CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. 1 BACKGROUND Creativity: Creativity (or “creativeness”) is a mental process involving the generation of new ideas or concepts, or new associations of the creative mind between existing ideas or concepts. From a scientific point of view, the products of creative thought are usually considered to have both originality and appropriateness. An alternative, getting more popular everyday is the conception of creativity is that it is simply the act of making something new. Although intuitively a simple phenomenon, it is in fact quite complex.
Unlike many phenomena in science, there is no single, authoritative perspective or definition of creativity. And unlike many phenomena in psychology, there is no standardized measurement technique for measuring creativity. Although popularly associated with art and literature, it is also an essential part of innovation and invention and is important in professions such as business, economics, architecture, industrial design, and science and engineering. Creative Advertising: Advertising is a public announcement by a company in a newspaper, on television or radio, or over the Internet, intended to attract buyers for a product or service.
Now a day thousand of companies due to the revolution of globalization struggling for their consumer, in order to sell their product or services the only way to make them aware is advertising. But when many struggle for the single group there should be differentiation among them and the creative advertising is the only source of attracting those consumer. On the other hand advertisements usually have a negative connotation associated with them and because of this most people don’t like taking the time look at and even read advertisements. The good news is, not all dvertisements are bad and some companies have taken the time to design some very clever advertising campaigns. The creativity is only the way which attract people attraction towards the brand and they easily recall while purchasing and giving suggestion to other for their purchases. 1. 2 Motivations: The motivation to conduct this study is to check the impact of creativity on consumers buying behavior in telecom industry of Pakistan. We have also studied the consumer behavior and advertisement in our marketing major courses, which also motivated us to inquire about this concept. 1. Purpose of the research: Companies are spending huge amount on advertising, hence at the beginning of their expenditure plan, if the company think about it and make it effective through Creativity. Company can save huge budget, and in addition to this the ads also will effective and useful. 1. 4 Objective: The objective of this study is to study the perception of consumers about creativity in print advertisements of telecom industry and its effect on consumers purchase behaviors. 1. 5 limitations: Collection of data is the biggest difficulty in the way to work due to lack of resources and lack of time.
We have selected the sample size of 100 but only 89 people have given response. So it was difficult to grab people and get their time for filling the survey Performa. 1. 6 Plans: To present a comprehensive and coherent report this thesis adopts the following structure: Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction of the study and the creativity along with purpose of the research, objectives and limitations of the study followed by Chapter 2 representing the body of the text covers a detailed review of the available literature on the topic of the “consumers perception about creativity in print ads and its effect on urchases” from the various sources of information available to provide the reader an extensive knowledge on this concept, Chapter 3 will cover the research methodology followed by Chapter 4 which will cover the finding of the study drawn. In the last, Chapter 5 will be a concluding paragraph and the recommendations on the subject matter. CHAPTER 2 2. 1 LITERATURE REVIEW: Consumer perceptions of advertising creativity are investigated in a series of studies beginning with scale development and ending with comprehensive model testing.
Results demonstrate that perception of ad creativity is determined by the interaction between divergence and relevance, and that overall creativity mediates their effects on consumer processing and response (Robert E. Smith, Scott B. Mackenzie, Xiaojing yang, Laura M. Buchholz, William K. Darley, November-December 2007). The present research suggests that successful advertisement share and is characterized by such abstract patterns termed creativity templates.
The theoretical rational for the emergence of such templates and the empirical studies that detect the key creativity templates are identifiable, objectively verifiable, and generalizable across multiple categories (Jacob Goldengerg, Devid Mazuursky, Sorin Solomon, 1999). “The hardest thing for creators to do is to get an idea through to people who don’t understand its potential,” (Moehlenkamp). “My job is to try to get upstream with the client and let them know that I have their business at heart—not just selling the next great idea.
I call it setting the table. ” Creativity is the lifeblood of innovation and marketing, but where does it come from and how should a company nurture this elusive trait? How does one explore creativity on the job—and use it to one’s advantage? (Julia Hanna, Conference Coverage: Marketing – Creativity—How Can I Get Some? ,May,2005). The present research suggests that successful advertisement share and is characterized by such abstract patterns termed creativity templates.
