Name __________________________________________________________ Chapter 2 – Quick Quiz 1 1. A(n) _______________ is an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena. a. theoryc. operational definition b. hypothesisd. experiment 2. An ideal scientist should: a. not express skepticism of new ideas. c. not support falsifiable theories. b. rely on scientific intuition. d. be willing to make “risky predictions. ” 3. An advantage of naturalistic observation is that: a. it shows whether two or more variables are related. b. firm conclusions about cause and effect can be drawn. . it is often useful in the first stages of a research program. d. it provides a large amount of information on large numbers of people. 4. An advantage of correlation is that: a. it shows whether two or more variables are related. b. firm conclusions about cause and effect can be drawn. c. it is often useful in the first stages of a research program. d. it provides a large amount of information on large numbers of people. 5. Which of the following methods would be most appropriate to study the effects of alcohol consumption on problem-solving ability? a. Correlationc. Case study b. Experimentsd. Naturalistic observation . The variable manipulated by the researcher in an experiment is the: a. control variable. c. dependent variable. b. independent variable. d. experimental variable. 7. The purpose of a double-blind study is: a. to eliminate experimenter effects. c. to test the effects of a placebo. b. to increase experimental effects. d. to determine the visual ability of newborn infants. 8. Descriptive statistics: a. organize and summarize research data. b. allow determination of statistical significance. c. allow researchers to draw inferences about their results. d. show how likely it is that a study’s results occurred merely by chance. . Meta-analysis is used to: a. determine statistical significance. b. combine results from several studies. c. determine the probability of chance affecting the results. d. maintain ethical standards in research. 10. APA ethical standards require researchers to: a. avoid double-blind studies. c. limit the use of volunteers as subjects. b. avoid the use of deception. d. obtain informed consent from subjects. Chapter 2 – Quick Quiz 1 Answer Key 1. aExplanation: This is the definition of a theory. (Page 37, Factual) 2. dExplanation: Scientists should be willing to make “risky predictions. ” All the ther choices are the opposite of ideal characteristics of scientists. (Pages 37-38, Conceptual) 3. cExplanation: Naturalistic observation is important early in the research process to generate hypotheses, but it does not test hypotheses. (Page 56, Conceptual) 4. aExplanation: Correlation is a technique used to measure the strength and direction of a relationship between two or more variables. (Page 56, Conceptual) 5. bExplanation: Since this example is looking for a cause-and-effect relationship, experiment is the only appropriate method. (Page 61, Applied) 6. bExplanation: This is the definition of an independent variable. Page 52, Factual) 7. aExplanation: Double-blind studies are used to eliminate possible bias and experimenter effects. (Page 55, Factual) 8. aExplanation: Descriptive statistics organize and summarize results, while inferential statistics help to determine whether results are significant. (Page 57, Factual) 9. bExplanation: Meta-analysis is a statistical technique for combining the results of multiple studies. (Page 62, Factual) 10. dExplanation: APA ethical guidelines require the use of informed consent to protect research subjects. (Page 63, Factual) Name __________________________________________________________

Chapter 2 – Quick Quiz 2 1. A(n) _______________ is a statement that attempts to predict or to account for a set of phenomena. a. theoryc. operational definition b. hypothesisd. experiment 2. An ideal scientist should: a. not express skepticism of new ideas. c. make sure theories are falsifiable. b. rely on scientific intuition. d. not make “risky predictions. ” 3. An advantage of case studies is that: a. they can confirm hypotheses. b. general behavioral principles can be derived from them. c. they can help determine cause and effect. d. they provide in-depth information about unusual cases. 4.

Which of the following methods would be most appropriate to study maternal behavior in chimpanzees? a. Correlationc. Case study b. Experimentsd. Naturalistic observation 5. An advantage of an experiment is that: a. it shows whether two or more variables are related. b. firm conclusions about cause and effect can be drawn. c. it is often useful in the first stages of a research program. d. it provides a large amount of information on large numbers of people. 6. An advantage of a survey is that: a. it shows whether two or more variables are related. b. firm conclusions about cause and effect can be drawn. c. t is often useful in the first stages of a research program. d. it provides a large amount of information on large numbers of people. 7. In a double-blind experiment: a. neither the subjects in the experimental group nor the subjects in the control group know the experimental hypothesis. b. neither the subjects in the experimental group nor the subjects in the control group know which group they are in. c. neither the subjects nor the researcher know which subjects are in which group. d. neither the subjects in the experimental group nor the subjects in the control group know or can see the experimenter. 8.

