ITMP SYLLABUS INDIAN MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS AND PRACTICES I) Indian Ethos Multiplicity and variety – yet has commonness • Focus on the ultimate Principle or Intelligence to whom (or which) man seeks recourse. II) Personality Personality development through yoga – the three paths/marga – bhakti, karma and Jnana • The three gunas – sattva, rajas, tamas. • Individual – a being with infinite capabilities and potentials – is a result of your own actions • Koshas: the concept of man • Meditation – the technique for development of self • Leadership: qualities of leaders with special reference to Indian thoughts. Motivation – Indian approach vis-a-vis American and Japanese approaches. III) Society and Social Groups: • Society – combination of individuals of diversity – values that reflect on social practices and customs – impact on individual and collective behaviors – uses coercion to enforce compliance – societal values. • Significance of festivals – harmony with nature. Indian concept of learning – gurukul system of learning. IV) Spirituality: • The core teachings of all founders of religions. • Spirituality vis-a-vis religion • Concept of Maya (Illusion) – Advaita Vedanta Meaning, scope and implications at work • Concept of Dharma: varna ashram dharma, svadharma • Concept of karma – meaning and importance to managers, corporate karma. • Concept of Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam ____________________________________________________________ ______ Tolerance This is a greater virtue than love. As it needs lot of patience to listen and understand other’s point of view, belief about an issue. However, to a true Indian it comes naturally. In India it is a common sight to see a Church, a Temple, or a Mosque or a Gurudwara or a Fire Temple in the same friendly neighbourhood.
Indiansbelieve and practice respect for each other’s, religious beliefs and life style. We Indians believe in the philosophy of “Live and Let Live. ” Humanity Humanity is another value imbibed in Indian culture. Indians rise to the occasion, in times of war and have given a helping hand. A famous example is that of a humanitarian Dr. Kotnis, who went to China during the war to save the lives of the war time victims during Second World WSar, and saved many lives and while treating the people there, died. We have many such heros, who have made us proud. Self Management
Indians believe that they have to first manage themselves, before they can try and manage anybody else. Man must know himself first, “know thyself”. His strengths, weakness, his dreams and desires, his goals and his ambitions. Indian ethos emphasizes on harmony and integrity between body, mind, emotion and Jivatma or Soul. Healthy body in a healthy mind is an important value inculcated in our culture. Divinity Divinity resides in every one of us and the journey of Man apart from his wordly duties and accomplishments is also spiritual in nature. Indians strongly believe that divine grace works only when a person puts his 100% efforts.
There is a saying, “God helps, those who helps themselves… ” It is this inner strength to have faith that god is with us in times of distress that gives every man the courage and power to overcome obstacles. Indian Cultural Heritage and the Youth Today Today’s youngsters are prone to danger – of clouding their conscience by four C’s: 1. Competition Which has become so severe, that they find it difficult to cope with it? May it be a class test, an important competitive exam which makes or breaks their career like S. S. C, H. S. C and entrance exams of Engineering, Medicine or M.
B. A. Hence, instead of doing deep study and get thorough knowledge of the subject, they try to find quick fix solutions and short cuts to pass these examinations. 2. Cleverness This is not intelligence which comes form assimilation of information and insights but street smartness which makes him a “Smart Alec”. The youngsters today tend to be presentable and try to “show – off” and can make a short term impact, however they are unable to sustain this as they do not have the sincerity, persistence of efforts which is needed for long time relationship building. 3. Cruelty
Youngsters today want to have things their way and hence always want to be winners at all cost – even at the cost of others they do not believe in the philosophy of Live and Let Live but in “Survival of the Fittest”. 4. Confusion Today’s youngsters are confused about many things: * Core Values Parents or teachers teach them value which they themselves do not follow. Hence they feel they are imposed with ideas which can not be implemented. * Career Goals These days the parents thrust these on youngsters and as such they many or may not be motivated to accomplish these. * Materialism v/s idealism
Some of our notions are either very idealistic or very materialistic and hence youngsters are not able to Balance the two. However, if our youngsters follow truly the Indian Ethos there they should imbibe the 4 C’s: 1. Confidence Confidence means self – within or Atmavishwas. It comes from purity of one’s intentions and gives the youngsters high energy to fulfill his desires and bring them in to reality. This purity comes from Dharma or Eternal Rules which even an illiterate understands as your “inner voice: tells you that a particular thought or action is right or wrong. . Compassion Sahanubhuti or able to understand other’s feeling and point of view comes from the Vedic Mantra “Maad Atma Sarva Bhutama” which means reverence and respect for all creations including animals, insects and plants. 3. Caring Attitude When one starts seeing others as a reflection of one self then one naturally starts caring for another who is an extension of one’s self. Therefore we see the mother who cares for the baby, the elder brother or sister cares for the younger brother or sister, friends care for one another, etc… 4. Competency
The Western world stresses on competency which comes from skills set, which a person can acquire whereas Indian value system imbibes competency through the formation of the right Attitude which comes from Right Sanskars and Karma. Discuss the impact of Indian cultural heritage on youth today? Basically all the value systems throughout the world teach similar things. They are as follows: * Humanity – helping others of our kind * Humility – be humble to others * Self development – through social betterment * Respect – respect fro elder, parent and others
But there have been a surfaced a difference i. e. due to cultural difference. As we have already discussed the effects of western values is less influence due to which many time western people do things which are against there values while little is done to imbibed the value into child during his upbringing, due to which his character is developed of a person who has to consideration for his character is developed of a person who has to consideration for his values and it is exactly opposite in case of eastern values. Value Imbibed in our Indian Culture . Respect Each individual must be given due respect irrespective of work he does, post he holds or caste or religion he belongs to. 2. Trust Indians are warm and friendly people. They are trustworthy and trust people. They do not believe in deceiving others. 3. Work is Worship Indians believes that the best offering or Pooja to the divine is through their hard work and sincere efforts. 4. Chitta Sudhi Purification of the mind with noble thought of friendliness, humility, compassion and gratitude. 5. Self Discipline and Self Restrain
Indians believe in restraining their senses, emotions like greed, passion etc… disciplining their self for a strong will power. 6. Spirit of Renunciation and Detachment The law of Karma is a way of life in India and one of the strong beliefs is do your Karma and accept the result with a strong beliefs is do your Karma and accept the result with a Prasad Bhav. Do not attach great importance to the Result. If one works with this spirit, then one will contribute 100% efforts and be effective at work place as there is no attachment to Result. 7. Art of Giving
Indians do not believe in grabbing and stealing. They feel Good when they are giving food to the hungry, educating the poor, etc… on all focus on “Daan – Charity”. 8. Holistic Indians always while thinking or solving any problem will take a holistic approach. They would always see the Big Picture, learn from nature and make all round progress. 9. Tolerance Indian culture is one of the oldest surviving cultures and has assimilated different cultures, religions, customs and life style. In India, people of various religions co – exist and respect each other religion and uniqueness. 10. Adaptable
Indians have over the centuries adopted and adapted various customs. Indians are successful abroad as they adjusted and adopted their style and culture. comparative study of value system practiced in Japan, China, and America | America| India| Japan| | | | | Destiny| Individuals can create their own destiny. | There is no control over individual’s destiny. | Destiny is created through group efforts. | Decision Making| Rational and logical| Intuitive| Brain storming| Conflict Resolution| Can disagree openly and debate to solve a problem. | Suppress disagreement, conflicts are resolved by seniors view. High maturity level, conflicts are resolved by discussions| Respect| Self and merit| Seniority and elders| Seniority| Management Orientation| Result oriented and focusing on target. | Human development oriented and focusing on soft, balancing in contribution of man and machine. | Holistic oriented, focusing on skills achieving. | 1. Destiny According to the US culture, they believe that a person ahs full control on his destiny and thus believes that one can create one’s own destiny. No matter how straight the gate, how charged with punishment the scroll; I am master of my fate, I am Captain of my soul.
