here await, and wooden slaughter-shafts,      the result of words. ‘   Then the mighty one arose,      about him many warriors,   the glorious troop of thanes;      some waited there,   401 guarding the gear of war      as the hardy leader bade;   they hurried together;      the hero led the way for them under Heorot’s roof, severe under his helmet,      until he stood in the hall. Beowulf spoke      –on him a mail-coat gleamed, 06 a net of armour woven      by smith’s skilful art–:   ‘Be you, Hrothgar, whole. I am Hygelace’s kinsman and retainer;      I have many great labours   undertaken in my youth;      Grendel’s enterprises have to me become,   on my native soil,      clearly known: 411 it is said by sea-farers      that in this hall stands,   –the best of buildings–      for each and every man,   idle and useless,      after evening-light under the firmament of heaven      goes to hide.

Then I was advised that,      by my people, 416 the best ones,      the clever chaps, overeign Hrothgar,      that it were thee I should seek,   for that they the force of the strength      of mine knew;   themselves had looked on,      when I returned from battle,   stained with the blood of foes,      where I bound five,   421 destroyed ogrish kin,      and amid the waves slew   nicors by night;      I weathered distress in many a tight corner,   avenged injury done the Wederas      –they sought woe–   the foes I crushed,      and now against Grendel I am bound,   with that terrible creature,      alone,   to settle   426 the affair with the troll. I now then you, rince of the Bright-Danes,      want to request, O protector of the Scyldings,      one boon: that you not refuse me,      O shield of warriors, liege and comrade of the folk,      now that I have come thus far;   431 that I might alone,      with my company of nobles   and this hardy horde of warriors,      clense Heorot;   I have also heard      that the evil creature in his recklessness      heeds not weapons; then I it scorn      –so that for me Hygelac may be   436 my liege-lord blithe in his heart– that I bear a sword      or broad shield, yellow-rim to war,      but I with my grip shall ight with this fiend      and over life strive, enemy against enemy;      there must trust in 441 the judgement of the Lord,      whichever one that Death takes;   I expect that he will wish,      if he can compass it,   in the war-hall,      the Geatish people to devour fearlessly,      as he often did, the force of glorious warriors. You will have no need for my   446 head to shroud,      but rather he will have me fiercely stained with gore,      if me Death takes, he will bear my bloody corpse;      he aims to bite,   the lone prowler eats      unmournfully, arking the limits of his moor enclosures;      nor will you for the needs of my 451 body’s funeral-provisions      have any further concern. Send to Hygelac,      if I am taken by battle, the best of battle-shrouds,      the one that protects my breast,   choicest of garments;      that is Hrethel’s relic, Wayland’s work. Fate goes always as She must. ‘ 456 Hrothgar spoke,      the helm of the Scyldings: ‘Fit to fight, you,      my friend Beowulf, and for honour      us have sought. Your father by striking began      the greatest feud:   he was Heatholaf’s      slayer by his own hand 61 of the Wylfings;      then him his spear-kin for dread of troops      could not shelter; thence he sought      the South-Danes’ folk over the welling of the waves,      the Honour-Scyldings;   at that time I had just begun to rule      the Danish folk   466 and in my youth held      the precious kingdom, the treasure-keep of heroes;      then was Heregar dead,   my elder brother      unliving, the son of Half-Dane;      he was better than I.

Then the feud      I settled with fees; 471 I sent the Wylfings      across the water’s ridge   ancient treasures;      he swore oaths to me.It sorrows me to say      in my heart to any man      Grendel has caused me what humiliations in Heorot      with his thoughts of hatred,   476 carried out lightning-quick attacks;      my hall-troop is   waned, that war-band;      they have been swept aside by Fate   in Grendel’s horrid violence;      God can easily the rash ravager’s      deeds put an end to. Full oft have vowed,      having drunk beer, 481 over ale-flagons,      battle-men, that they in the beer-hall      would await Grendel’s onslaught      with vicious edges. Then, this mead-hall was      in the morning his noble hall stained with gore      when the day lightened,   486 all of the benches      smeared with blood the hall battle-gory;      I had friends the fewer, cherished old battle-retinue,      for these Death took them away.