Statistical significance means that: a. results are meaningful. c. results are unlikely to be due to chance. b. results are important. d. results are typical. 9. Cross-sectional studies allow one to determine the: a. statistical significance of results. c. experimenter effects. b. effect size. d. generational differences. 10. Which of the following is NOT a reason psychologists study animals? a. To discover practical applicationsc. To avoid use of deception b. To improve human welfared. To clarify theoretical questions Chapter 2 – Quick Quiz 2 Answer Key 1. bExplanation: This is the definition of a hypothesis. (Page 37, Factual) 2. Explanation: A scientist should make sure theories are falsifiable. All the other choices are the opposite of ideal characteristics of scientists. (Pages 37-38, Conceptual) 3. dExplanation: Case studies provide in-depth information about an individual case and generate hypotheses, but they cannot be used to confirm hypotheses or determine cause and effect. (Page 56, Conceptual) 4. dExplanation: In this case, naturalistic observation would be most appropriate because the researcher wants to know about the natural behaviors of chimpanzees. (Page 43, Applied) 5. bExplanation: The primary advantage of an experiment is that it can be used to etermine cause and effect. (Page 51, Conceptual) 6. dExplanation: Surveys can provide a lot of information about attitudes, beliefs, opinions, and behaviors of large groups of people. (Pages 46-47, Conceptual) 7. cExplanation: Double-blind experiments are conducted to eliminate experimenter effects by keeping both the subjects and the researcher “blind” to which group a particular subject is in. (Page 55, Factual) 8. cExplanation: Tests of statistical significance are used to determine the likelihood that a particular set of results are due to chance factors. (Page 59, Factual) 9. Explanation: Cross-sectional studies are useful in studying generational differences, whereas longitudinal studies are more useful in studying changes in a person over a period of time. (Page 60, Conceptual) 10. cExplanation: Psychologists should use caution in experiments with humans that involve deception, but they do not need to avoid deception. The other choices are all reasons that psychologists study animals. (Page 64, Conceptual) Multiple Choice Questions 1. Research methods are important for all of the following reasons EXCEPT: a. they allow researchers to separate reliable information from unfounded claims. . they can help a person make a wiser decision between alternatives. c. they provide the means for false claims to be verified. d. they are the basic foundation for psychology and other sciences. Section: Chapter Introduction Page(s): 37Type: ConceptualAnswer: c Explanation: Research methods provide the means for false claims to be found out for what they are. All other choices are accurate. 2. When psychologists learned that hopeful parents of autistic children were being drawn to a program of “facilitated communication”: a. they carefully analyzed the testimonials about the therapy before accepting it. b. hey conducted experiments involving autistic children and their facilitators. c. they conducted a survey of all the facilitators working with autistic children. d. they argued that it was not ethical to use this technique with children. Section: Chapter Introduction Page(s): 35Type: FactualAnswer: b Explanation: The research involving autistic children and their facilitators demonstrated that the claims concerning “facilitated communication” were false. 3. Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons why research methods matter so much to psychologists? a. These methods allow psychologists to separate truth from unfounded belief. . These methods allow psychologists to gain respect from the “hard” sciences. c. These methods allow psychologists to sort out conflicting views. d. These methods allow psychologists to correct false ideas that might cause people harm. Section: Chapter Introduction Page(s): 36Type: ConceptualAnswer: b Explanation: While use of research methods may result in increased respect from the “hard” sciences, this is not the reason they are used. They are used because psychology is a science and, as such, its data must be based on empirical evidence. 4. When the authors refer to psychologists as scientists, they mean that: a. sychologists work with complicated computers and laboratory equipment. b. psychologists rely upon sophisticated brain-imaging machines. c. psychologists base their work on scientific attitudes and procedures. d. psychologists wear white coats when they conduct animal research. Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific? Page(s): 36Type: ConceptualAnswer: c Explanation: As a science, psychologists trust only evidence based on empirical data resulting from the use of the scientific method. Science is a way of asking and answering questions and has little to do with the equipment used or the clothing worn. 5.

Which of the following is NOT a key characteristic of scientists? a. Precision b. Skepticism c. Openness d. Humanism Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific? Page(s): 37-38Type: ConceptualAnswer: d Explanation: Precision, skepticism, openness to new ideas, and reliance on empirical evidence are the hallmarks of a scientist. 6. An organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships is called a/an: a. hypothesis. b. operational definition. c. double-blind study. d. theory. Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific

Page(s): 37Type: FactualAnswer: d Explanation: This is the definition of a theory. 7. A theory is: a. an opinion or idea about the causes of some phenomenon. b. an organized system of assumptions and principles that attempts to explain some phenomenon. c. a group of interrelated statements about cause and effect. d. a hunch about the causes of related phenomena. Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific? Page(s): 37Type: FactualAnswer: b Explanation: A theory is an organized system of assumptions and principles that attempts to explain some phenomenon. 8.

A statement that attempts to predict or to account for a set of phenomena is called a/an: a. hypothesis. b. operational definition. c. double-blind study. d. theory. Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific? Page(s): 37Type: FactualAnswer: a Explanation: A hypothesis is a prediction, usually derived from a theory. 9. Which of the following statements is NOT true? a. A hypothesis is a specific prediction derived from a theory. b. A hypothesis is a statement that attempts to explain a specific behavior. c. A hypothesis is a statement about a relationship between variables that may be empirically tested. . A hypothesis is a prediction about future events based on guesswork. Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific? Page(s): 37Type: ConceptualAnswer: d Explanation: Hypotheses are not based on guesswork, though they may be educated guesses based on empirical knowledge. 10. A hypothesis is defined as: a. a statement that attempts to predict a set of phenomena, and specifies relationships among variables that can be empirically tested. b. an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships. c. he precise meaning of a term which specifies the operations for observing and measuring the process or phenomenon being investigated. d. the principle that a scientific theory must make predications that are specific enough to expose the theory to the possibility of disconfirmation. Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific? Page(s): 37Type: FactualAnswer: a Explanation: A hypothesis is a prediction, usually derived from a theory. 11. Theory is defined as: a. a statement that attempts to predict a set of phenomena, and specifies relationships among variables that can be empirically tested. . an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships. c. the precise meaning of a term which specifies the operations for observing and measuring the process or phenomenon being investigated. d. the principle that a scientific theory must make predications that are specific enough to expose the theory to the possibility of disconfirmation. Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific? Page(s): 37Type: FactualAnswer: b Explanation: A theory is an organized system of assumptions and principles that attempts to explain some phenomenon. 12.

A scientific theory could be thought of as: a. a personal opinion. b. an established truth. c. an organized system of assumptions. d. a measure of strength between two variables. Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific? Page(s): 37Type: ConceptualAnswer: c Explanation: A theory is not a personal opinion, an established truth, or a measure of strength. It is an organized system of assumptions and principles that attempts to explain some phenomenon. 13. An operational definition is: a. a statement that attempts to predict a set of phenomena, and specifies relationships among variables that can be empirically tested. . an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships. c. the precise meaning of a term which specifies the operations for observing and measuring the process or phenomenon being investigated. d. the principle that a scientific theory must make predications that are specific enough to expose the theory to the possibility of disconfirmation. Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific? Page(s): 37Type: FactualAnswer: c Explanation: An operational definition states how a variable will be measured. 4. An operational definition: a. tells how something is to be observed and measured. b. tells the meaning of a term in scientific language. c. tells the meaning of a term in lay language. d. tells what is expected to result from manipulation of a variable. Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific? Page(s): 37Type: FactualAnswer: a Explanation: An operational definition states how a variable will be measured. 15. Which of the following is an operational definition of depression? a. A feeling of extreme sadness b. A sense of futility and hopelessness c.

