Investigative & Interrogative Reporting
BSS – 7B

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Submitted by: Umer Ibrahim

Investigative journalism is based on two pillars of information Gathering documents and human sources. While document retrieval and analysis have received much attention in recent years, particularly with the advent of computer assisted reporting and Freedom of Information. Remarkably very less attention has been given in the journalistic literature to best practice for developing and maintaining sources. Investigative Journalism is given an extraordinary importance everywhere throughout the world. It is one major field that is followed by many of the people around the world, our news media is somehow depends on investigative journalism. Investigative journalism is affected and molded by the elites and whistleblowers. In this study we will thoroughly discuss, how investigative journalist are affected by the elites.

Investigative journalism is a term which has been interpreted widely. It is a term which is commonly used in the literature, usually to distinguish the kind of journalism which goes further than simply daily reporting on the issue of the day.

Journalism, as an industry and a profession is characterized by ever-increasing motion and change, for better and for worse. Profound transformations affect every aspect of the institution, including the economic health of journalism, the conditions and self-understandings of its practitioners, its ability to serve as a watchdog on concentrations of power, its engagement with and relationship to its audience, and its future prospects. This emerging and dynamic ecology can be viewed as a unique group of challenges and opportunities. Investigative journalism is an undertaking with a declared mission whose fulfillment has impact on both policy makers and members of the public, by exposing budgetary waste, corruption, official scandal and institutional malfunction. The investigative journalism play a crucial role in bringing allegations of corruption to light and fighting against impunity. International groups of investigative journalists are an example of an international cooperation that leads to tangible results in bringing financial and economic crime to the attention of the public and law enforcement authorities.

Elites play an important role in media organizations and particularly investigative journalism. Who are elites ?. The word “elite” was restructured from the French word elite, that again derives from the Latin “eligere”. It is a verb mean to choose, pick out or select. The word elite refers to those people who are superior and top (Akhtar, 2014). In Social sciences; the word elite explain the authority and power of a leading but small group in the society.

Elites refers to the people who are dominant in term of power, authority and capacity having indispensable impact and assuming definitive job in any state and society. They play very crucial role in investigative journalism. To understand the role of elites in investigative journalism one can consult “panama papers” “paradise paper” or Watergate scandal. Elites strangle investigative journalism for their sake of interest.
The current disruption to journalism raises threats to journalists themselves, but also for the public, as well as to business models, and established journalistic roles and practices. Risks and threats to journalists themselves come in many forms. For journalists around the world, their profession can be a dangerous one. The risks and threats stem from geopolitical changes as well as a perceived loss of neutrality for journalists. Where once they were trusted intermediaries now they are seen as either “with us or against us”. There are direct and often physical threats to reporting particularly in conflict zones. According to figures from the International News Safety Institute, more than 1000 journalists have died on the job in the past decade.
Freedom of the press is a fundamental human right and several international treaties recognize its importance in the protection of democratic principles. Fundamental rights should be given to investigative journalism so that would help journalist to give report on truth and show real side of the report. The involvement of elites in any investigative report can lead to biasness or favoritism. To ensure the authenticity of report the involvement of elites should be restricted in any kind of investigative journalism. The OECD Survey on Investigative Journalism (Survey) asked journalists to rate how safe they felt reporting on corruption cases, most respondents (35%) indicated that they felt moderately safe. Journalists were most concerned about threatened or actual legal action by the elites, in the form of civil suits for libel, or criminal prosecution for defamation or publishing classified information. Some referred to baseless legal actions being launched to intimidate journalists, which nevertheless took time to resolve and involved significant legal and psychological cost.

From past to present
Over the years Pakistan has been designated as one of the deadliest countries for journalism. It’s clear to assume that a journalist has to face many hurdles when they decides to carry out an investigation of immense importance involving influential people and authorities such as, politicians, establishment, businessmen, lawyers, drug mafia etc. which can be described as elites in Pakistan. The most dangerous country in the world for working journalists’. One journalist in Pakistan dies every 38 days according to the Sri Lankan media expert Ranga Kalansooriya.
After each election in Pakistan individuals praise it as the achievement of the everyday citizens. We saw it in the 1970 election, when individuals disposed of the oppressive ruler and casted vote for Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. In 1977, individuals disposed of the political elite and invited Zia-ul-Haq, and in 1988, again individuals choose Benazir Bhutto as the decision of poor people.
The legislative system of Pakistan is commanded by 6 major elites from 1947, till now and these elites are not equivalent in power but rather they have made partnerships among themselves and are available in each legislature. They are the military, the administrators, the proprietors/feudal, the religious, the modern and the professional elites.
Many corporate elites have started to buy news channels after discovering that controlling media can protect their corporate business. Which question the credibility of the news. In Pakistan all media groups are owned by corporate sector/ businessmen.
Many political parties in Pakistan have influence or own media channels. In every term of new government alliances have been made between political parties and media channels. Example in the last year the leading channel Geo was accused of supporting PMLN whereas ARY was accused of supporting PTI.
There are many elites in Pakistan on which media doesn’t show any news. Example to that is “Malik Riaz” Pakistan’s 6th richest businessman, No media channel dares to write against him.