Sit now to feast      and untie your thoughts of your glorious victories to the soldiers,      as your heart urges. ‘ Feast at Heorot 491 Then the Geatish men were      gathered together   in the beer-hall,      room was made on a bench, there the strong-souled      went to sit down, proud in prowess      a thane performed his office, he who in his hands bore      an ornate ale-cup, 96 decanted pure sweet mead;      a bard sang from time to time   clear in Heorot;      there was joy of heroes, no small host      of Danes and Wederas. Unferth spoke,      the son of Edgelaf, who sat at the feet      of the lord of the Scyldings; 501 he unbound battle-runes      –for him was the venture of Beowulf,   brave seafarer’s,      a source of great displeasure,   because he did not grant      that any other man ever glorious deeds the more      on middle-earth heeded under the heavens      than he himself–: 506 ‘Are you the Beowulf,      who contested against Breca     on the broad sea,      contended around the ocean-sound?Where you for bravado      tempted the waters and for a foolish boast      in deep sea risked your lives,      you no man 511 –neither friend nor foe–      could dissuade from that sorrowful jaunt,      when you rowed into the strait;   there you sea-currents      in your arms embraced, traversed the ocean-roads,      with hands wove, gliding over the sea;      the ocean in waves 516 welled, in winter’s swells;      you in the water’s grasp   toiled for seven nights;      he got the better of you on the sea,   he had more might. Then he in the morning on Heatho-Reams’ shore      was cast up by the sea; hence he sought      his own homeland, 521 dear to his people,      the land of the Brondings,   the fair citadel,      he had folk there, boroughs and rings;      the entire boast with you the son of Beanstan      truly fulfilled. I expect then for you      worse results, 526 though you in war-assaults      everywhere prevailed,   grim combat,      if you for Grendel dare the space of a night      nearby wait. ‘ Beowulf spoke,      the son of Edgetheow: ‘Listen, you a great deal      –Unferth, my friend,   531 drunk on beer–      have spoken about Breca, told of his journey.

Truth I claim that I sea-strength      greater had, hardship on the waves,      than any other man; we had it agreed,      being lads, 536 and vowed      –being both then still in the years of youth–      that we out on the ocean   our lives would risk,      and thus that we did. We had naked swords      when we rowed on the ocean-sound,   hard in our hands:      we ourselves against whales 541 planned to defend;      not a whit from me was he   on the sea-waves far      able to float, swifter on water,      nor did I wish to part from him;   then we together      were on the sea, or the space of five nights,      until the sea-waves drove us apart,   546 the water welling,      the coldest of weathers,   the darkening night      and the north wind fierce turned against us;      wild were the waves; then was the sea-fishes’      wrath roused; there me against foes      my body-shirt 551 strong and hand-linked,      did me help, my battle-garment braided      lay on my breast, adorned with gold;      to the bottom of the sea I was drawn   by the hostile foe-scather,      it held me fast, cruel in grip;      however, to it was granted 556 that I the monster      reached with my point, ith battle-bill;      in the battle-rush I destroyed   the mighty sea-beast      with my hand. Thus me often      hateful attackers pressed sorely;      I served them 561 with my dear sword,      as it was fitting; they the feast did not      have rejoicing, those perpetrators of crime,      that they partook of me,   sitting round a banquet      near the sea-bed but in the morning      by maiche-swords wounded, 566 along what is left by the waves      up they lay   put to sleep by swords,      so that never since on the high waterway      sea-travellers way did not hinder. Light came from the east, right beacon of God,      the sea became still, 571 so that I the headlands      was able to see, windswept walls. Fate often spares the hero not fated to die      when his courage endures. However it was my good fortune      that I with my sword slew   nine of the nicors;      I have not heard by night 576 under heaven’s vault      of a more grievous fight,   nor on the water-streams      of a more wretched man;   yet I the foes’ grasp      survived with my life, weary from my venture;      then the sea bore me off   flood following current      onto the land of the Lapps,   581 the tossing boat.