A score on the Beck Depression Inventory d. The opposite of euphoria Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific? Page(s): 37Type: AppliedAnswer: c Explanation: Only a score on the Beck Depression Inventory specifies how depression will be measured. 16. Which of the following is NOT a possible operational definition of intelligence? a. A person’s score on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test b. A person’s ability to reason and solve problems c. A student’s cumulative GPA d. The length of time a person takes to solve a complex maze Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific?

Page(s): 37Type: AppliedAnswer: b Explanation: An operational definition must specify how a variable is to be measured. 17. The principle of falsifiability is defined as: a. a statement that attempts to predict a set of phenomena, and specifies relationships among variables that can be empirically tested. b. an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships. c. the precise meaning of a term which specifies the principles for observing and measuring the process or phenomenon being investigated. . the principle that a scientific theory must make predications that are specific enough to expose the theory to the possibility of disconfirmation. Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific? Page(s): 37-38Type: FactualAnswer: d Explanation: To be useful, a scientific theory must be specific enough that its predictions can be proven or disproven. 18. A precise meaning of a term which species the operations for observing and measuring the process or phenomenon being investigated is called a/an: a. hypothesis. b. operational definition. c. ouble-blind study. d. theory. Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific? Page(s): 37Type: FactualAnswer: b Explanation: This is a definition of an operational definition. 19. Marcy is trying to define “anxiety” in a way that can be empirically tested. She is attempting to find an appropriate: a. hypothesis. b. operational definition. c. double-blind study. d. theory. Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific? Page(s): 37Type: AppliedAnswer: b Explanation: Operational definitions specify how variables are to be observed or measured. 20.

Hannah has always been drawn to the saying “Absence makes the heart grow fonder,” and she decides that this saying will be incorporated into her research project. Hannah is trying to define “absence” in a way that can be empirically tested. She is attempting to find an appropriate: a. hypothesis. b. operational definition. c. double-blind study. d. theory. Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific? Page(s): 37Type: AppliedAnswer: b Explanation: Operational definitions specify how variables are to be observed or measured. 21. Which of the following is NOT one of the key characteristics of the ideal scientist? . Precision b. Skepticism c. Openness in regard to ideas and research d. Avoidance of risky predictions Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific? Page(s): 37-38Type: ConceptualAnswer: d Explanation: Scientists are not afraid to make risky predictions. 22. Which of the following statements is NOT true? a. It is important to balance skepticism with openness to new ideas. b. Skepticism in science is an unwillingness to accept an idea without empirical evidence. c. Even though skepticism about new ideas is important, a scientist should accept older ideas that have been endorsed by authorities in the field. d.

Skepticism and caution go hand in hand. Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific? Page(s): 37Type: ConceptualAnswer: c Explanation: All ideas, both new and old, should be subjected to the test of empirical support and should not be accepted just because they are endorsed by an authority. 23. Which of the following is most characteristic of scientists? a. Creativity in developing new ideas to test b. Reliance on empirical evidence c. Intense conviction that a hypothesis is true d. Reliance on scientific authority Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific? Page(s): 37Type: ConceptualAnswer: b

Explanation: The basis of all science is reliance on empirical evidence. 24. In order to be taken seriously, a hypothesis must be: a. plausible given the current theories. b. backed by empirical evidence. c. imaginative and appealing. d. suggested by a credible authority. Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific? Page(s): 37-38Type: ConceptualAnswer: b Explanation: Empirical evidence is the key to taking a theory or hypothesis seriously in science. 25. According to the principle of falsifiability: a. a scientific theory must make predictions that are specific enough to expose the theory to the possibility of disconfirmation. . false conclusions are reached in a scientific study when researchers make risky predictions. c. researchers must conduct naturalistic observations in order to reach a causal explanation about a particular behavior. d. hypotheses should be considered false until scientific research proves, without a doubt, that they are true. Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific? Page(s): 37-38Type: FactualAnswer: a Explanation: To be useful, a scientific theory must be specific enough that its predictions can be proven or disproven, that is, it is falsifiable. 26. The principle of falsifiability means that: . scientists must be careful not to falsify their results. b. scientists, as well as people in general, tend to accept false information when it is endorsed by an authority. c. a scientist must state an idea in such a way that it can be refuted or disproved by counterevidence. d. theories that have not been proven are considered falsified. Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific? Page(s): 37Type: FactualAnswer: c Explanation: To be useful, a scientific theory must be specific enough that its predictions can be proven or disproven, that is, it is falsifiable. 27. Confirmation bias is: . a tendency to look for evidence that supports our theory and ignore evidence that contradicts it. b. a tendency to believe theories that have been confirmed by empirical data. c. a tendency to accept replicated studies but not accept studies that have not been replicated. d. a belief that bias exists in many studies that prevents them from being confirmed. Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific? Page(s): 38Type: FactualAnswer: a Explanation: Confirmation bias is a tendency to look for evidence that supports our theory and ignore evidence that contradicts it. 28.

The tendency to look for information that supports one’s own belief is called the: a. principle of falsifiability. b. confirmation bias. c. criterion validity. d. volunteer bias. Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific? Page(s): 38Type: FactualAnswer: b Explanation: This is a definition of confirmation bias. 29. In the 1990s, some police officers argued that murderous satanic cults were widespread, but the FBI was never able to substantiate this claim. The police officers continued to believe in the existence of the cults, saying that the FBI was part of the conspiracy.