However Indians believe that they have no control on their destiny due to the law of Karma which highlights one is born to repay one’s debt and all the pleasure and pain one gets is due to the accumulation of the right or wrong action of one’s past life. On the other hand Japanese culture believes in co – creating one’s destiny, through group efforts. They believe in synergy which comes from brain storming and belief, “many hands make light work. ” 2. Decision Making US culture stresses on the left brain thinking, or IQ and on a rational.
Logical approach to decision which is based on facts and figures. Indian culture has always nourished the right brain thinking which is based on one’s emotional intelligence. It is based on the inner voice of the conscience commonly known as “gut feeling” to institution. Japanese culture on the other hand is based on brain storming where in Quality circles a common problem in a company is taken up and all participate finding a solution which can be implemented. 3. Conflict Resolution In the US culture they believe in respecting each other yet openly disagreeing.
This way they put across their views to each other and resolve any conflicts. However in India, we believe in suppressing, not communicating our disagreements. By maintaining silence and status quo we resolve our differences. In Japan, they believe in having a dialogue when everyone is free to express their views and thus are able to resolve conflicts in a very mature way. 4. Respect According to the US culture one is given respect for one’s self and for one’s merit. They also believe in dignity of labour and freedom of speech. They do not respect someone just because of seniority.
Indians and the Japanese culture show lot of reverence for elders and for seniority. Even the promotions in the company are on merit. 5. Management Orientation Management orientation of the US is based on increasing the bottom line, profits, reducing costs and all these targets are quantitative which does not consider human dynamics. On the other hand in India, it is more based on human development on soft skills and a balance between man and machine. Similarly according to the Japanese culture there is a holistic attitude which aims at using effectively all the resources.
Comparing Value System Practiced in Japan, China and America. Values are called Gunas. They express dharma or divine nature. Values acts as a base of skills. They are the means of perfection. They are internal, dealing with the internal development of a person, purifying mind and heart. They bring about excellence and universal good. They are governed by union, holism and relatedness. They are firm and enduring. They must form an integral part of management. Let us compare value system practiced in Japan, China and America. Japan Success of Japan is based on values familiar to Indians. They use spiritual ducation and practices like concentration, meditation, lectures of spiritual leaders, mind stilling, institution, etc… to neutralize the evil effects of reckless industrialization and to synthesize human values into management and organization. The organizations inculcate the spirit of giving rather than taking in work life. The individuals are encouraged to subdue (control, discipline) their ego, and to overcome to some extent selfishness, anger, jealousy, greediness, hatred, partiality, etc… Japan has combined spiritualism and materialism and has adopted value – driven holistic approach in management and organization.
In Japan the basic individual virtue (good quality, good value) is considered to be Makoto (sincerity). Sincerity means that true words become true deeds; the source from which beauty, goodness and truth are born. Once the person has the life attitude of Makoto, his actions and relations with fellow beings would be in conformity of the Michi (way) which is said to correspond to our dharma. Thus, Japanese people were inspired more by the spiritual motive for doing good to their nation and world.
Japanese culture believes in co – creating one’s destiny through group efforts they believe in synergy which comes from brain storming and the belief that ‘many hands makes work light’. In Japan they believe in having a dialogue where everyone is free to express their views and thus are able to reduce the conflicts in a very matured way. China Non – violence forms an integral part of value system in China. Chinese prefer to use the positive form rather than negative and hence they use the word JEN which means ‘love and friendship’. They believe n truth and non – violence.
JEN has a vast volume of meanings and lot of diversities of interpretations, to some it is to love people, to few it is to subdue oneself and return to propriety, and to few it is to able to practice five things i. e. generosity (kindness), gravity (seriousness), sincerity (genuineness), earnestness (intensity) and kindness everywhere. JEN is the characteristic element of humanity and the great exercise of it is in loving all people especially relation. Another value, which is important for Chinese people, is ‘Yi’ which means righteousness (morality, justice, honesty).
They believe that JEN or benevolence is man’s heart and Yi or righteousness is man’s path. Love, mercy and benevolence are present in Chinese policies. Moreover, charity, selflessness, forgiveness, fearlessness too form a part of their value system. They also follow values of harmony peace and love. America According to Americans, everyone has a hierarchy of values that form their value system. This system is identified by relative importance we assign to such values as freedom, pleasure, self – respect, honesty, obedience and equality.
Achievement, peace, co – operation, equity and democracy are social values that are considered desirable in North America. These values are not fixed, but when they change, they do so very slowly. The dominant work values of Americans are hard work, loyalty, achievement, ambition, accomplishment, harmony, peace and equality. According to American culture they believe that a person has full control over his destiny and thus believe that one can create his own destiny. It stresses on logical and rational approach towards decision which is based on facts and figures.