Not a whit of thee in such strife of conflict      have I heard told, of bill-blade terror;      Breca never yet at battle-play,      nor either of you, so boldly      performed a deed 586 with bright swords      –I do not boast of this–   nevertheless, you your brothers’      killer were, near relatives;      for that you must with Hel suffer torment,      though your mind is strong; I say to you in truth,      son of Edgelaf, 591 that Grendel would have never so many      atrocities committed,   –that terrible demon–      to your leader, humiliation on Heorot,      if your heart were, nd your spirit so battle-fierce      as you yourself tell   but he has found      that the fight he needs not, 596 that terrible storm of sword-edges      of your nation,   greatly to dread,      of the Victory-Scyldings; he takes a forced toll,      spares none of the Danish people,      but he carries on his delight,   slaying and despatching,      he does not expect contest   601 from the Spear-Danes. But I shall him the Geats’   might and courage,      before long now, offer in war;      a man will be able to go back, to mead bravely,      when the morning-light over the sons of men      of another day, 06 the sun clad in radiance,      shines from the south. ‘   Then was joyful      the dispenser of treasures, with wizened hair and brave in battle      for support he trusted   the lord of the Bright-Danes      heard in Beowulf the guardian of the folk,      firmly-resolved intent;   611 There was the laughter of heroes,      the noise made melody,   words were joyful. Wealhtheow came forth, Hrothgar’s queen,      mindful of etiquette, greeted, gold-adorned,      the men in the hall and then the noble lady      gave out full cups, 616 first to the East-Danes      homeland-guardian, ade him be blithe      at the partaking of beer, beloved by the people;      he took in delight feast-food and hall-cup,      the victorious king; then she went among them,      the lady of the Helmings,   621 to veteran and youth      a portion to each, gave rich cups,      until the time came that she to Beowulf,      the ring-adorned queen, blossoming in spirit,      carried a mead-cup; she greeted the Geatish prince,      thanked God, 626 wise in her words,      for that her wish was to be fulfilled,   that she in any      noble man could count on relief from wickedness. He took that full-cup, he slaughter-fierce warrior      from Wealhtheow, and then spoke solemnly,      made eager for war; 631 Beowulf spoke,      the son of Edgetheow: ‘I resolved that,      when I mounted the water, sat down in the sea-boat      amid my company of warriors,   that I forthwith      your people’s will would work,      or fall in slaughter, 636 fast in the fiend’s grasp;      I must perform this daring act of courage      or the last day in this mead-hall      of mine await. ‘ The woman these words      liked well, the vow-speech of the Geat;      went gold-adorned, 641 the noble queen of the folk,      to sit by her lord.Then were again, as before,      in the hall, bold words spoken,      the people full of joy, –victory-folk’s clamour–      until presently the son of Half-Dane      wished to seek 646 evening-rest;      he knew that the ogre for the high hall      had plotted an attack, ever since when they the sun’s light      could see;   and darkening      night all over, shadow-helm’s shapes      came slithering, 651 black beneath the skies.

The troop all arose;   greeted then the man      the other man, Hrothgar Beowulf,      and bid him health, the wine-hall’s ruler,      and spoke these words: ‘I never to any man      before entrusted, 56 since I hand and shield      was able to raise, this strong-hall of the Danes,      save to thee now;   have now and hold      this best of houses, focus on glory,      show great valour, keep watch against the enemy;      there shall be no dearth of your desires 661 if this courage-work you      survive with your life. ‘ The Fight with Grendel Then Hrothgar went      with his band of heroes, the protector of the Scyldings,      out of the hall;   he wished      to seek Wealhtheow, the queen as companion in bed;      the glory of kings had,   666 against Grendel,      –so men heard– he hall-guard posted:      special duty he held for the chief of the Danes,      ogre-watch he kept. Indeed the prince of the Geats      keenly trusted in his prodigious power,      his Maker’s favour, 671 then he from himself took      iron-byrnie, helm from head,      gave his adorned sword, the choicest of irons,      to his retainer, and commanded him ward      his battle-gear; the good man spoke then      some promise-words, 676 Beowulf of the Geats,      before he stepped into bed:   ‘I myself in martial-stature do not      tally poorer   in works of war      then Grendel himself; herefore him with my sword I      shall not slay, deprive of life,      though I fully am able; 681 he knows not the finer skills      that he may strike me back,   hew my rimmed-shield,      although he is renowned for malicious works      but we at night must relinquish short sword      if he dares to seek war without weapons,      and then wise God, 686 on whichever hand,      the holy Lord will allot glory,      as seems fitting to Him. ‘ The war-bold one then bent himself down      –the cheek-bolster received   the earl’s face–      and round him many rave seaman      sank down in hall-slumber; 691 none of them thought      that he thence would his dear home again      ever visit, his folk or his noble citadel,      where he was nurtured   for they had heard      that far too many of them already   in that wine-hall      slaughtering Death had carried off   696 of the Danish people. But to them the Lord granted   the woven-destiny of war-luck      to the Wederas’ men,   solace and support,      that they their foe, through the strength of one,      all overcame, by his own might;      truth is known 701 that mighty God      mankind as ruled forever. In the colourless night came   slinking the shadow-wanderer;      the shooters slept,   they that the horned-house      were obliged to guard,   all but one      –it was known to men 706 that they could not,      when the Maker did not wish it,   by the malefactor      be drawn under the shadows– but he watching      in angry indignation bided in rising rage      for the result of battle.

