# Name organize and summarize research data. b. allow

### Name organize and summarize research data. b. allow

Name __________________________________________________________ Chapter 2 – Quick Quiz 1 1.

A(n) _______________ is an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena. a. theoryc. operational definition b. hypothesisd. experiment 2. An ideal scientist should: a.

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not express skepticism of new ideas. c. not support falsifiable theories. b. rely on scientific intuition.

d. be willing to make “risky predictions. ” 3. An advantage of naturalistic observation is that: a. it shows whether two or more variables are related. b. firm conclusions about cause and effect can be drawn.

. it is often useful in the first stages of a research program. d. it provides a large amount of information on large numbers of people. 4. An advantage of correlation is that: a.

it shows whether two or more variables are related. b. firm conclusions about cause and effect can be drawn. c. it is often useful in the first stages of a research program. d. it provides a large amount of information on large numbers of people.

5. Which of the following methods would be most appropriate to study the effects of alcohol consumption on problem-solving ability? a. Correlationc.

Case study b. Experimentsd. Naturalistic observation . The variable manipulated by the researcher in an experiment is the: a. control variable. c.

dependent variable. b. independent variable. d.

experimental variable. 7. The purpose of a double-blind study is: a. to eliminate experimenter effects. c. to test the effects of a placebo.

b. to increase experimental effects. d.

to determine the visual ability of newborn infants. 8. Descriptive statistics: a.

organize and summarize research data. b. allow determination of statistical significance.

c. allow researchers to draw inferences about their results. d. show how likely it is that a study’s results occurred merely by chance. . Meta-analysis is used to: a. determine statistical significance.

b. combine results from several studies. c. determine the probability of chance affecting the results.

d. maintain ethical standards in research. 10. APA ethical standards require researchers to: a.

avoid double-blind studies. c. limit the use of volunteers as subjects.

b. avoid the use of deception. d.

obtain informed consent from subjects. Chapter 2 – Quick Quiz 1 Answer Key 1. aExplanation: This is the definition of a theory. (Page 37, Factual) 2. dExplanation: Scientists should be willing to make “risky predictions.

” All the ther choices are the opposite of ideal characteristics of scientists. (Pages 37-38, Conceptual) 3. cExplanation: Naturalistic observation is important early in the research process to generate hypotheses, but it does not test hypotheses. (Page 56, Conceptual) 4. aExplanation: Correlation is a technique used to measure the strength and direction of a relationship between two or more variables.

(Page 56, Conceptual) 5. bExplanation: Since this example is looking for a cause-and-effect relationship, experiment is the only appropriate method. (Page 61, Applied) 6. bExplanation: This is the definition of an independent variable. Page 52, Factual) 7.

aExplanation: Double-blind studies are used to eliminate possible bias and experimenter effects. (Page 55, Factual) 8. aExplanation: Descriptive statistics organize and summarize results, while inferential statistics help to determine whether results are significant. (Page 57, Factual) 9. bExplanation: Meta-analysis is a statistical technique for combining the results of multiple studies. (Page 62, Factual) 10. dExplanation: APA ethical guidelines require the use of informed consent to protect research subjects.

(Page 63, Factual) Name __________________________________________________________Chapter 2 – Quick Quiz 2 1. A(n) _______________ is a statement that attempts to predict or to account for a set of phenomena. a. theoryc.

operational definition b. hypothesisd. experiment 2.

An ideal scientist should: a. not express skepticism of new ideas. c. make sure theories are falsifiable. b.

rely on scientific intuition. d. not make “risky predictions. ” 3.

An advantage of case studies is that: a. they can confirm hypotheses. b. general behavioral principles can be derived from them. c. they can help determine cause and effect. d.

they provide in-depth information about unusual cases. 4.Which of the following methods would be most appropriate to study maternal behavior in chimpanzees? a. Correlationc.

Case study b. Experimentsd. Naturalistic observation 5. An advantage of an experiment is that: a. it shows whether two or more variables are related. b.

firm conclusions about cause and effect can be drawn. c. it is often useful in the first stages of a research program. d. it provides a large amount of information on large numbers of people. 6.

An advantage of a survey is that: a. it shows whether two or more variables are related. b.

firm conclusions about cause and effect can be drawn. c. t is often useful in the first stages of a research program. d. it provides a large amount of information on large numbers of people.