They believe in dignity of labour and freedom of speech. They do not respect someone just because of seniority. As we compare these value systems that are practiced in Japan, China and America we find that they are very similar to the values system practiced in India. The basic values of harmony, peace, truth and justice are the same everywhere. Hence, we can conclude that the value systems practiced are almost the same. It is only the circumstances, which force people to change their values, or else they are the same. Personality is the Product of Heredity and Environment
The role of heredity in the development of personality is an old argument in personality theory. Heredity refers to those factors that were determined at the conception. Physical stature, facial attractiveness, sex temperament, muscle composition and reflexes, energy level and biological rhythms are characteristics that are generally considered to be imported either completely or substantially by one’s parent. The heredity approach argues that the ultimate explanation of an individual’s personality is the molecular structure of the genes, located in the chromosomes.
The following classification of characteristics is said to be inherited by all humans: * Physical Structure * Reflexes * Innate (inborn, natural) Drive * Intelligence * Temperament Nevertheless; the role of heredity on personality development cannot be totally minimized. Physical attributes, for instance, may be largely attributed to heredity. Thus, heredity plays a very important role in shaping of the personality. Personality development owes as much to environment as it does to heredity. Environment is a broad term and includes factors such as culture.
The methods by which an infant is fed and is toilet trained, and makes the transition from adolescence to adulthood are all culturally determined or girls are not allowed to go out at night unescorted as Indians believe that they need to be protected, whereas boys do not have any such restrictions. While growing the child learns to behave in ways expected by the culture of the family in to which the baby was born. One of those expectations has to do with sex roles. Most cultures expect different behaviour from males than from females. The cultural sub – groups exerts its influence on personality.
Although culture has significant influence on personality development, linear relationship cannot be established between personality and given culture for two reasons: * The cultural impacts upon an individual is not uniform, because they are transmitted by certain people parents and others – who are not at all alike in their values and practices, and * The individual has some experience that is unique. Each individual reacts in his own way to social pressures, differences in behaviour being caused by biological factors. Distinction Between Role Personality and True Personality Role Personality We term role personality as our role model i. e. someone we aspire to be. * Role personality has certain personality traits which we try to incorporate in our life * We try to create SWOT analysis of Role personality and try to fit ourselves in that image. * We always try to keep our role personality in focus and act accordingly to his role i. e. we try to fit ourselves in his / her role. * Role personality continues to establish themselves as a role model for others and there is hardly any scope for them to get manipulated True Personality * True personality refers to what we are i. . it indicates our own personality. * We always try to bridge the gap between our personality and role personality. * True personality can be modified and can be improved. * Sometimes, our own personality keeps on changing due to external control, but in the end it leads us to confusion. Holistic approach to Personality Development Qualities required for development of a personality according to Indian Management Thoughts are: 1. Atmavishwas (self – confidence) Self – confidence is one’s ability and belief. It springs from purity of intention and gives the individual the much needed zeal.
It is a must in each and every individual; ‘can do’ must be developed in every individual. Who have self confidence it is the appropriate level of confidence neither over nor under and this is called Atmavishwas. 2. Parasanman (respect) An individual must have respect for all creation i. e. nature, man, animal, etc… according to Indian Vedanta we are indebted to all the living being. 3. Sahas (daring) An individual must have the daring to face challenges and accept everything that is new and sudden whether it is new thought or a sudden circumstance.
If he believes in himself and knows that he is on a right path he will have the courage and determination to face all odds and deal with them gradually. 4. Dhairya (patience) ‘Slow and steady wins the race’, the attitude of wait must be developed. Results always take time. A person must have patience. He must not do things in a hurry, as ‘haste is waste’. Nature is a good example to teach us the principle of patience. As we sow a seed, water it, nurture it for a long time then only we are entitled to its fruits. 5. Nischayatmak (decisiveness) An individual must have the power of decisions.
A person who has confidence impurity of its intention. Good Krama and a positive mind set will never hesitate to do something that ought to be done. An individual must be decisive and not indecisive. A person must have Nirnay Shakti and Nischayatmak Buddhi. 6. Saadagi (simplicity) A person should be straightforward and simple in life. If he wants to develop. A person must know how to adjust in any situation. A person who is simple in his conduct is easily approachable as he does not have any ego. 7. Audarya (generosity) A person must have a big heart and not a narrow one.
A person will always face many challenges prepared for some and some may be unexpected a person must rise to the occasion and do the appropriate karma such a person who is bigger then his circumstance is a generous person. 8. Abhyasuvrutti (readiness to learn) Readiness to learn and curiosity to learn go hand in hand. They help individual gain knowledge, resulting in the development of the individual. 9. Tyagi (sacrificing) All the personal self interest are subordinated for higher goals a social cause or for maximum good of maximum number of people. He must learn to sacrifice personal interests for a cause. Bahujan Hitay, Bahujan Sukhey’ is the motto of a tyagi person. 10. Sahanshilta (tolerance) Everyone must have sahanshilta if the circumstance is not favourable or the result are not as per one’s expectation or if some person response is not appropriate in all such adverse circumstance one must have tolerance to respect others point of view and also to accept the circumstances. 11. Satata (continuity) He must be a constant and a consistent learner. 12. Vinodbhudhi (Humorous) A person must have the ability to laugh at himself and also act the odd circumstances. The lighter the mind it creates a joyful atmosphere at home and office. 13.
Perseverance (firmness, determination) He must have perseverance and deep – thinking. 14. Sportsman spirit He must learn to accept failures just as he accepts success. 15. Compassionate (kind, sympathetic) He must have love and compassion for all. 16. Appreciation A person must learn to appreciate others. 17. Alertness and awareness He must be alert about good and bad and must know how to carry his duties and responsibilities. 18. Tanmayta (engrossed) He must be completely engrossed in his work. In order to inculcate these values in an individual an ideal must be placed in front of them; from whom they can learn these qualities themselves.