Then came from the moor      under the misty cliffs 711 Grendel walking,      God’s wrath he bore; the vile ravager meant      from mankind a sample to snare      in the high hall; e waded under the clouds      until he the wine-hall,   –the gold-hall of men–      mostly-certainly saw, 716 shining gold;      it was not the first time that he Hrothgar’s      home had sought; he never in the days of his life,      ere nor after,   harder luck      or hall-thanes found. He came then to the hall      the fighter journeying,   721 cut-off from merriment;      the door soon rushed open,   firm with fire-forged bands,      when he tapped it with his hands   plotting evil then he tore open,      now that he was enraged,   the mouth of the building;      straight after that n the tessellated floor      the fiend treaded, 726 advanced angrily;      from his eyes issued, most like a flame,      a distorted light; he saw in the hall      many warriors a sleeping company of kinsmen      gathered together   a great host of warriors. Then his heart laughed:     731 he intended to deprive,      ere the day came, the cruel beast,      from each one life from body,      now had befallen him a hope of a full feast. It was not his fate again   that he might more      of mankind 736 partake of after that night;      the mighty man beheld,   the kinsman of Hygelac,      how the cruel killer y means of a sudden attack      wished to proceed. That the monster did not      think to delay, but he quickly grasped,      at the first occasion, 741 a sleeping warrior,      rended without restraint,   bit into the bone-locks,      from the veins drank blood,   swallowed great chunks;      soon he had the unliving one      all devoured, feet and hands;      nearer he stepped forth, 746 taking then with his hands      a stout-hearted warrior from his rest,      reached towards him the foe with his palm;      quickly he grasped the malice thoughts      and clamped down on the arm.

At once he found,      the shepherd of atrocities, 751 that he had not met      in middle-earth, in the expanse of the world,      in another man a greater hand-grip;      he in his heart grew fearing for life;      none the sooner could he away;   eager-to-go-hence was the thought in him,      he wanted to flee into the darkness, 756 to seek the devils’ concourse;      his situation there was not   like he in the days of his life      ever had met. The good man then recalled,      the kinsman of Hygelac,   his evening-speech;      upright he stood and laid hold of him tight;      fingers burst; 61 the troll was striving to move outward,      the earl stepped forward. The infamous one meant,      anywhere he so was able,   farther escape      and away thence flee to his secret places in the fen;      he knew his fingers’ control   in his enemy’s grip,      that was a bitter journey he   766 that the harm-warrior      had taken to Heorot. The noble hall broke into a din;      the Danes all were,   –the citadel-dwellers–      each of the bold, earls in the flood of bitter drink;      enraged were both   fierce hall-wards;      the hall resounded. 71 Then it was a great wonder      that the wine-hall   withstood the war-fighters,      that it did not fall to the ground,   the fair mansion      but it so firm was inside and out      with iron-bands skilfully smithed;      there from the floor broke away   776 many mead-benches,      I heard, adorned with gold,      where the enemies struggled;   it was not thought before,      by the sages of the Scyldings,   that it ever by means      any men splendid and bone-adorned,      could break it up, 781 cleverly cleave asunder,      not unless fire’s embrace   swallowed it in inferno.