The theoretical rational for the emergence of such templates and the empirical studies that detect the key creativity templates are identifiable, objectively verifiable, and generalizable across multiple categories(Jacob Goldenberg, David Mazursky, Sorin Solomon,1999). In a commercial environment, within a business, the only judge of creativity is how much money it eventually makes or saves. Why do the people who make creative advertisements hate this bean-counter view of the world? Can the two exist together in the same space? Mark Adams suggests one thing each for the bean-counters and creative to try.
They reached our eyes and ears in the first place because a marketing manager inside a large company put together a proposal that his company should spend from a few hundred thousand to millions of pounds to create and buy the broadcast time for the advertisement. That expenditure was approved by the company. (Mark Adams,March 2003). The agency has created award-winning advertising so entertaining, it assumes a life of its own in the larger culture. Some might say that’s the problem. Advertising that draws too much attention to itself may also detract from the grittier realities of pushing product (Noreen O’Leary,Dec 11, 2000).
Creativity is a form of activity, and it is interesting to note that within the framework of understanding human psychological processes, it was long; considered to be a very distinct characteristic, innately human, a special kind of human activity. That it is a special kind of activity is recognized only when the body-mind dichotomy is given up and it became possible to acknowledge that manual work was also connected to mental activities; that scientific work, for example, involved also the sharing of practical and technical skills.
For a better understanding of human creativity it became essential to explain the processes previously defined as ‘uncreative activity’, i. e. , to explain processes described under the label of productive or reproductive work (Gorazd V. Mrevlje, Ljubljana 2004). To succeed in marketing, the advertisers need to understand what makes people behave the way they do. That involves the study of buyer behavior- the activities, actions and influences or people who purchases and use goods to satisfy their personal or household needs and wants.
Advertising effectively uses the information and knowledge gained from the behavioral sciences to motivate, modify or reinforce consumer perception, beliefs, attitudes and behavior. To accomplish this, advertising people are to be conscious of and monitor peoples’ attitude, values, likes and dislikes habits, fears, wants and desires. Advertising techniques are to be changed according to the behavioral characteristics of large groups of people because these give the directional force to any advertising aimed at those groups It is often desirable why consumers are attracted, as individuals, to particular kinds of products.
According to Weilbacher (1984), the advertising practioner must know what motivates people to prefer a particular kind of product. The practice of creativity has usually been allowed to develop through individual efforts and nurturing environments, with no formal encouragement or realization of the true benefits. Creativity has been an implicit expectation of the new appointment as well as a criterion for advancement in a somewhat stylized form . The disciplined recognition and implementation of original, untried and potentially risky new thought has the potential to confer significant competitive advantage.
Particularly in chaotic environments, where there is little to differentiate competitors, creativity may provide the flexibility of output, process or structure that enables survival and growth (Jeremy P. W. Heaton (2005)) Do Intentions Really Predict Behavior? We know that people don’t always do what they had planned to do. Yet, self-reported intentions keep on to be used extensively in scholastic and commercial research because they characterize easy-to-collect proxies of behavior and actions. Many studies have been conducted to progress the skill to predict behavior from intentions.
In practice, the studies adjust the intention scores by analyzing the actual purchase behavior of consumers whose purchase intentions have been measured previously. In this study the researcher conducted study on a problem that part of association between buyer’s intention and final behavior, and the result in some cases behavior may be caused by the intentions of the consumer. And this process is called as “self generated validity”. In this process consumer is more likely to remember his own intentions and follow at that at the time of purchasing any product or service.