The ideal of Vivekanand was his Guru Ramkrishna Paramhansa and that of Shankaracharya was his Guru Gaudpadacharya. They developed the qualities of their ideals in themselves and build up their personality. Hence we can say that the above mentioned people are great examples of Holistic approach to personality since all the above mentioned values are imbibed in them. Theory of Gunas According to the Sankhya philosophy, there is a Guna Theory (SRT Guna) which also portrays different types of personalities. There are basically three gunas or qualities a person may possess one or more qualities and hence predominance of one guna over other. . Satwaguna The chief drive is welfare for all. This guna has love for wisdom and knowledge. By the nature they are satvik or pure hearted people. They are free from jealousy, envy, greed, etc… They are lead by power of discrimination. They have a balanced approach towards life. A diet rich in raw fruits, salads, milk and milk products cultivate the satvik gunas. 2. Rajasguna The chief drive is passion and good living. This guna has love for power. By nature they are rajasvik or people who pursue good life.
Their dominant emotions are pride, ambition, jealousy, etc… They are led by rewards and hence rational thinking is dominant. Their attitude is selfish. A diet rich in sweets, ghee and proteins cultivates the rajasvik personality. 3. Tamasguna The chief drive is extremely self centeredness and manipulative. This guna has no direction and is groping in dark. Hence, the word tamas signifies ignorance or darkness. Kind nature be tamasik person are lethargic, arrogant, heartless and rash. Then are more led by impulses and moods and hence bhavna is predominant. They have a negative mind set.
A diet of fish, mutton, spicy and pungent food, oily food makes a person tamasik. According to the sankaya philosophy all these three gunas are inter related in a hierarchical order, where Sattwa is the highest and the best, the Rajas the mild and the Tamas the lowest or the worst. It is further said that this Gunas are dynamic in nature i. e. at a birth a person may be Tamsik and slowly he imbibes certain qualities and become Rajasvik or Satwik person. This is possible through a balanced and proper diet and cultivating some of the values and focusing on the right kind of approach. | Satvik| Rajasvik| Tamasvik|
Chief Drive| Welfare for all| Passion anf good living| Extremely self centeredness and manipulative| Love For| Wisdom and knowledge| Power| No direction| Nature| Free from greed envy and jealousy| Pride, ambition, jealousy, etc…| Lethargic, arrogant, heartless and rash| Led By| Power of discrimination| Rational thinking| Impulses and moods| Approach Towards Life| Balanced| Selfish| Negative mind set| Diet| Raw fruit, salad, milk and milk products| Ghee, sweets, protein rich food| Fish, mutton, oily, pungent, spicy. | personality traits needed to be developed by an effective manager
The following traits need to be developed by effective managers are: 1. Authoritarianism Authoritarian tend to be rigid in their positions, place high moral value systems, and are strongly oriented towards conformity to rules and regulations. They naturally prefer stable and structured work environments which are governed by clean rules and procedures. 2. Locus of Control Locus of control refers to an individual’s belief that events are either within one’s control or are determined by forces beyond ones control. These personality traits are manifested in different behaviours, which are significant to managers. . Machiavellianism Machiavellianism, a term refers to an individual’s propensity (tendency) to manipulate people. In jobs that require bargaining skills or where there are substantial rewards for winning, Machiavellianism performs better. 4. Achievement Orientation Managers with a high need to achieve continually strive to do things better. They want to overcome obstacles, but they want to feel that their success or failure is due to their actions. 5. Self – Esteem Managers should have a high self – esteem. People with high self – esteem believe that they have the abilities to undertake challenging jobs.
They tend to choose unconventional jobs than those with low self – esteem. High – esteems are more satisfied with their jobs. 6. Risk Taking High risk taking managers make more rapid decisions and use less information in making their choices. 7. Straightforwardness and Simplicity It refers to an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behaviour to external factors. The high self – monitor is capable of putting on different ‘faces’ for different audiences. Managers high in self – monitoring can show considerable adaptability in adjusting their behaviour to external situational factors.
The western view talks about various personality traits, but the personality trait which are found in Indian managers are: 1. Holistic Approach Emphasis on values like caring, nurturing, co – operating, creating management is not focused on only achieving results but also long term relationship and a preference for whole its parts. 2. Affirming Inner Wisdom and Resources Indian Management thought has a deep study of important concepts like motivation, learning, personality, managing self abnd others and we need not look for answers to the West. 3. Maximum Good of Maximum Number of People
The saying goes, “Bahujan Hitay, Bahujan Sukhay”. Though we may compete, we are all inter – dependent and inter – connected and we have to think “Win Win” or else we all lose. 4. Intuitive Leadership Business is going to be dynamic and ever – changing. The challenges will be great and the financial and economic systems more complex. We need intuition to steer clearly. We need to recognize our inner spiritual resources to find creative solutions. 5. Respect The respect for others as well as elders and youngsters can be figures out as a distinct personality trait in Indian context 6. Trust
Indians do trust easily and very fast on others. 7. Emotions Indians are very much emotional in nature and feelings easily affect them. 8. Straightforwardness and simplicity The straightforwardness and simplicity in life of an Indian can be clearly seen a special personality trait in the Indian context. 9. Perseverance This is a unique feature of a personality trait found in Indians and along with it, Indians have a sense of high and deep thinking. The quote Dr. S. D. Gupta, in order to be a good manger one needs SPARKLE: S: Self Disciplined P: Plan A: Accomplish Goals R: Responsibility
K: Knowledge about Company, Competitions and Market L: Learn the Laws of Cause and Effect E: Ethical Personality Development Through Yoga The word yoga comes from the Sanskrit word ‘yuj’ which means join or unite. It implies integrating all aspects of the individuals body, mind, and soul to achieve a happy, balanced and useful life in spiritually uniting the individual (Jeevatma) with the supreme (Shivatma). Yoga is not something absurd, irrational, or out of nature. It is a verified psychological science. Yoga means “excellence at work”. It means “evenness of mind”. Yoga means to join the soul of man with the supreme soul of God.
Yoga must be practiced to achieve the highest goals and to carry out the spiritual work. Yoga means ‘Yam – Niyam – Saiyam’. Yoga cannot be practiced without Niyam and Saiyam. Yoga also implies that there should be Satatya (continuity) in work, in a disciplined manner and with full understanding. Yoga is a spiritual science of self realisation. The Indian sage, Patanjali propounded the “Yoga Sutras”, 5000 years back in ancient India. It is a psycho – physical discipline with different practices. The popular physical postures called the “Asanas”, breathing exercise called the “Pranayama” and “Meditation”.