Sound ascended up, ew, nearby:      the North-Danes stood in ghastly horror,      in each one of them who from the wall      weeping heard, 786 terrible screaming,      God’s adversary, a victoryless song,      bewailing his wound, Hel’s prisoner;      he held him fast, he who was of men      in might strongest on that day      in this life. 791 The protector of earls had no wish      for any reason   the murderous guest      to release alive, nor his life-days      to any people counted as advantage. There many brandished warriors of Beowulf,      old heirlooms, 796 they wished prince-lord’s      life defend, he legendary leader’s,      if they could do so; they did not know that,      when they joined the fray,   the bold-minded      battle-men, and on each side      thought to heaw, 801 to seek the soul:      that the sin-scather any on earth,      of the choicest of irons, of war-bills, none,      could not at all greet him but he victory-weapons      had forsworn, every blade-edge. His life-severing was bound to   806 on that day in this life be wretched,      and the alien-spirit into the administration of fiends      would journey far away;   then he found,      he who before many, iseries in his mind,      on mankind 811 atrocities committed      –he, who fought with God–   that him his body-shell      would not obey, but him the daring      kinsman of Hygelac had by the hand;      each was by the other loathed while living;      body-pain he felt, 816 the awful ogre;      on his shoulder was a great wound apparent,      sinows sprang asunder, bone-locks burst;      to Beowulf was war-glory given;      thence Grendel had to flee sick unto death      under the hills of the fen,   821 to seek his joyless abode;      he knew it more surely   that was his life’s      end arrived, he day-count of his days.

For the Danes were all,   after that slaughter-storm,      wishes come to pass:   he had then cleansed,      he who had before come from afar,   826 shrewd and strong-minded,      the hall of Hrothgar,   rescued from ruin;      in his night’s work he rejoiced,   in valour from great deeds;      to the East-Danes had   the Geatmen’s leader,      his oath fulfilled; so too anguish      all remedied, 831 grievous sorrow,      that they had ere endured,   and in hard distress      had to suffer, no small misery;      that was a clear sign, when the battle-bold one      the hand placed, rm and shoulder      –there was all together 836 the grip of Grendel–      under the gaping roof. Celebration at Heorot Then was in the morning,      as I heard tell, about the gift-hall      many warriors, folk-chiefs arrived      from far and near across wide regions      to behold the wonder, 841 the foe’s foot-prints;      his parting from life did not   seem mournful      to any man of those who the gloryless foe’s      track observed,   how he weary      away thence, vanquished by violence,      to the nicors’ mere 846 doomed and driven back      left behind life-trails.There with blood was      the water seething, terrible swirling of swells      all mingled with boiling gore,      with sword-blood it welled, doomed to die he hid himself,      then, bereft of pleasure,   851 in his fen-refuge      he laid down his life, his heathen soul;      there Hel embraced him. Thence returned      old companions, also many young,      from the sport-chase, from the mere full-spirited,      riding horses, 856 warriors on fair steeds,      there was Beowulf’s   glory proclaimed;      many often said that neither south nor north      between the seas ver the whole vast earth,      no other under the sky’s expanse      was ne’re better 861 shield-bearer,      of a worthier kingdom; nor, however, the friend and lord,      did they blame at all,   gracious Hrothgar,      for he was a good king.

At times the brave warriors      let leap, in a contest raced      fallow horses, 866 where to them the earth-roads      seemed suitable,   and known to be the best. At times the king’s thane,   a man laden with fine speech,      remembering songs,   he who very many      of ancient traditions recalled scores,      found new words 71 bound in truth;      the man then began Beowulf’s exploit      skilfully to recite, and artfully utter      an adept tale, varying his words;      he spoke of almost everything   that he of Sigmund      had heard said, 876 of his deeds of glory:      many uncanny things,   the striving of Wael’s son,      his great journeys;   those things of which the childen of men      by no means knew,   feuds and feats of arms,      only Fitela with him, then he of such matters      was wont to speak of, 881 uncle to his nephew,      as they always were in every conflict      comrades in need; hey had a great many      of the giantkind laid low with swords; Sigmund’s Story for Sigmund arose, after the day of his death,      no little fame, 886 since the fierce warrior      had quelled the great serpent,   the keeper of a hoard;      beneath the hoary grey stone he,   the prince’s son,      alone ventured a dangerous deed,      Fitela was not with him; however it was granted him      that the sword pierced   891 the wondrous wyrm,      so that it stood fixed in the wall,   the noble iron;      the dragon perished in the slaughter;   the fearsome one had      ensured by courage hat he the ring-hoard      might possess at his own chosing;      he loaded the sea-boat, 896 bore in the bosom of his ship      the gleaming treasures,   Wael’s son      –the wyrm in its heat melted– he was of adventurers      the most widely famed among nations,      the warriors’ protector, for deeds of valour      –he had prospered by this–   901 since Heremod’s      skirmishing had abated, affliction and spirit;      he among the Etins was into enemy hands      given up, quickly despatched;      the surgings of sorrow him hindered too long;      he to his people became, 06 to all of the nobels,      a great mortal sorrow;   moreover they often mourned,      for in earlier times,   the departure of the stouted-hearted king,      many learned sages   who to him for miseries’      remedy had trusted and believed   that that prince’s son      must prosper, 911 take up his father’s rank,      rule the folk, their treasury and citadel,      the heroes’ kingdom,   homeland of the Scyldings;      he by all became, the kinsman of Hygelac,      by mankind, more esteemed;      wickedness undid him. 916 Now and then racing,      dusky streets n their mounts they traversed.