Contrary to this, there is another set of consumers who are more likely to be influenced by their moods, sales promotions, brand name, color scheme or any other unrelated factor. (by Pierre Chandon, Vicki G. Morwitz, Werner J. Reinartz , and Published on May 30, 2006) 2. 1 THEORETICAL FRAME WORK: Buying behavior| Print advert creativity | Independent variable Dependent variable Dimensions of IV: The dependent variable is buying behavior, which is the variable of primary interest, in which the variance is attempted to explain by independent variable i. . print advert creativity. The IV further has four dimensions which ultimately impact the buying behavior of the consumer. D1. Color scheme D2. Creative copy/ tagline D3. Endorsement D4. Brand All of these dimensions of independent variables have effect on buying behavior. Different people define creativity variably, but we have taken 4 dimensions to asses’ creativity for our research study. Color scheme is one of the most important factors, and have significant impact on the consumer’s emotional state. Different colors have different stopping and pulling powers. e. g. jazz uses red color in its ads, which attracts the readers to have a look and read the advertisement. Creative copy/content is yet another important variable which ad creativity especially in print advertisements. Words itself is a powerful tool, and has the potential to influence the buyers purchase intentions and behaviors. Endorsement is yet another important and influential variable. There is wide variety of consumers who are most likely to buy the brand because their favorite actor, actress, model, player etc is the advertisement. So advertisers must take full care while attaching someone with their brand.
Last but not the least variable is brand. Brand itself has great impact on the buying behavior. Hypothesis 1: Hoa: color scheme doe not affect consumers buying behavior H1a: color scheme affects consumers buying behavior Hypothesis 2: Hob: An endorsement does not affect consumers buying behavior. H1b: An endorsement affects consumers buying behavior. Hypothesis 3: Hoc: brand name does not affect consumers buying behavior. H1c: brand name affects consumers buying behavior Hypothesis 4: Hod: creative copy doest not affect consumers buying behavior H1d: creative copy affects consumers buying behavior CHAPTER 3 DATA AND METHODOLOGY 3. Type of Research: This study is descriptive and analytical in nature, with analysis of data derived from primary as sources. It’s basically a quantitative research. 3. 2 Sample: One hundred respondents will be the sample size of this study. Students will be the main subjects of this study, i. e. those who are active users of mobiles especially under the age of 35. The sampling method will be simple-random-sampling. As a result, any student from Air and Bahria University will randomly be a subject of this study. 3. 3 Sample size: We have selected 100 respondents for our research. Out of 100respondents, 11 didn’t respond properly.
Number of female respondents was 47 and no. of male respondents was 42. 3. 4 Instrument and Measures: The data collection tools for this study will be both Secondary Research and the Primary Research. The secondary Research data will comprise of data retrieval process within the light of the previous researches. The secondary research will comprise of online journals, magazines, and newspaper articles and already published book materials. They key variables for the Secondary Research data will be primarily related to the creativity in advertisements and the perception of consumers regarding this.
Primary Research data will comprise of the data retrieval by getting the survey Performa filled by University students and faculty members. These questionnaires will comprise of all the items made first time for this research study. The questionnaires will be specifically divided into 5 parts. Four out of 5 will be primarily measured on a five point linkert scale having options of ‘1 as strongly disagree, 2 as disagree, 3 as neutral, 4 as agree and 5 as strongly agree. The first part of the questionnaire will have three items in total. These all items will be specifically related to color scheme of the print advertisement.
The second part of the questionnaires will have three items. These items will gauge the impact of endorsement on the consumer’s perception. The third portion of the questionnaires will comprise of two items. These items will represent the brand name. The fourth part of the questionnaires will have two items. These items will measure the impact of creative copy and written content on the advertisement. The fifth part of the questionnaire will contain one item. This part of the questionnaire will focus on the dependent variable i. e. buying behavior of the consumer. 3. 5 Procedure:
The students and the faculty members will fill-up questionnaires of this research. This will make up Primary Research data. In order to analyze this Primary Research data, this research will use the eviews software and Microsoft excel. The results will be specifically analyzed with the help of the descriptive statistics, regression, binary logit model, and correlation. The factors and questionnaire has developed for testing hence is considered to be reliable. The conclusion will base upon the findings, and final results would be drawn on the basis of acceptance or rejection of hypothesis.
Whereas; the recommendations and suggestions will be provided at its best regarding creativity in print advertisement and consumer buying behaviors in telecom industry. 3. 6 Statistical Tool: We will apply binary logit model and correlation model in order to find the results. Binary logit model: In statistics, logistic regression (sometimes called the logistic model or logit model) is used for prediction of the probability of occurrence of an event by fitting data to a logit function logistic curve. It is a generalized linear model used for binomial regression.