These days the focus is more on its benefits for improved physical fitness, mental clarity, greater self – understanding stress control and general well being. Patanjali has prescribed the Astang Yoga which comprises of: 1. Yama Practicing righteous living and imbibing positive values in life so as to purify the Chita is the first step towards the performance of yoga. 2. Niyama Principles of self restrain (control) whereby you further cleanse or purify your Jeevatma for example rituals like fasting not eating outside food, maintaining maun – speechless state, etc are some of the Niyamas.
This is the second stage of yoga. 3. Assanasa Postures which will help the body get physical fitness and general well being. There are some specific assanasa’s for specific physical disorders. This is the third stage. 4. Pranayama Inhaling and exhaling or sustaining energy is taught in Pranayama. In this stage various breathing techniques depending on different energy level of people is taught. For example: Surya Bhedhan Pranayama – it gives us vital energy whereas Chandra Bhedhan Pranayama – calms our mind, Kapalbhati Pranayama helps us to reduce obesity. There are 20 types of pranayama. This is the fourth stage of yoga. . Pratyahar In this practice we need to withdraw our sense organs and start looking inward. In this stage one has to give up all attachments to sensual pleasures and seek inner bliss. This is the fifth stage and the most difficult one to practice. 6. Dharana Concentration of the mind on a object name, sound or any other thing. In spiritual way of life people do Japa or rewrite the name of their deity (God) several types. This is done so that their mind should not wander and get fixed on the Nama or name like ‘Jai Shree Rama’, ‘Jai Mata Di’, etc… Even concentration on the sound of “OM” is also dharma.
This is the sixth stage of yoga. 7. Dhayana Meditation or mind stiling and having a altered stage of consciousness that brings serenity i. e. clarity of thoughts and bliss. This is the seventh stage. 8. Samadhi This is the ultimate state of bliss where the jeevatma i. e. individual soul meets the shivatma i. e. spiritual soul. It is the meeting of individual with the SELF. After attaining this state the person is free from all the bondages and sorrows i. e. ‘Jeevan Mukti’ Meets JeevatmaShivatma Jeevan mukti Types of Yoga 1. Jyana Yoga Jyana yoga is the process of converting intellectual knowledge into practical wisdom.
It is a discovery of human dharma in relation to nature and the universe. It is prescribed tradition as a means to obtain the highest meditative state and inner knowledge. 2. Raja Yoga Raja yoga usually refers to the system of yoga i. e. described in the ‘yoga sutra’ of patanjali. In this ancient text, patanjali described eight of yoga i. e. astang yoga which are collectively known as raja yoga. (Write all the astang yoga) 3. Kriya Yoga The word kriya means activity or movement and refers to the activity or movement of consciousness. Kriya also refers to a type of practical practice leading to total union.
The final result of practicing kriya yoga does not curb mental fluctuations. But purposely creates activity of awakening the consciousness. In this way all the faculties are harmonized and flower into their fullest potential. Concept of Man Human being is a miniature divine being. Man carries with himself, perfect power perfect wisdom and perfect knowledge. All men have these qualities to become a perfect human being. It is said that purnatva completeness is mans birthright. If one wants to posses the aforesaid divine virtues he must discover them, and bring them and by intense sadhana or practice.
He must go in the depth of his being and discover the hidden treasures by: Introspection Concentration Contemplation Meditation According to the Greek philosophy, the concept of man started as, “I doubt therefore I am” and after introspection and passionate study concluded “I am, because I think”. The ideal man for Greek philosopher is the passionate over of wisdom. All the three philosophers – Socrates, Plato and Aristotle stressed importance of rational knowledge and its cultivation. Plato not only places soul far above sense but also wants that the lower parts of the sense be guided by reason.
According to Judasim, the Ideal Man is the image of God. This divine is respected by love, mercy and wisdom. According to Chinese thought the Ideal Man is a sage. He is interested in everything human, including government. Jen in which means humanity is the highest value. Concept of Koshas According to Vedanta, man has 5 sheaths (Koshas) which create a veil of ignorance and as man through his journey of life uncovers theses sheaths, he reaches his true self which is bliss. 1. Annamaya Kosha The grossest is the first one which is the physical body. This is created and identified by food or ‘Anna’ hence called Annamaya Kosha.
Man tends to be over identified with his body and hence uses statements like I am sick instead of saying my body is sick as you are more than just a gross physical Self. The Annamaya Kosha or our physical gross body is created and nurtured to a great extent by the food we eat – Satvik, Rajasivik, or Tamasik. 2. Pranamaya Kosha The second sheath is called the ‘Pranamaya Kosha’ and is created and sustained by inhaling and exhaling the vital ‘Prana’ or breathing. Until we are inhaling and exhaling we believe we are. At the moment this stops, we believe we would cease to exist. This also is not the truth.
Another dimension of this Pranamaya Kosha is the eternal body or Atma which is more than the physical gross body. 3. Manomaya Kosha The third sheath is called the ‘Manomaya Kosha’ which is the mind which acts ass veil with various words, thoughts and tries to create a dilemma and stops a person from reviewing the True Self. This is also called as the feelings, emotions which are ever changing, dynamic and comprise of all the different moods. 4. Vijanmaya Kosha The fourth sheath is the ‘Vijanmaya Kosha’ or the poweer of the intellect. Sometimes our rational thinking also hinders our progress. 5.
Anandmaya Kosha When we have broken through all the earlier sheaths we reach at the core of our Self which is also called Pure Consciousness where the Jivatma meets the Shivatma and one experiences supreme bliss. This is the ultimate sheath called the Anandmaya Kosha. All these five Kosha together constitute the self. Impediments to Sound Mental Health Sound mental health can be defined as, “that state of the mind which can maintain a calm positive poise, or regain it when unsettled, for progressively longer durations or quickly, in the midst of all the external vagaries of work life and social existence”.
It is a subjective, meta – physical state whose attainment ought to be and is the soul of every objective pursuit. Following are the impediments to sound mental health: Greed: for money, power, recognition etc… Jealousy: regarding one’s own information base, resources, etc… Envy: regarding someone else’s achievement, rewards, etc… Egotism: regarding one’s own accomplishments, selfishness, etc… Impatience: springing from the above four Suspiciousness: springing from the first four Anger: springing from the above six Frustration: springing from the first six.