Our textbook points out that this is a violation of _______________ in everyday life. a. the coefficient of correlation b. the volunteer bias c. the principle of falsifiability d. replication Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific? Page(s): 38Type: ConceptualAnswer: c Explanation: The belief of the police officers in satanic cults could not be disproven, therefore it was not a valid theory. 30. Which of the following statements is true? a. Scientists should keep their research secret so others will not steal their ideas. b. It is a waste of time and money to replicate a tudy that has already been done. c. Disclosure of the details of a study is important to allow for replication by others. d. Research procedures, once patented, should be shared openly. Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific? Page(s): 38Type: ConceptualAnswer: c Explanation: Science depends on the free flow of ideas and full disclosure of studies. Replication is an essential part of the scientific process. 31. Scientists are expected to submit their results to professional journals, which send the findings to experts for evaluation before publication. This process is called: a. eliability. b. criterion validity. c. peer review. d. content validity. Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific? Page(s): 39Type: FactualAnswer: c Explanation: This is a definition of the peer review process. 32. One purpose of peer review is to: a. make sure that the researchers did not deceive their subjects in any way. b. choose which, among competing interpretations of a finding, is best. c. scrutinize the evidence before any announcement to the public. d. make sure that the research does not involve animals as subjects. Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific?

Page(s): 39Type: FactualAnswer: c Explanation: A major purpose of peer review is to make sure a study used valid methods in obtaining its results. Otherwise the results are not valid and could be misleading. 33. What was wrong with Norman Cousins’s claim that humor and vitamins could cure life-threatening diseases? a. It was not falsifiable. b. It was not based on empirical evidence. c. Its variables were not operationally defined. d. It resulted from confirmation bias. Section: What Makes Psychological Research Scientific? Page(s): 39Type: ConceptualAnswer: b

Explanation: Norman Cousins’s claim was based on only one case, his own, and was therefore anecdotal evidence that had not been empirically tested. 34. Research methods that depict behavior but are not necessarily causal explanations are called: a. experimental methods. b. single-blind studies. c. significance tests. d. descriptive methods. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 40Type: FactualAnswer: d Explanation: This is a definition of descriptive research techniques. 35. Which of the following is NOT a descriptive method? a. Case studies b. Tests c.

Correlation d. Surveys Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 40-47Type: FactualAnswer: c Explanation: Correlation is a statistical technique, not a descriptive technique. 36. A detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated is called: a. a representative sample. b. a case study. c. a single-blind study. d. a naturalistic observation. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 42-43Type: FactualAnswer: b Explanation: This is the definition of a case study. 37. Which of the following is an advantage of case studies? . Case studies produce a more detailed picture of an individual than other methods do. b. Information is often missing or hard to interpret. c. An individual case may not be representative of others. d. The observer may have biases that influence which facts are observed and which are ignored. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 42Type: ConceptualAnswer: a Explanation: All of the other choices are disadvantages, not advantages, of case studies. 38. The case of Genie illustrated that: a. autistic children often have cold, rejecting mothers. b. anguage acquisition is possible even if it is delayed until adolescence. c. early severe deprivation can be overcome with later therapy. d. there is an early critical period for language development. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 42Type: FactualAnswer: d Explanation: The case study of Genie demonstrated that, in this individual, early severe deprivation could not be overcome. Therefore it appears that there is an early critical period for language development. 39. In the 1970s, a 13-year-old girl was found locked up in a room, strapped to a potty chair.

Since she had grown up in a world without human speech, researchers studied “Genie’s” ability to acquire words, grammar, and pronunciation. This type of research is called: a. a case study. b. a representative sample. c. a single-blind study. d. a naturalistic observation. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 42Type: FactualAnswer: a Explanation: This is an example of a case study, a detailed study of one individual. 40. In the 1970s, Genie’s difficulty acquiring words, grammar, and pronunciation led researchers to conclude that: a. a critical period exists for language development. b.

Genie had suffered brain damage in the birth process. c. Genie’s linguistic deficits can be generalized to other abused children. d. language depends on nurture rather than nature. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 42Type: ConceptualAnswer: a Explanation: The case study of Genie demonstrated that, in this individual, early severe deprivation could not be overcome. Therefore it appears that there is an early critical period for language development. 41. An academic researcher would use the case study method in all of the following situations EXCEPT: a. when first beginning to study a research topic. . when practical considerations prevent other methods of gathering information. c. when ethical considerations prevent other methods of gathering information. d. when the purpose of the research is to track down a cause. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 42-43Type: FactualAnswer: d Explanation: The case study method is not useful in determining causes, though it may result in hypotheses. 42. _______________ are usually sources of hypotheses, rather than tests of hypotheses. a. Double-blind studies b. Case studies c. Single-blind studies d. Field research studies

Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 42Type: Conceptual Answer: b Explanation: Case studies do not test hypotheses, but may suggest them. 43. Dr. Olson wants to know whether or not the first three years of life are critical for acquiring language. She decides to study children who have been deprived of human language. The appropriate method to use to explore this issue would be a/an: a. observational study. b. experiment. c. survey. d. case study. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 42Type: AppliedAnswer: d Explanation: It would not be ethical to do an experiment in this case.