Like many forms of regression analysis, it makes use of several predictor variables that may be either numerical or categorical. For example, the probability that a person has a heart attack within a specified time period might be predicted from knowledge of the person’s age, sex and body mass index. Logistic regression is used extensively in the medical and social sciences fields, as well as marketing applications such as prediction of a customer’s propensity to purchase a product or cease a subscription. We will estimate the following equation using binary logit model: BB: o+1BN+2CC+3CS+4END
Where, BN: brand name CC: creative copy CS: color scheme END: endorsement Correlation: We will also use correlation in statistics, it defines the correlation relationship between two random variables or two sets of data Correlation refers to any of a broad class of statistical relationships involving dependence. In our study we have seen the correlation between males and females in every independent variable of our model. CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION LOGIT MODEL: We have used logit model for our analysis. Following are the results: 4. 1 Overall logistic regression analysis
Four independent variables were taken that are color scheme, creative copy, brand name, and endorsements, to analyze their relationship with the overall consumers buying behavior, which is the dependant variable. The results of all these variables have been calculated and explained under following table separately : Table 4. 1. 1 Intercept dummy Variable| Coefficient| Prob. | | | | C| 0. 520536| 0. 7423| BN| -0. 489466| 0. 1033| CC| 0. 780082| 0. 0474| CS| 0. 372198| 0. 2075| END| -0. 938005| 0. 0018| GEN_DUM| 0. 939176| 0. 0729| McFadden R-squared| 0. 140522| Explanation table 4. Above mention table shows the logit model results for consumers buying behavior. Our result shows that the change in the probability that consumers buying behavior will increase and positively effected by 78% and 37% due to creative copy and color scheme respectively. Similarly, there will be negative impact on the buying behavior by 48% and 93% due to brand name and endorsement respectively. R-Square is known as Coefficient of determination that explains how much percentage variations in Dependent Variable are explained due to the change in Independent Variable i. e. ow much the consumers buying behavior is explained by the independent variables . R square is a predictor about the trend. In this case the explained variables are 14%, which shows that the applied model has the ability of 14% about the trend. LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANCE: we have selected 10% level of significance (alpha) of our research study. Hypothesis 1: Hoa: color scheme doe not affect consumers buying behavior H1a: color scheme affects consumers buying behavior Result: The probability value for color scheme is 20%, and it falls in the acceptance region. Therefore, Hoa is accepted.
Hypothesis 2: Hob: An endorsement does not affect consumers buying behavior. H1b: An endorsement affects consumers buying behavior. Result: The probability value for endorsement is 0. 18%, and falls in rejection region. Therefore, Hob is rejected. Hypothesis 3: Hoc: brand name does not affect consumers buying behavior. H1c: brand name affects consumers buying behavior Result: The probability value for brand name is 10%, and falls in rejection region. Therefore, Hoc is rejected. Hypothesis 4: Hod: creative copy doest not affect consumers buying behavior H1d: creative copy affects consumers buying behavior
Result: the probability value is 4. 74%, and falls in rejection region. Therefore, Hod is rejected. Table 4. 1. 2 Slope dummy Endorsement:- Variable| Coefficient| Prob. | | | | C| 1. 245053| 0. 3983| BN| -0. 487577| 0. 1062| CC| 0. 771932| 0. 0448| CS| 0. 337767| 0. 2566| END| -1. 145733| 0. 0007| END*GEN_DUM| 0. 341199| 0. 0268| McFadden R-squared| 0. 155573| Explanation table 4. 1. 2: In this slope dummy, the variable endorsement has been multiplied with gender dummy. And one unit change in endorsement will impact the buying behavior by 1. 14 times for males in negative manner.