In today’s world there are a few impediments to sound mental health: 1. Greed This is one of the most dominating emotions at the play in today’s life. We see greed for money, power for recognition which creates anxiety and imbalance in once mental state. We are all the time craving and the craving in unstable. One has to control this emotion through Joy in small accomplishments and nurturing inner peace. 2. Envy This is another emotion which needs to be curtailed. One is today living in a competitive world and has started believing in the philosophy, “I should win and it is possible only when you loose”.
However, in the universe there is abundance and everyone has something for him or her. Hence one should not envy someone else’s good fortune. 3. Ego In today’s world everyone is ‘I’ specialist and believes that he or she is the most important person on earth. There is vanity and pride about one’s worldly achievements and wants importance everywhere at home or office, in society or in his community. Only when one drops this ego can one realize that how much one can achieve through team spirit. 4. Anger
Everyone has expectations and when there are many unfulfilled expectations, it results in upset and when upset is not resolved it culminated in anger. One has to understand that one should not focus on results or one will always be disheartened as sometimes the result would be as per our expectations, and sometimes result may not be as per our expectations. This is the root cause of anger. 5. Impatience Today world is the age of the super – sonic, where the airplane breaks the second barrier and thoughts break even the sound barriers. As Shakespeare says, “How shift is the glance of mind even tempest lies far behind”.
We are all in a hurry to achieve a lot in the least possible time. This can be checked only by Meditation and mind stilling exercise. Guidelines to Restore Sound Mental Health 1. A Sound Philosophy of Life Man has infinite and insatiable needs. The more he satisfies them, the more will be surfaced. Hence if we understand that joy is not in HAVING but in BEING one will realise that his pursuit for materialistic achievement will not lead him anywhere. “Simple living and high Thinking” is the needed mantra. 2. Maintaining Balanced Approach Pleasure and pain are two sides of the same coin.
The more an individual seeks pleasure, the more does pain chase him as man is accustomed to, “Yeh Dil Maange More”. This is Trishna. The never ending quest which can only be remedied by maintaining one’s balance and not being swayed by any emotions. 3. Work is Worship According to Vedanta if one does his daily duties whether at home or office or in whatever role he has with the devotion of a ‘Sadhak” – with a pure mind, give offering to the Lord then it would result in composure and peace as the work is not undertaken to satisfy some unsatiable need but with a spirit of devotion as an offering to God. . Moral Code of Conduct Ethico moral values represent righteousness and practicing it, one acquires divine samppati or divine wealth. If one follows one’s wants, desires, do no harm to others and leads a life of friendship and goodness then one does not go through the problem of a weak mind which is anguished. Concept of Meditation Meditation is a science. Meditation deals with mind in contrast to yoga which mainly focuses on physical help of a body. It is no religion and hence it can be practiced by one and all irrespective of the religion they follow.
It is a three step process that leads to a state of consciousness that brings serenity, clarity, and bliss. Meditation is perhaps the best treatment for stress, it helps us to solve two problems i. e. where to get appropriate direction i. e. how to meditate? And by finding mediation you have solved the first problem and then try to understand it. As depicted in the above diagram our normal state of mind is actually quite abnormal. We bounce from one thought to another and follow our emotional and physical reaction. For instance, we may see a dog and then start feeling warm and cuddly; physically, we feel very relaxed.
Another time, we may see the same dog and fear it may attack us and start thinking paranoid thoughts, get fearful and up tight physically. The above diagram is the first step in meditation and is the start of gaining controls over the mind and thereby life. The procedure is simple and seems like it would be easy to do but there are few task difficult to master. The idea is to pick an object or subject to them to focus exclusively on it without diversion or distraction. What you are supposed to do is witness your being distracted and return to concentrating on the object of your meditation.
The above diagram depicts meditation. Here we have unbroken attention. Concentration and meditation can be differentiated with the help of an example i. e. while pouring oil from a bottle into a bowl at the first oil drips out suddenly this is concentration but eventually the oil come out in a steady stream. This is unbroken meditation. Ultimately your meditation would connect you to everything. At this point unity of the object of your meditation and your mind is shown above. Here we usually are only conscious of our body and ego and consider ourselves apart from the rest of the universe.
Leadership and Indian organisation Leadership is the force to persuade others to seek defined objectives enthusiastically. Even the best intellects will not be capable of deciding that what is right and what is wrong. It is only the Indian Style of Leadership in Veda, which can give us this deep and mysterious knowledge. The Vedic Karma Siddhanta that we are the makers of our own destiny by our own action. Right action is that which takes into consideration the entire society or for that matter creation. Love, the whole of creation as much as you love yourself.
Realize that it is not different from you. Only then you will be proceeding in the direction of self – development, you will spontaneously or rather the person who practices in this right direction will emerge as the best leader. For e. g. Lord Rama, Swami Vivekananda, etc… Family Managed Business| Multinational, Transnational Company| | | Values and code of conduct are laid down by karta. Leader is from the same family or amongst with kith and hence shares ideology. | Values, mission is laid down by the board of director. Leader or the professional manager has just to follow it.
He may or may no believe in it. | Employees and all stakeholders are treated like a family and are taken care of by the karta. | There is a hierarchy where there is a superior and a subordinate relationship. | Conservative style of management which looks at long term welfare of the employees and all stakeholders. | Formal style of management. Management believes in a policy of hire and fire. | Made leaders| Born leaders| Centralized decision making and tight control achieved by family members who are directors. | Decentralized decision making, more delegation of authority. Most of the time the role of karta is that of conflict manager or arbitrator solving family disputes about sharing of profits and responsibilities. | Role of a leader is that of a visionary and facilitator focusing on formulating policies and long term planning. | Believe in having a closely held company preferably unlisted companies and believing in internal accruals. Even if it is listed company, it tries to keep the share held with public to the minimum. | They are public limited listed companies where QIB and FIIs are also participating in equity capital.
Also taps global capital market and is a highly traded script on the stock exchange. It is widely held company. | Strategic alliances from similar family managed business are scouted. | Strategic alliances are welcome, including mergers and acquisitions. | Duties of a King * To protect his state and his praja and at the same time enhance their respective welfare * A King has to maintain the Kingdom’s culture and ensure that the different groups in the kingdom follow their respective duties entrusted to each of them. To unkeep of internal order, the maintenance of the Kingdom hierarchy, authority, policies, rules, regulations and procedures. * Special attention to the weak, kings help the poor, widow, disabled. * Punishment to the wicked i. e. equitable distribution of justice. * To give charity for the social cause i. e. building school, having women employed, doing socially responsible work. The King has to perform his duties as worship. His role has precedence over his staff.