7. In a double-blind experiment: a. neither the subjects in the experimental group nor the subjects in the control group know the experimental hypothesis.

b. neither the subjects in the experimental group nor the subjects in the control group know which group they are in. c. neither the subjects nor the researcher know which subjects are in which group. d. neither the subjects in the experimental group nor the subjects in the control group know or can see the experimenter.

8.Statistical significance means that: a. results are meaningful. c. results are unlikely to be due to chance. b. results are important.

d. results are typical. 9.

Cross-sectional studies allow one to determine the: a. statistical significance of results. c. experimenter effects. b.

effect size. d. generational differences. 10. Which of the following is NOT a reason psychologists study animals? a. To discover practical applicationsc.

To avoid use of deception b. To improve human welfared. To clarify theoretical questions Chapter 2 – Quick Quiz 2 Answer Key 1. bExplanation: This is the definition of a hypothesis. (Page 37, Factual) 2. Explanation: A scientist should make sure theories are falsifiable.

All the other choices are the opposite of ideal characteristics of scientists. (Pages 37-38, Conceptual) 3. dExplanation: Case studies provide in-depth information about an individual case and generate hypotheses, but they cannot be used to confirm hypotheses or determine cause and effect. (Page 56, Conceptual) 4. dExplanation: In this case, naturalistic observation would be most appropriate because the researcher wants to know about the natural behaviors of chimpanzees. (Page 43, Applied) 5. bExplanation: The primary advantage of an experiment is that it can be used to etermine cause and effect.

(Page 51, Conceptual) 6. dExplanation: Surveys can provide a lot of information about attitudes, beliefs, opinions, and behaviors of large groups of people. (Pages 46-47, Conceptual) 7. cExplanation: Double-blind experiments are conducted to eliminate experimenter effects by keeping both the subjects and the researcher “blind” to which group a particular subject is in. (Page 55, Factual) 8. cExplanation: Tests of statistical significance are used to determine the likelihood that a particular set of results are due to chance factors.

(Page 59, Factual) 9. Explanation: Cross-sectional studies are useful in studying generational differences, whereas longitudinal studies are more useful in studying changes in a person over a period of time. (Page 60, Conceptual) 10.

cExplanation: Psychologists should use caution in experiments with humans that involve deception, but they do not need to avoid deception. The other choices are all reasons that psychologists study animals. (Page 64, Conceptual) Multiple Choice Questions 1. Research methods are important for all of the following reasons EXCEPT: a.

they allow researchers to separate reliable information from unfounded claims. . they can help a person make a wiser decision between alternatives. c. they provide the means for false claims to be verified. d. they are the basic foundation for psychology and other sciences.

Section: Chapter Introduction Page(s): 37Type: ConceptualAnswer: c Explanation: Research methods provide the means for false claims to be found out for what they are. All other choices are accurate. 2. When psychologists learned that hopeful parents of autistic children were being drawn to a program of “facilitated communication”: a. they carefully analyzed the testimonials about the therapy before accepting it.

b. hey conducted experiments involving autistic children and their facilitators. c. they conducted a survey of all the facilitators working with autistic children. d. they argued that it was not ethical to use this technique with children.

Section: Chapter Introduction Page(s): 35Type: FactualAnswer: b Explanation: The research involving autistic children and their facilitators demonstrated that the claims concerning “facilitated communication” were false. 3. Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons why research methods matter so much to psychologists? a.

These methods allow psychologists to separate truth from unfounded belief. . These methods allow psychologists to gain respect from the “hard” sciences. c. These methods allow psychologists to sort out conflicting views. d. These methods allow psychologists to correct false ideas that might cause people harm.

Section: Chapter Introduction Page(s): 36Type: ConceptualAnswer: b Explanation: While use of research methods may result in increased respect from the “hard” sciences, this is not the reason they are used. They are used because psychology is a science and, as such, its data must be based on empirical evidence. 4. When the authors refer to psychologists as scientists, they mean that: a. sychologists work with complicated computers and laboratory equipment. b.

psychologists rely upon sophisticated brain-imaging machines. c. psychologists base their work on scientific attitudes and procedures. d.