Then was the morning light   hurried and hastened;      many retainers went determined      to the high hall to see the strange wonder;      the king himself too   921 from his wife’s bower,      the ward of the ring-hoard,   stepped out splendid      with his great troop, famed for his excellence,      and his queen with him,   passed down the meadhall-path,      accompanied by maidens. Hrothgar spoke      –he went to the hall, 926 stood on the steps,      observed the steep roof   adorned with gold      and Grendel’s hand–: For this sight      Thanks to the All-Ruler be swiftly forthcoming! I have suffered many injuries,   griefs from Grendel;      God can always work 931 wonder after wonder,      glory’s Keeper. It was not long past      that I for me any for woes not hoped      for the bredth of my life, to experience remedy      when adorned with blood the most splendid house      stood battle-gory: 936 woe widespread      for each of the sages those who did not hope      that in the span of their lives   the nation’s fortress      from foes they could protect,   from shucks and shines;      now a warrior has, hrough the Lord’s power,      performed a deed 941 which we all      before could not with schemes contrive;      listen, that may say even so whichever woman      as that begot this man,   among mankind,      if she yet lives, that to her the Old Measurer of Fate      was gracious   946 in child-bearing. Now, I, Beowulf, you, the best of men,      for me like a son would love in life;      keep well henceforth this new kinship;      there will not be any want of worldly wishes      while I have power; 951 full oft I for less      rewards have bestowed, honouring with treasure      a humbler man, esser at fighting;      you for yourself have by deeds ensured,      that your fame lives for ever and ever;      may the All-Ruler you 956 reward with good,      as He has now yet done! ‘ Beowulf spoke,      the son of Edgetheow: ‘We the courage-works      with great pleasure, endeavoured to fight,      boldly risked the strength of an unknown foe. I would rather 961 that you him himself      might have seen, the fiend in his full gear      wearied by death; I him quickly      in hard clasp on the bed of slaughter      thought to fetter, that he because of the hand-grip      of mine must 66 lie struggling for life,      lest his body slip away;   I him could not,      when the Measurer of Fate did not wish it,   hinder departing;      nor I so readily kept him close,   that mortal foe;      he was too overpowering, the fiend in departing;      however, he left his hand   971 to save his life,      remaining behind, arm and shoulder;      not with it though any the worthless creature,      relief purchased; not the longer does he live,      the hateful spoiler,   struck down by sins      but him the wound has 976 with violent grip      narrowly enclosed in baleful bonds,      there he must await, he creature stained with crimes,      the great judgement,   how him the glorious Measure of Fate      wishes to decree. ‘   Then the man was more silent,      the son of Edgelaf,   981 in boast-speech      of war-works when the noble men,      by the strength of the prince   over the high roof      saw the hand, the fiend’s fingers;      on the front of each was, in the place of each nail      very much like steel 986 heathenish hand-spurs,      the war-creature’s ungentle talon;      everyone said that him no hard weapon      would strike, pre-eminent iron,      that of them (none) the demon’s   bloody battle-hand      would injure. 91 Then the order was promptly given      the interior of Heorot   to furnish by hands;      many there were, of men and women,      who the wine-hall, the guest-hall prepared;      gold-glittering shone woven tapestries along the walls,      many wondrous sights   996 for each of the men,      who on such stared; that bright building was      badly broken up all inside      secure with iron-bands, hinges sprung open;      the roof alone remained entirely sound,      when the ogre, 1001 guilty of wicked deeds      turned in flight, despairing of life.