King Ashoka, an ideal leader, expelled his son from the Sangha after receiving complaints against him and giving him full opportunity to defend himself. History bears testimony that Ashoka cross examined his son in full public view. This shows the transparency in the conduct of the leader. Various Styles of Management adopted by Indian Leaders 1. Conservative In such a style of management a person is not ready to bear risk and he does not want to accept challenges in life and face them. He has always a backward thinking that he would not come up and so he never wishes to give it a try also.
He is not bold enough to face situations, as he has never handled any crisis situations, as he has never handled any crisis situation, which makes him coward in the real sense and he would not be able to handle things in management nor in real life. 2. Entrepreneurial In this style of management an individual is always a risk bearer because if does not possess this quality then he cannot be a good entrepreneur. He has to be very bold enough to handle difficult situations such as the demand of his product might have gone down or the market might be down for a little hile, etc… Entrepreneur cannot run away from taking risk as has to strive in such an environment. 3. Professional They are intelligent, meticulous and good planners and executors. Such leaders have good knowledge of all aspects of management and are able to handle complex situation and overcome all obstacles by their analytical approach. A professional needs not be told what to do and what not to do, as he his intelligent himself to understand the various aspects of management and is good enough to handle complex situations. 4.
Bureaucratic In such kind of management people tend to be lazier and so their work is affected and everything is messed up. But it is not the case everywhere, some people are very professionals and so situations are handled in a proper manner. 5. Organic In this style of management every individual is important in a group. Every person has the freedom to express his / her views and they have their own importance. Every individual affects a group and if anyone leaves it in the half way the functioning of the whole group is affected.
This explains the organic style of management where in each individual plays a vital role in the group and his / her presence makes a big difference. Without leadership, an organisation would be what saint Valmiki wrote, like herd of cattle without a keeper, like an army without a general, like a light without moon, like a group of cows without a bull. Such would be a country, when the king is not seen. Traits of Transformational Leadership 1. Charisma These leaders have a connection with their people and empower their followers by a questionable acceptance, affection and trust of the people.
The followers are emotionally connected with the leader and would ever give up their lives to meet the goals of such a leader. 2. Energy and action oriented Like entrepreneurs they are energetic and serve as a model for getting things done in time. 3. Emotional and warm Due to their warmth, they are able to emotionally bond with their followers and they are very expressive in their emotions. 4. Willingness to take risk These leaders are exemplary risk takers and this adds confidence, charm and charisma to their personality. 5. Change agent
They believe in people, empower them and bring about overall change. * They clearly see themselves as change agents. They set out to make a difference and to transform the organisation for which they are responsible. * They are courageous. They can deal with resistance, take a stand, take risk, and confront reality. * They believe in people. They have well developed beliefs about motivation, trust and empowerment. * They are driven by a strong set of values. * They are life – long learner. They view mistakes – their own as well as other people as learning opportunities. They can cope with the complexity, uncertainty and ambiguity. * They are visionaries. Certain things which transformational leader perform and expect other to perform as part of management integrity are as follows: * Empowerment development to improve chosen conduct. * Increase self – efficiency, beliefs and internalized commitment to shared values. * Expert and referent. * Moral challenge relationship to instill pride. * Tends to promote primarily long – term organizational change and improvement efforts. * Change in institutionalized. Followers sensitive to and accountable for internally chosen standards and sanctions. * Except committed performance in accordance with principled integrity. * Use power bases and personal moral examples to inspire followers’ moral development and empowerment that continually improves organizational integrity. * Organizational integrity. One of the best examples of transformational leader is that of Indian business legend Shri. J. R. D. Tata the distinct skills which characterized him as transformational leaders are: * Anticipatory Skills: Foresight into a constantly changing environment. Visionary Skills: A process of persuasion and example by which a person or leadership team induces a group to take action in accord with the leaders purposes or more likely the shared purposes of a larger group. * Value: Congruence skills – the need of corporate leader to be in touch with the employee’s economic safety, psychological, spiritual, aesthetic and physical needs in order to engage people on the basis of shared motives, values and goals. * Empowerment Skills: The willingness to share power and to do so effectively. Self Understanding: An introspective or self – understanding skill as well as framework within leaders understands both their own needs and goals of those of their employees. In today’s scenario of liberalized economy and global competition. More of requirement of transformational leaders are required to maintain identity and to sustain ethos of an individual country especially India at the same time accept what is good for the business. J. R. D. Tata (Transformational Leader) Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhai Tata (1904 – 1993) was one of the greatest builders and personalities of modern India.
He assumed chairmanship of Tata Sons Ltd. at the young age of 34 and his disciplined, charismatic and visionary leadership over the next 50 years led the Tata Group to new heights of overall development and modernisation and expansion. Under his leadership, the number of Tata ventures grew from 13 to 80 encompassing steel, power generation, engineering, hotels, consultancy, information technology, art and culture, consumer goods, and industrial products. He pioneered civil aviation in India in 1932, and introduced air transport in the country. He implicitly followed the ethical business code of his ideal, Sir Jamshedji Tata.
He believed in the social responsibility of business and successfully implemented many family welfare schemes at Tata Steels and various educational programmes. Government of India conferred the highest civilian award of our land, Bharat Ratna to JRD Tata in 1992. For all his great achievements, JRD Tata was a modest, sensitive man for ever espousing the cause of his employees. Ratan Tata For decades, the Tata Group was conservative, honest, and solid but averse to risk handling. Yet in the past few years the group has been pulled out of the shell of its corporate shyness.
Noticing that India was changing, Ratan Tata made the 139 year old company into a global big league. He scouted the globe for acquisition to help company expand its horizon. In 2000, he shelled out $435 million for Tetley Tea, making Tata the world’s number two Tea Company. Two years later he paid $530 million for a 46% stake in VSNL. India’s state owned international telecom carrier. Soon he bought $120 million worth of Daewoo’s Truck unit. And on 31st January 2007, he bid astounding $6. 7 billion for Corus, an Anglo Dutch Steel and Aluminium company to make Tata Steel the 6th largest steel producing entity in the world.