Now, Adding the dummy with endorsement we have -1. 146+0. 34=-1. 12. And one unit change in endorsement will affect the female BB with 1. 12 times in negative manner. The value of McFadden R-square is app 15%. And it explains the impact of independent variable on dependent variable. Explanation table 4. 1. 3: Variable| Coefficient| Prob. | | | | C| 1. 519948| 0. 2927| BN| -0. 50454| 0. 092| CC| 0. 644783| 0. 0861| CS| 0. 279606| 0. 3359| END| -0. 937156| 0. 002| CS*GEN_DUM| 0. 1929| 0. 1673| McFadden R-squared| 0. 12926| Color scheme: In this case, the independent variable color scheme has been multiplied with gender dummy.
One unit change in color scheme will impact buying behavior by approx 0. 27 times for males in positive manner. And after adding 0. 27+ 0. 19= 0. 46. One unit change in color scheme will impact the probability of female to have . 46 times changes in buying behavior in positive manner. The R square tells us that the combination of all the independent variables has an explained association of 12. 9% with the dependent variable Explanation table 4. 1. 4: Variable| Coefficient| Prob. | | | | C| 1. 460316| 0. 317| BN| -0. 504276| 0. 0911| CC| 0. 600825| 0. 102| CS| 0. 330175| 0. 2563|
END| -0. 934159| 0. 0019| CC*GEN_DUM| 0. 21581| 0. 1236| McFadden R-squared| 0. 133165| Creative copy The result shows that the change in the probability that consumers buying behavior. One unit change in creative copy will impact the buying behavior of males to 0. 6 times and 0. 81 times for females. The R square tells us that the combination of all the independent variables has an explained association of 13. 3% with the dependent variable Explanation table 4. 1. 5: Variable| Coefficient| Prob. | | | | C| 1. 185123| 0. 4199| BN| -0. 650965| 0. 0406| CC| 0. 799409| 0. 0439| CS| 0. 48911| 0. 2415| END| -0. 953074| 0. 0016| BN*GEN_DUM| 0. 266243| 0. 0319| McFadden R-squared| 0. 152753| Brand name: In this case, result shows the change in probability that one unit change in brand name will impact the buying behavior of males 0. 65 times in negative manner. And after adding -0. 65 + 0. 266=0. 38. This is the result that shows the change in probability that consumers buying behavior will reduce by . 38 times for females. The value of McFadden R square is 15. 2%, which shows the total explained variation of all independent variables on dependent variables. Correlation:
The correlation is one of the most common and most useful statistics. A correlation is a single number that describes the degree of relationship between two variables. We are interested in finding out the relationship between males and females for every independent variable separately. The results for correlation are as following: Table 4. 1. 6: Correlation Male Female Color scheme: | | male| Female| male| Pearson Correlation| 1| . 067| | Sig. (2-tailed)| | . 680| | N| 40| 40| Female| Pearson Correlation| . 067| 1| | Sig. (2-tailed)| . 680| | | N| 40| 49| Explanation table 4. 1. 6:
The correlation between males and females for color scheme is . 067. It shows there is a positive relation but its strength is weak. Table 4. 1. 7: Correlation of Endorsement | | male| Female| male| Pearson Correlation| 1| -. 196| | Sig. (2-tailed)| | . 225| | N| 40| 40| Female| Pearson Correlation| -. 196| 1| | Sig. (2-tailed)| . 225| | | N| 40| 49| Explanation table 4. 17. : The result indicates that the correlation between males and females in case of endorsement is -. 196, which is negative and weak in strength. Table 4. 1. 8: Correlation of Brand Name | | male| Female| male| Pearson Correlation| 1| . 18| | Sig. (2-tailed)| | . 912| | N| 40| 40| Female| Pearson Correlation| . 018| 1| | Sig. (2-tailed)| . 912| | | N| 40| 49| Explanation table 4. 1. 8: The result shows there is positive but very weak correlation between males and females. And its value is . 018. Table 4. 1. 9: Correlation Creative Copy | | male| Female| male| Pearson Correlation| 1| -. 269| | Sig. (2-tailed)| | . 093| | N| 40| 40| Female| Pearson Correlation| -. 269| 1| | Sig. (2-tailed)| . 093| | | N| 40| 49| Explanation table 4. 1. 9: The result shows there is negative but very weak correlation between males and females.