That is not easy to flee from      –try he who will– ut he must gain by strife,      those who have souls,   compelled by necessity,      the mens’ sons’, 1006 the ground-dwellers’      ready place, there his body,      fast in his death-bed, sleeps after feasting. Then it was the time and occasion   that to the hall went      Half-Dane’s son; the king himself wished      to partake of the feast;   1011 I have not heard when a tribe      in a greater force   around their treasure-giver      comported themselves better;   they then sank down on the bench,      the fame-bearers,   rejoicing at the feast;      they graciously received   many full goblets of mead,      their kinsmen, 016 stout-hearted,      in the high hall Hrothgar and Hrothulf      the interior of Heorot was   filled with friends;      no treacherous-strokes the Folk-Scyldings      made as yet. Then Beowulf was given      the brand of Half-Dane, 1021 the golden banner      in reward of victory, the adorned standard,      helm and byrnie; the renowned treasure-sword      many saw brought before the hero;      Beowulf took the full flagon from the floor;      of the reward-gift he did not,   1026 as payment,      need to be ashamed; I have not heard that more graciously      four treasures,   adorned with gold,      many men n ale-bench      have given to others; around the helmet’s roof      –the head-guard– 1031 was wound with wires      the re-inforced crest guarded from without,   that him what the files have left      could not savagely,   (could not) harm the wondrously-tempered (helm),      when the shield-fighter against enemies      had to go. The defender of earls then ordered      eight horses,   1036 with decorated head-gear,      led onto the hall-floor   in under the ramparts;      one of them stood, saddle skilfully adorned,      ennobled with jewels;   that was the battle-seat      of the high king, hen in sword-play      the son of Half-Dane 1041 wished to engage;      in the vanguard it never failed   his warskill well-known,      when the slain were falling;   and then to Beowulf      both of the treasures the protector of the Friends of Ing      bestowed possession,   horses and weapons;      he ordered him to make good use of (them);   1046 so in a manly manner      the famed chieftain, the hoard-ward of heroes,      paid for war-clashes in horses and treasures;      thus, one can never find fault in them   he who wishes to tell      the truth according to what is right.Then, furthermore, to each one      of the earl’s company   1051 those with Beowulf      travelled the sea-path,   on the mead-bench      he gave treasures, inherited relics,      and the one man decreed to requite in gold      whom Grendel first in wickedness quelled,      as he would have more of them   1056 except for them wise God      that fate had prevented,   and this man’s courage. The Measure of Fate controlled all   for mankind,      as he now still does; therefore understanding is      best everywhere, the forethought of mind;      he must abide much 061 love and much hate      he who long here in these days of strife      would enjoy the world. There was song and sound      at the same time all together   before Half-Dane’s      battle-plotter, the glee-wood plucked,      a lay often recited 1066 when a hall-performance      Hrothgar’s bard before the mead-bench      was obliged to utter: concerning Finn’s heirs, with whom,      when disaster struck them,   the hero of Half-Danes,      Hnaef the Scylding, on the Frisian battle-field      was fated to fall.