The qualities which JRD Tata admired in him, were integrity and value based leadership, an understanding of modern science and technology and a pragmatic visionary who holds the Tata Heritage uppermost in his mind. N. R. Narayan Murthy Mr. Narayan Murthy is undoubtedly one of the most famous person from Karnataka. He is known not only for building the biggest IT Empire in India but also for his simplicity. Almost every important dignitary visiting Infosys campus, always says, “The most powerful style of leadership is by example. Bt walking the talk. ” The beauty about his family is that they believe in sharing their wealth with the needy.
He has brought about India on the world’s IT map and is providing jobs to millions. Mr. Narayan Murthy was born on August 20, 1946 in Karnataka, India. He obtained his Bachelor of Electric Engineering (B. E. ) from University of Mysore in 1967 and his Master of technology (M. Tech) from Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kanpur in 1969. He founded Infosys in 1981 along with six software professionals. He is the chairman of the Board and Chief Mentor Officer of Infosys. He was a member of the operating system team that designed real time operating system for handling air cargo for Charles de Gaulle airport, Paris.
He was the President of National Association of Software and Service Companies (NASSCOM) from 1992 to 1994. Mr. Narayan Murthy is the member of the National Information Technology Task Force of India and also of the Prime Minister’s Council on Trade and Industry. He is a director on Board of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) Qualities of a Successful Entrepreneur Qualities| Skills and Competencies| | | Administrative Skills| Art of getting things done through other’s effort. Strong motivation towards achievement. Exert considerable efforts. People Skills. | Mental Ability| Intelligent or Analytical approach and creative.
Anticipate changes. | Clear Objectives| To establish their products. Make profits. Render Social Service. | H R Ability| Sustained good relations with the customers, employees, suppliers and creditors. | Communication Ability| With customers, employees, creditors, suppliers, etc… | Technical Knowledge| Necessary for risk taking. | Learning from Experience| Modify their goals on feedback from business environment. Capabilities testing when opportunity arises. | Hope for Success| Motivation and self – confidence about success. Make attempts rather than accept failure. Time Orientation| Works for the present. They quote their past failures with pride and learn from it. High confidence levels in their abilities. High goals for themselves. | High Expectations from Employees| Drive their employees to achieve and perform with equal fervor| Transactional Leadership v/s Transformational Leadership Transactional Leader| Transformational Leader| | | Maintains the Status Quo. Maintains “what is”| Challenges the Status Quo. Maintains “what could be”| Manages, directs, and provides a structure and a system| Inspires, creates and fosters change| Director style of leadership.
He receives goals, redefines objectives and provides strategies most followers prefer such leadership styles. | Participative style of leadership, who nurtures and explores the full potential of followers. He gives complete freedom to followers| Not effective in times of emergency and where there are no challenges and opportunities. | Very effective in emergency. Exploiting environment for dynamic and complex kind of opportunity, and leading the followers. | Not willing to take risk. | Willing to take risk and follow their dreams. | Task oriented and do not bond with their team. | Mission oriented.
Bond with their team and empower them to create a world class organisation| Are bureaucratic in nature and follow the laid down rules and policies. | Are professional by nature and have good knowledge of managing an organisation. | Management Style It is typical approach used to lead by a person or behaviour, the leader exhibits during supervision of subordinates is known as leaders’ styles. Style is said to be comprised of two distinct elements – leaders’ assumption about his subordinate and leaders’ actual behaviour while interacting with subordinates. This type of style can be divided into four Style based on Authority Retained: This style classifies the leader on the authority they retain versus they delegate to their subordinates, it includes styles like participative, democrative, consultative, etc… * Style based Task versus People: This is again one more useful style, here main emphasis is given where leader concentrates more on task or people. Say if a leader is task oriented then he will complete target even taking overtime from employee also. * Style based on Assumption about People: Depending on what assumption leader has about his follower two styles can be distinguished.
This two style is based on McGregor’s famous theory X and Y. theory X says that all leaders are autocratic and theory Y says that all leaders are participative. * Entrepreneurship Leadership Style: Entrepreneur is a person who converts ideas into business. Both on basis of his personal character and circumstances of operating a business, many entrepreneur use common style of leadership. Good and Bad Management Style There is also a difference in ways leaders approach their members. There are different ways of leadership styles which can be related to positive approach and negative approach of a leader. Good Styles: Good leaders in their positive approach uses rewards, such as education, independence etc… to motivate members. They try to boost moral of the members in every possible effective way. They treat their members as one and improve on their performance, appreciate their working and give rewards on their achievements. * Bad Styles: If the emphasis is placed upon penalties, then the leader is using negative leadership. Although it has its place in a leader’s repertoire (range, collection) of tools, it should be used carefully due to its high cost on the human spirit.
Bad leaders act domineering (bossy, dominant) and superior with people. They believe the only way to get things done is through penalties, such loss of job, days off without pay, reprimand (warning, scolding) in front of others, etc… they believe their authority is increased by freighting everyone into higher level of productivity. Also note that a leader is not strictly one or another, but is somewhere on a continuum (range, scale) ranging form extremely positive to extremely negative. Leaders who continuously work out of the negative are bosses while those who primarily work out of the positive are real leaders.
Explain the role of leadership character in management Leadership is the behaviour of an individual when he is directing the activities of a group towards share goals. It is the art of influencing people to strive willingly for mutual objectives. Leadership plays a significant role in the success of an organisation; infact leadership transforms potential into reality. Leadership is a part management but not fully as management as it is getting things done by others by giving orders, using authority etc… as leaders, guide, consult, and depend on confidence.
Without leadership, an organisation would be what the Sage Valmiki wrote in Ramayana, “Like a heard of cattle without a keeper, Like an army without a general, Like a night without moon, Like a group of cows without a bull, such would be a country where the king is not seen. ” Characteristics of a Leader * He should be innovative and creative. * He should be original i. e. he should take initiative. * He should have good communication skills. * He should have decision making skills. * He should have good human relation skill. * He should have conceptual skill. He should be able to focus on people. * He should be an inspirer i. e. he should have motivation skill. * He should have long range perspective. * He should be able to develop his follower so that they can take initiative which generates a sense of self involvement which is very much necessary in management. * He should always have his eye on the vision. * He should always be ready to accept interruptible challenges. * Leader is not like a soldier, he is a person in himself. He leads and everyone follows. Leadership style change according to situation
As per the Indian ethos leader’s duty is only to bring out the divinity in every individual soul by providing appropriate environment and leadership, by removing all the doubts a