The other methods listed would be possible, but one or several related case studies would be most useful. 44. Psychoanalyst Bruno Bettelheim wrote that autism in children is caused by cold and rejecting mothers. Thousands of women blamed themselves for lacking warmth. The authors described Bettelheim’s writing in order to: a. demonstrate that nurture is more important than nature in psychological problems such as autism. b. illustrate the importance of motherhood so that other children don’t suffer this type of tragedy. c. demonstrate that case studies are able to establish causal connections in some clinical cases. . illustrate that drawing conclusions solely on the basis of case studies can have disastrous results. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 42Type: ConceptualAnswer: d Explanation: Case studies may generate hypotheses, but it is not appropriate to generalize from case studies and draw conclusions about other people. 45. In _______________ the researcher carefully and systematically watches and records behavior, without interfering with the behavior. a. observational research b. survey research c. experimental research d. double-blind research Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts

Page(s): 43Type: FactualAnswer: a Explanation: This is a description of observational research. 46. An advantage of observational studies is that: a. they can provide accurate descriptions of behavior. b. the presence of observers can alter the behavior being observed. c. they can answer questions about cause and effect. d. they do not provide hypotheses to be tested. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 43Type: ConceptualAnswer: a Explanation: Observational studies provide good descriptive information but cannot answer questions about cause and effect, though they may provide some hypotheses to be tested.

Observer effects are a disadvantage, not an advantage. 47. Dawn is systematically recording behaviors at a nursery school, making sure that she doesn’t interfere with the behaviors. Dawn is engaged in: a. observational research. b. survey research. c. experimental research. d. double-blind research. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 43Type: AppliedAnswer: a Explanation: This is an example of observational research. 48. For his adult development class, Barry is systematically recording behaviors at an assisted-care facility, making sure that he doesn’t nterfere with the behaviors. Barry is engaged in: a. observational research. b. standardized testing. c. experimental research. d. statistically-significant research. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 43Type: AppliedAnswer: a Explanation: This is an example of observational research. 49. Dr. Littman-Smith is conducting research in Kenya in order to determine the ways that mothers and their toddlers interact throughout the day. It is most likely that she is engaged in: a. naturalistic observation. b. laboratory observation. c. case study research. d. xperimental research. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 43Type: Applied Answer: a Explanation: Naturalistic observation, or observation in a natural setting, would be most useful in this example. 50. Dr. Nicod is conducting research in France in order to determine the ways that mothers and their toddlers interact throughout the day. It is most likely that she is engaged in: a. naturalistic observation. b. psychological testing. c. survey research. d. meta-analysis research. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 43Type: Applied Answer: a

Explanation: Naturalistic observation, or observation in a natural setting, would be most useful in this example. 51. Professor Gaggos wants to determine whether the needs for personal space are different in Greece than they are in the United States. His results will be used to train business executives in maintaining appropriate conversational distances. The research method appropriate to his purpose would be: a. naturalistic observation. b. an objective inventory. c. a case study. d. laboratory observation. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 43Type: Applied Answer: a

Explanation: Naturalistic observation, or observation in a natural setting, would be most useful in this example. 52. Ethologists, such as Jane Goodall and Dian Fossey used the _______________ method to study apes and other animals in the wild. a. case study b. objective inventory c. naturalistic observation d. experimental Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 43Type: FactualAnswer: c Explanation: These scientists used naturalistic observation in their studies of chimpanzees and gorillas. 53. Professor Hardin wants to know if people consume greater quantities of alcohol during “Happy Hour” specials.

It is most likely that she will use the _______________ method to explore this topic. a. case study b. double-blind c. naturalistic observation d. experimental Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 43Type: AppliedAnswer: c Explanation: Naturalistic observation, or observation in a natural setting, would be most useful and accurate in this example. 54. When researchers visited 32 pubs in one city, they ordered beers and recorded observations on napkins and pieces of newspaper. The reason they kept records in this way was: a. to conduct a double-blind study in each of the pubs. . to make sure the study had test-retest reliability c. to be able to determine experimenter effects at a later point in time. d. to make sure that their intentions were not obvious to those they were observing. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 43Type: AppliedAnswer: d Explanation: In observational research, it is important that the subjects not be aware that they are being observed. Otherwise their behavior may be altered. 55. Tess agrees to sleep in a laboratory for three nights so that researchers can obtain information about her brain and muscle activity during sleep.

She is taking part in a _______________ study. a. single-blind b. double-blind c. naturalistic observation d. laboratory observation Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 44Type: AppliedAnswer: d Explanation: In this example, observation is being carried out in a specialized laboratory, not in a natural setting. 56. Psychologists sometimes prefer to make observations in a laboratory setting rather than a naturalistic setting because: a. it is too time consuming to have to drive from place to place to observe subjects. b. subjects take their participation seriously in a professional environment. . a lab allows the researchers to have more control over the situation. d. laboratory observation results generalize to everyday life. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 44Type: ConceptualAnswer: c Explanation: In some cases, it is important for researchers to have more control over the environment than they would have in a natural setting. 57. Professor Steegel wants to know how infants of different ages respond when left with a stranger. The most efficient approach to explore this topic would be to conduct a: a. series of case studies. b. double-blind experiment. c. aboratory observation. d. naturalistic observation. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 44Type: AppliedAnswer: c Explanation: It would be unlikely that one would encounter this type of situation very often in a natural setting, but it can be set up in a laboratory. 58. Professor Kribs wants to know how infants of different ages respond when left with a stranger. The most efficient approach to explore this topic would be to conduct a: a. single-blind experiment. b. double-blind experiment. c. laboratory observation. d. survey. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts

Page(s): 44Type: AppliedAnswer: c Explanation: It would be unlikely that one would encounter this type of situation very often in a natural setting, but it can be set up in a laboratory. 59. One shortcoming of laboratory observation is that: a. the presence of researchers and special equipment may cause subjects to act differently than they would in their natural surroundings. b. the results often are inaccurate because many people have a distorted view of their own abilities and traits. c. some subjects are given detailed instructions about how to behave whereas others receive only vague instructions. . teachers and parents do not usually question the results from a laboratory observation since the results are summarized in a single, precise-sounding number. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 44Type: Factual Answer: a Explanation: When people know they are being observed and when they are not in their normal environment, their behavior may differ from what it would be in a more natural setting without the presence of observers. 60. Procedures used to measure and evaluate personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, and values are called: a. aboratory observations. b. psychological tests. c. control conditions. d. field research. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s):44Type: FactualAnswer: b Explanation: Tests are used to measure personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, opinions, values, and other characteristics. 61. Assessment instruments that are designed to tap unconscious feelings or motives are called: a. objective tests. b. projective tests. c. inventories. d. alternate forms. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s):44Type: FactualAnswer: b