The Finnsburg Episode 071 Truly, Hildeburh did not      have need to praise   the good faith of the Eotens;      she was guiltless,   bereft of her dear ones:      –in the war-play– her son and brother;      they fell, in accorance with Fate,   wounded by spear;      that was a mournful woman. 1076 Not without reason did      Hoc’s daughter grieve over Fate’s decree,      when the morning came,   then she under the sky      could see the baleful slaughter of kinsmen,      where before he had held the most   joy in the world,      war took all 1081 of Finn’s thanes,      except a few alone, o that he could not      in that meeting-place the clash with Hengest      conclude at all, nor the woeful remnant      by battle dislodge from their position,   the prince’s thane,      so they offered them settlement:   1086 that they for them the other dwelling      would completely clear,   hall and high seat,      that they would half of it control   with the Eotens’ sons      might have, and at the giving of treasure      Folcwalden’s son each day      the Danes would honour, 1091 Hengest’s company      would revere with rings,   with even as much      precious possesions f ornate gold      exactly as he the Frisian kind in the beer-hall      would wish to embolden. Then they pledged      on both sides 1096 firm compact of peace;      Finn to Hengest with incontestable earnestness      proclaimed an oath   that he the woeful remnant,      by sages’ judgement,   would hold in honour,      that there any man by word nor by deed      would not break the treaty,   1101 nor in malicious artifice      ever complain, though they their ring-giver’s      killer followed,   leaderless,      and were thus forced by necessity; f then any Frisian      by audacious speech the murderous feud      were to remind (them), 1106 then it by sword’s edge      must be thereafter. The funeral fire was prepared,      and Ingui’s gold,   raised from the hoard;      the War-Scyldings’ best battle-man      was ready on the bier; at the funeral-pyre was      easily seen 1111 the blood-stained mail-shirt,      the swine all-golden,   the boar hard as iron,      the prince had many destroyed by wounds;      great men had fallen in slaughter;   then Hildeburh ordered      at Hnaef’s pier er own sun      committed to the fire, 1116 the body-vessel burned,      and put on the bier,   the wretched woman at his shoulder,      the lady lamented,   sorrowed with songs;      the warrior was laid out, spiralled into the clouds      the greatest fire of the slain   roared before the mound;      heads melted, 1121 the wound-gates burst open,      then blood sprang out,   from the hate-bites of the body;      the blaze swallowed all up,   –the greediest guest–      those who there were taken by battle   from both peoples;      their vigour was dispersed.The warriors returned then      to seek their houses,   1126 bereft of friends,      to see Frisia, their homes and high fort;      yet Hengest the death-stained winter      spent with Finn, in a place with no fellowship at all;      he remembered his land,   though he could not      drive on the sea 1131 the ring-prowed ship:      the sea welled in storm,   fought against the wind;      the winter locked the waves   in icy bonds,      until came another year to the courtyards,      as it still does now, those which continuously      carry out their seasons,   1136 gloriously bright weathers.Then winter was gone,   fair was the Earth’s breast;      the exile was anxious to go,   the guest of the dwellings;      he of vengeance for grief   sooner thought      than of sea-path, and whether he a bitter encounter      could bring about,   1141 for that he of the Eotens’ sons      inwardly remembered;   so he did not refuse      the worldly practice, when to him Hunlafing      the battle-light, the finest blade      he placed on (Hnaef’s) lap; among the Eotens its      edges were known. 1146 So too his mortal enemy’s      –Finn in turn received–   dire sword-onslaught      in his own home, hen concerning the fierce attack      Guthlaf and Oslaf,   following their sea-journey,      declared their grief,   blamed for their share of woes;      he could not his restless spirit   1151 contain in his breast;      then the hall were decorated   with the foes’ lives,      so too Finn was slain, the king amid his troop,      and the queen was seized;   Scylding shooters      ferried to the ships all of the house-goods      of the nation’s king, 1156 which they at Finn’s estate      could find: shining jewels and well-cut gems;      they on the sea-path   the noble lady      ferried to the Danes, led to the people.

The lay was sung, the gleeman’s tale;      joy again sprang up, 1161 music rang out from the bench,      cup-bearers served   wine from wondrous vessels. Then Wealhtheow came forth,   walking in a golden neck-ring      to where the good pair   sat, uncle and nephew;      then their kinship was still together,   each to the other true;      Unferth the talker was also there   1166 sitting at the feet of the Scylding lord;     each of them trusted his spirit, and that he had great courage,      though he to his kin was not   honourable in clash of blades;      the Scylding lady then spoke:   ‘Receive this full cup,      my noble lord, ispenser of treasure;      you–be joyful, gold-friend of men,      and to the Geats speak with gentle words      so ought a man to do; 1173 be gracious with the Geats,      mindful of gifts   which from near and far      you now have; it has been said to me      that you wish for a son,   to have this leader of armies;      Heorot is cleansed,   the bright ring-hall;      enjoy, while you may, 1178 many rewards,      and leave to your kinsmen folk and kingdom      when you must go forth to meet what is fated;      I know my racious Hrothulf,      that he the youths wishes to hold in honour,      if you earlier than he, 1183 friend of the Scyldings,      leave behind the world,   I think that he with good      will repay our children,      if he that at all remembers, what we for his sake      and for his worldly renown,   before, in his youth,      bestowed our favours. ‘ 1188 She turned then by the bench,      where her boys were,   Hrethric and Hrothmund,      and heroes’ sons, the young company all together;      there sat the good   Beowulf of the Geats      by the two brothers.The full cup was brought to him,      and a friendly invitation   1193 proffered in words,      and twisted gold kindly offered:      two arm-ornaments, robe and rings,      the largest necklace of those whic

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