Through investigative journalism, we can also through light on how elites react to media coverage in addition to their influence over media. Illuminations of why elites react to media revealing – and what work the media play in this system – are different. One inconvenience political agenda?setting analysts usually encounter is perceiving information impact and media channel impacts (Soroka 2003; Wanta and Foote 1994). It is possible that governmental authority’s direct movement considering media incorporation since they have an energy for the information given by the media – which may perhaps also be open to them by methods for various channels. In those cases, media influences are really data impacts. Data itself is activates political response, and, relying on the preconditions the authorities are aware and literate about it by one way or another, would thusly happen paying little respect to whether the media anchored the information (Delshad 2012; Liu et al. 2011). Again, it is tenable that the influence is not driven by what media has to say, but highly depends on the way the data is communicated by the media, which is regarded for the prosperity of its own. Some agenda?setting scientist’s battle, for instance, that legislators react to the media since they accept things that are anchored by the media to be basic as per the overall public (Herbst 1998; Pritchard 1994). In a way, the organization specialist’s thinking is pulled in here not by the data everything considered, yet rather by how the data is secured by the media, which they recognize to be identified with general appraisal (Cohen et al. 2008).
These elites will act out accordingly once they will learn about this data, and how it can have great impact on their image. Not going beyond borders but stating common example from our own set up, we can observe it that we cannot come out of the closet and express our negative thoughts or opposing thoughts against military or else we will face the music, especially when you are a part of a popular organization or a renowned journalist. The impact of elites could likewise be seen when the PML-N government forced strict digital tormenting laws against individuals who straightforwardly said negative things regarding their administration by forcing a fine up to seven hundred thousand and a correctional facility time of a half year.

The role of military elites in the legislative issues is one of the most vital political situation in Pakistan. In our country, ignorance towards political affairs, one’s trust in military forces, enormous opposition spending plan, inside and outer security chance perception, singular power, nonappearance of capable political pioneers and weak political associations are some principle contemplations provoked the creation of military elites in Pakistan. Nonappearance of obvious and skillful specialist after the destruction of Quaid-e-Azam and Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan, feeble political establishments and political gatherings incited the quick rot and turn down of the political establishment in our country. This cleared technique to military elites to value an overall position. Pakistan’s military has obtained all the nonmilitary workforce authority of British Army. “S. E. Better illuminate three causes about the military which make it dominate. It has three colossal political central focuses over regular foundations; control over arms an extraordinary degree emotionalized agent status and checked pervasiveness in affiliation” (Finer, 1988). After Starting of disputes with India over the division of Kashmir, water issue and after the 1948 war, it pushed toward getting to be essential for the Pakistani pioneers to set up a proficient and earth shattering Army to battle Indian Army. Different organs of the state like parliament, political social events, lawful and political accord couldn’t bolster up during this period, which later provoked the meaning of Military elites in Pakistan. Enormous watch spending plan and unbendable military getting ready enhanced equipped power capable character and raised its status. This improvement made asymmetry between military and citizens and weakened the political associations, which altimetry provoked political insecurity in Pakistan. Pakistan’s Military Generals have an effective undertaking to complete in the family unit and remote issues of the country despite during the standard national principle” (Waqar, 2012)

Media outlets are business driven and media owners are businessmen they further create a lot of problems for investigative journalism. That’s why the masses in the country doesn’t believe on the report of journalist. The trend of Investigative journalism in Pakistan is strongly affected by the elites of country, either they are economic, political or military elites which should be changed so the Positive job of media would increment political mindfulness, feature political commitment, create awareness among all masses Freedom of the press is a fundamental human right and several international treaties recognize its importance in the protection of democratic principles. Fundamental rights should be given to investigative journalism so that would help journalist to give report on truth and show real side of the report.


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