Explanation: Projective tests are used to try to determine a person’s unconscious feelings and motives. 62. Tessa agrees to an evaluation designed to tap her unconscious feelings and motives. Tessa will be given a/an: a. objective test. b. projective test. c. inventory. d. alternate form exam. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 44Type: AppliedAnswer: b Explanation: This is an example of a situation in which a projective test would be used. 63. Assessment instruments that are designed to measure beliefs, feelings, or behaviors of which an individual is aware are called: . inferential statistics. b. projective tests. c. objective tests. d. norms. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 44Type: FactualAnswer: c Explanation: This is a description of objective tests, as distinguished from projective tests. 64. Harvey is being assessed in order to measure his beliefs and feelings regarding the next election. It is most likely that the assessment instrument will be a/an: a. inferential statistic. b. projective test. c. objective test. d. norm. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s):44Type: FactualAnswer: c

Explanation: An objective test would be most appropriate in this situation because Harvey is aware of his beliefs and feelings regarding the upcoming election. 65. A researcher decides that a psychological test is the most efficient means of testing his hypothesis. A test would NOT be appropriate if the researcher wanted to a. make a conclusion regarding cause and effect. b. clarify the reactions of the same person at different stages of life. c. draw generalizations about human behavior. d. promote self-understanding among his participants. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts

Page(s): 45Type: ConceptualAnswer: a Explanation: Tests are descriptive and cannot be used to determine cause and effect. 66. One test of a good test is whether it is standardized, that is, whether: a. the test specifies the operations for observing and measuring the process being tested. b. the test specifies relationships between events or variables and yields an empirical evaluation. c. the test yields consistent scores from one time and place to another time and place. d. uniform procedures exist for giving and scoring the test. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 45Type: FactualAnswer: d

Explanation: Standardization involves uniformity in giving and scoring tests. 67. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a good test? a. It is standardized. b. It is reliable. c. It is believable. d. It is valid. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 45Type: FactualAnswer: c Explanation: Whether a test is believable has no bearing on whether it is a good test. 68. When Haylee takes a personality test, the researcher gives her detailed instructions and plenty of time to complete it. But Tyler takes the same test and is given only vague instructions and a limited amount of time.

This procedural difference shows a problem in regard to: a. validity. b. standardization. c. reliability. d. norms. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 45Type: AppliedAnswer: b Explanation: Standardization means that the test is always given under the same circumstances and with the same instructions. 69. Hadley is told that the achievement test that he is taking is a standardized test. This means that: a. the score he receives is likely to be similar to the score he would receive at a later test session. b. the test will be measuring what is it intended to measure. . similar scores occur when the test is given in a standard laboratory setting or in a naturalistic setting. d. uniform procedures exist for giving and scoring the test. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 45Type: AppliedAnswer: d Explanation: Standardization involves uniformity in giving and scoring tests. 70. Hoshi asked if the test she is taking used established standards of performance. Hoshi’s question was about the test’s _______________. a. criterion validity b. norms c. content validity d. test-retest reliability Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts

Page(s): 45Type: AppliedAnswer: b Explanation: Norms are standards of achievement that have been determined from a representative sample of people. 71. Reliability in tests means that: a. the test actually measures what it is supposed to measure. b. the test is fair. c. the test is unbiased. d. the test produces the same results from one time and place to the next. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 45Type: FactualAnswer: d Explanation: Reliable tests are consistent. 72. An established standard of performance defines: a. a norm. b. a standard score. c. content validity. . reliability. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 45Type: FactualAnswer: a Explanation: This is a definition of a norm. 73. In order to be useful, a test must be reliable, that is, it must: a. measure what it is designed to measure. b. compare results against established standards of performance. c. produce the same results from one time to the next. d. predict other criteria of the trait in question. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 45Type: FactualAnswer: c Explanation: To be reliable, a test must produce consistent results. 74.

When Joyce takes a personality test she is told that the test is reliable, that is, it: a. measures what it is designed to measure. b. compares its results against established standards of performance. c. produces the same results from one time to the next. d. predicts other criteria of the personality trait in question. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 45Type: AppliedAnswer: c Explanation: To be reliable, a test must produce consistent results. 75. Two types of validity are: a. content validity and standardization. b. validity with norms and validity without norms. c. standardization and reliability. . content validity and criterion validity. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 45-46Type: FactualAnswer: d Explanation: Content validity and criterion validity are the two major types of validity. 76. If a test measures what it is supposed to measure it is: a. reliable. b. valid. c. criterion referenced. d. standardized. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 45Type: FactualAnswer: b Explanation: This is a definition of validity. 77. When Dana takes a personality test she is told that the test has been judged to have criterion validity, that is: a. t measures what it is designed to measure. b. its results are compared to established standards of performance. c. it produces the same results from one time to the next. d. it predicts other criteria of the personality trait in question. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 46Type: AppliedAnswer: d Explanation: Criterion validity exists when a test’s results are predictive of other criteria of the trait being measured. 78. When Becky takes a personality test she is told that the test has been judged to have content validity, that is: a. it measures what it is designed to measure. . its results are compared to established standards of performance. c. it produces the same results from one time to the next. d. it predicts other criteria of the personality trait in question. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 45Type: AppliedAnswer: a Explanation: Content validity exists when a test’s items are related to actual standards of performance. 79. When Sandee takes a personality test she is told that the resulting score is compared to norms, that is, the test: a. measures what it is designed to measure. b. results are compared to established standards of performance. . produces the same results from one time to the next. d. predicts other criteria of the personality trait in question. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 45Type: AppliedAnswer: b Explanation: Norms are established standards of performance to which an individual’s test score can be compared. 80. In order to be useful, a test must be valid, that is, it must: a. measure what it is designed to measure. b. compare results against established standards of performance. c. produce the same results from one time to the next. d. produce comparable results when alternate forms are given.

Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 45Type: FactualAnswer: a Explanation: Validity means that a test measures what it is designed to measure. 81. Juan is given a vocational-interest test and then retakes the same test a week later. The psychologist is measuring the _______________ of the test. a. content validity b. test-retest reliability c. alternate-forms reliability d. criterion validity Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 45Type: AppliedAnswer: b Explanation: This is a description of how test-retest reliability is established. 82.

Ken is given a vocational-interest test and then takes a similar test a week later. The psychologist is measuring the _______________ of the test. a. content validity b. test-retest reliability c. alternate-forms reliability d. criterion validity Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 45Type: AppliedAnswer: c Explanation: This is a description of how alternate-forms reliability is established. 83. Anastasia is given a vocational-interest test in November and then retakes the test in January. The psychologist is _______________ of the test. a. standardizing the norms b. measuring the test-retest reliability . measuring the alternate-forms reliability d. establishing the criterion validity Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 45Type: AppliedAnswer: b Explanation: This is a description of how test-retest reliability is established. 84. Which of the following is NOT an area of controversy concerning the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT)? a. Students can do well on the reading comprehension section even without reading the passages. b. The ability of the SAT to predict college performance is questionable. c. There are large discrepancies when the results of two SAT testing sessions are compared. . The extent to which the SAT scores are fair in regard to women and minorities has been questioned. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 46Type: FactualAnswer: c Explanation: Generally there is little discrepancy between SAT testing sessions. 85. Ryan and his middle-school teammates buy a sports magazine and take the test entitled “Do you have what it takes to make the NFL? ” Given our textbook’s discussion of test construction, what advice would be best to give to Ryan? a. The norms were probably established using college students and so the results wouldn’t apply to you. . Don’t take the results too seriously because the test is just a list of questions that someone thought would interest the public. c. Magazine tests are usually valid instruments but they are rarely reliable and so the results only explain current football skills. d. Keep practicing because unless an injury gets in the way, the test’s results are likely to be reliable and valid. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 47Type: AppliedAnswer: b Explanation: Tests in popular magazines have rarely been determined to be valid or reliable and they lack normative data. 86.

The pop-psych tests found in magazines and newspapers usually: a. have not been evaluated for reliability but are valid tests. b. have not been evaluated for validity but are reliable tests. c. have not been evaluated for validity or reliability. d. have been evaluated for validity and reliability. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 47Type: AppliedAnswer: c Explanation: Tests in popular magazines have rarely been determined to be valid or reliable and they lack normative data. 87. Most personality and intelligence tests on the Internet and in magazines: a. re both reliable and valid. b. are neither reliable nor valid. c. are reliable, but not valid. d. are valid, but not reliable. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 47Type: AppliedAnswer: b Explanation: Tests in popular magazines and on the Internet have rarely been determined to be valid or reliable and they lack normative data. 88. When a radio talk show host asked listeners to call in their opinions regarding legislation increasing social security benefits, the overwhelming response was support for the increase. All of the following are likely shortcomings of this survey EXCEPT: a. he lack of a representative sample. b. the issue of volunteer bias. c. the tendency to lie about touchy subjects. d. the method of subject recruitment. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 47Type: AppliedAnswer: c Explanation: In this situation, most people probably do not lie. 89. _______________ usually generate information about people indirectly; in contrast, _______________ gather information by asking people directly about their experiences. a. Psychological tests; surveys b. Surveys; case studies c. Laboratory experiments; psychological tests d.

Case studies; laboratory experiments Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 46Type: ConceptualAnswer: a Explanation: This is a comparison of tests to surveys. 90. A group of subjects, randomly selected from the population of interest, which matches the population on important characteristics such as age and sex is called: a. volunteer bias. b. a representative sample. c. the experimental group. d. the control group. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 40Type: FactualAnswer: b Explanation: This is a definition of a representative sample. 91.

Dr. Wiseman wants to know about the alcohol consumption patterns among college juniors in the United States. He should: a. give the survey to every college junior in the country. b. remember that sample size is the most critical factor in survey research. c. require students’ names on each survey to avoid the tendency to lie. d. draw a representative sample among college juniors. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 40Type: AppliedAnswer: d Explanation: It is not necessary to survey the entire population of interest as long as the sample used is representative. 92.

The editors of Scientific American are able to obtain a representative sample of their readers in order to assess their attitudes toward preservation of the rain forests in Costa Rica. When interpreting the results of their survey the editors will be able to: a. apply the results to the entire U. S. b. apply the results to Costa Rica. c. apply the results to subscribers of Scientific American. d. apply the result to scientists. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 40Type: AppliedAnswer: c Explanation: Survey results can be generalized only to people similar to the original respondents. 3. The magazine Lover’s Delight publishes a survey of its female readers called “The Sex Life of the American Wife. ” It reports that 87 percent of all wives like to make love in rubber boots. The critical flaw in this research would be: a. the fact that the sample is not representative of American wives. b. the fact that a psychological test, rather than a survey, should have been given. c. the fact that rubber boots are not equally available in all regions of the country. d. the fact that “making love” has not been operationally defined. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts

Page(s): 40Type: AppliedAnswer: a Explanation: Respondents to such a survey would include only readers of the particular magazine and would not be representative of all people. 94. A representative sample is: a. a large group of participants containing at least 25 percent of the population of interest. b. a group of participants containing males, females, and representatives of all racial and ethnic groups. c. a group of participants which contains both volunteers and nonvolunteers. d. a group of participants that accurately represents the larger population of interest. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts

Page(s): 40Type: FactualAnswer: d Explanation: A definition of a representative sample is a group of participants that accurately represents the larger population of interest. 95. Problems with surveys may include all of the following EXCEPT: a. volunteer bias. b. lack of representative samples. c. choice of media (phone, Internet, etc. ) to use for the survey. d. lack of honesty of participants. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 46Type: FactualAnswer: c Explanation: Choice of media is an important consideration, but is not necessarily a problem. 96.