And its value is. -. 269 Chapter 5 Recommendations and conclusions Conclusion: To measure the aspect of creativity of advertisements in the mind of people is not an easy task, because different people have different opinions about it. As our research topic and aim was to “measure the consumer’s perception about creativity in print media advertisements”, we also faced extreme difficulties and obstacles during our endeavor to convey what we were trying to ask ; the purpose of my research. But with the grace of Almighty Allah we were able to get the output from the respondents.
From our survey we extracted the following conclusions: * Results indicate that consumers buying behavior is not at all influenced by the color scheme of the print advertisement. It might only get the attention of the reader but does not make consumer end up buying the product. * The rest of the three variables i. e. brand name. Creative copy and endorsement does impact the buying behavior but their correlation is quite weak. * Analysis indicates that there is a weak correlation of independent and dependent variables, and the people do not end up buying a product only because of the factor of creativity discussed in the study.
Recommendations: * Advertisements should involve the celebrities and popular figures from our society, because we found out that people also like the advertisements involving the celebrity endorsements. And such endorsers must be used who have large fans pool. * Color scheme has good pulling power, but it does not actually ads on in the buying behavior process. So advertisers must not spend too much budget and time on selecting and improving their brand’s color scheme. * Company must have nice, easy to read and eye catching copy written on their advertisement.
Because too much details and technical type of language written on the advertisement is so right for people in Pakistan. * Advertisers must focus on other important attributes of creativity as well, which might impact the consumers buying process. References * www. Wekipedia. com * www. Jstor. com * www. Blakwellsynergy. com * www. google. com * www. wikipedia. com * www. thinkexist. con * Daily Leading Newspapers 0 Journal of Analytical Psychology Books: * Philip kotler, principles of marketing vol 9, no, 10 * Philip kotler and Kevin lane, marketing management vol 12, no. 4 Annexure Can you tell me how you think and respond? Dear respondent! We, the students of Air University Islamabad; are conducting a research on “consumer’s Perception about the creativity in print advertisement and its effect on purchases”. In this regard your cooperation in filling out the Survey Performa has a primary role as we are collecting data that will serve as basis for this research. Please carefully tick (v) the appropriate answers to the questions given below; the data will remain confidential and it will be used only for research purpose.
Your cooperation in the cause of education is highly appreciated. Demographics:- 1)Gender? a)Male b) Female 2)Age? a)Up to 35b)35+ Color Scheme: Q: 1) Color scheme of the print ad gets my attention. 1. Strongly disagree2. Disagree3. Neutral4. Agree5. Strongly agree Q: 2) Color scheme of the ad makes me end up buying the product. 1. Strongly disagree2. Disagree3. Neutral4. Agree5. Strongly agree Q: 3) Color scheme of the print ad improve my perception about the brand. 1. Strongly disagree2. Disagree3. Neutral4. Agree5. Strongly agree Endorsements:
Q: 4) I will consider purchasing the product due to presence of my favorite celebrity. 1. Strongly disagree2. Disagree3. Neutral4. Agree5. Strongly agree Q: 5) The female models in the print ad are more likely to influence my purchase intentions. 1. Strongly disagree2. Disagree3. Neutral4. Agree5. Strongly agree Q: 6) Endorsements (Actors, Actresses, Models, Sports person) etc leads me to buy the product. 1. Strongly disagree2. Disagree3. Neutral4. Agree5. Strongly agree Brand name: Q: 7) Name of the brand create difference in my purchase decisions. 1. Strongly disagree2. Disagree3. Neutral4. Agree5. Strongly agree
Q: 8) I perceive famous brands as high quality brands. 1. Strongly disagree2. Disagree3. Neutral4. Agree5. Strongly agree Creative Copy: Q: 9) The written content on print ads influences my buying decision. 1. Strongly disagree2. Disagree3. Neutral4. Agree5. Strongly agree Q. 10) The written content is considered to be more authentic by buyers like me. 1. Strongly disagree2. Disagree3. Neutral4. Agree5. Strongly agree Q. 11) My buying behavior is not flexible with, Color scheme, Endorsements, Brand name, Creative copy. a) Yes b) No