Which of the following statements is FALSE? a. Most people do not realize that a sample’s size is less critical than its representativeness. b. Surveys are procedures used to measure and evaluate personality traits, emotional states, aptitude, interests, abilities, and values. c. Popular polls and surveys often suffer from volunteer bias because people who feel strongly enough to volunteer their opinions may differ from those who remain silent. d. A problem with surveys is that sometimes people lie or misinterpret the question. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts

Page(s): 40, 46Type: FactualAnswer: b Explanation: Tests, not surveys, are procedures used to measure and evaluate personality traits, emotional states, aptitude, interests, abilities, and values. 97. The likelihood of lying about a touchy topic is reduced when respondents: a. are paid for their participation in the survey. b. receive explanations regarding the importance of the survey. c. are questioned by a compassionate interviewer. d. are guaranteed anonymity. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 47Type: ConceptualAnswer: d

Explanation: Anonymity generally results in increased honesty about touchy subjects. 98. In one national study of HIV-risk sexual behaviors, teenage boys who responded _______________ were far more likely to admit to risky behaviors than were boys who were given the survey through other procedures. a. on a paper-and-pencil questionnaire in a small group setting b. to questions asked by a male interviewer c. on a computer keyboard to questions played through headphones d. to questions asked by a female interviewer Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 46-47Type: FactualAnswer: c

Explanation: This is an example of anonymity resulting in increased honesty. 99. Famed sex researcher Alfred Kinsey found that more truthful responses were elicited when he phrased a question in which of the following ways? a. Have you ever engaged in fornication or adultery? b. How many times have you had nonmarital sex? c. Have you ever had sex outside of marriage? d. Do your behaviors regarding nonmarital sex match your values? Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 47Type: ConceptualAnswer: b Explanation: This type of phrasing generally lends itself to more honest answers. 100.

A team of psychologists is studying changes in attitudes toward nuclear disarmament after a TV movie about nuclear holocaust. It is most likely that they are conducting a/an: a. case study. b. observational study. c. experiment. d. test. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 45Type: AppliedAnswer: d Explanation: Tests can be used to measure attitudes both before and after viewing the movie. 101. Professor Turner wants to know if physiological changes occur when people watch violent movies. The most appropriate method to study this would be: a. case study. b. naturalistic observation. c. survey. d. aboratory observation. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 44Type: AppliedAnswer: d Explanation: Laboratory observation would be the most efficient method to use in this situation. 102. Professor Tearlach gives her new test of psychological aptitude to her psychology students at the start of the year. At the end of the year, she finds out that those students who did poorly on her test averaged an “A” in her courses. A shortcoming of the test is that it lacks: a. criterion validity. b. reliability. c. a representative sample. d. double-blind procedures. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts

Page(s): 46Type: AppliedAnswer: a Explanation: In this example, criterion validity is clearly lacking since the test does not predict performance. 103. Professor Flummox gives her new test of psychological aptitude to her psychology students at the start of the year. At the end of the year, she finds out that those students who received excellent scores on her test averaged only a “C” in her courses. A shortcoming of the test is that it lacks: a. criterion validity. b. reliability. c. a representative sample. d. double-blind procedures. Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts

Page(s): 46Type: AppliedAnswer: a Explanation: In this example, criterion validity is clearly lacking since the test does not predict performance. 104. A case study would be the most appropriate method to investigate which of these topics? a. The ways in which the games of boys differ from the games of girls b. The development of a male baby raised as a female after a surgical error destroyed his penis c. The math skills of students in Japan as compared to those of U. S. students d. Physiological changes that occur when people watch violent movies Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts

Page(s): 42Type: AppliedAnswer: b Explanation: Case studies are most useful in unusual or rare cases. 105. A naturalistic observation would be the most appropriate method to investigate which of these topics? a. The ways in which the games of boys differ from the games of girls b. The development of a male baby raised as a female after a surgical error destroyed his penis c. The math skills of students in Japan as compared to those of U. S. students d. Physiological changes that occur when people watch violent movies Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts

Page(s): 43Type: AppliedAnswer: a Explanation: Naturalistic observation, which observes and describes behavior in a natural setting, would be most useful for determining the types of games that boys and girls engage in. 106. A laboratory observation would be the most appropriate method to investigate which of these topics? a. The ways in which the games of boys differ from the games of girls b. The development of a male baby raised as a female after a surgical error destroyed his penis c. The math skills of students in Japan as compared to those of U. S. students d.

Physiological changes that occur when people watch violent movies Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 44Type: Conceptual Answer: d Explanation: Because of the need for specialized equipment to measure physiological changes, laboratory observation would be most efficient. 107. A test would be the most appropriate method to investigate which of these topics? a. The ways in which the games of boys differ from the games of girls b. The development of a male baby raised as a female after a surgical error destroyed his penis c. The math skills of students in Korea as compared to those of U.

S. students d. Physiological changes that occur when people watch violent movies Section: Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts Page(s): 44-45Type: Conceptual Answer: c Explanation: Tests are most appropriate for measuring characteristics of large groups of people. 108. Over a period of 55 years, a British woman sniffed large amounts of cocaine, which she obtained legally under British regulations for the treatment of addicts. She appeared to show no negative effects, other than drug dependence. What does this case tell us about the dangers/safety of cocaine? a.

Not much b. It is safe when legally regulated. c. It is dangerous because it causes dependence. d. It