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“Between January 1933 and August 1934 the Nazis achieved a political revolution in Germany Do you agree with this” In this essay I will be discussing whether the Nazi party was able to create a political revolution between 1933 and 1934. The term “political revolution” is an upheaval in which the government is replaced, or the form of government altered.
In January 1933 Hitler was appointed chancellor; this was the first step for him to create a revolution within Germany and in Politics.In some ways the Nazi party was able to create a Political revolution, he was able to turn a democracy into a dictatorship; in 1932 Hitler won 32% of the votes across Germany however one year on he had 92% of the electorate on his side. Some may say that this was a fixed election or majorly bias but nevertheless “It was a significant move on the road towards dictatorship” Frank McDonough.This would be seen to be a major political revolution if the Nazis were able to form a dictatorship among the German people, In the November 1932 elections the SPD with 18% and the Communists with 12% still held a decent proportion of votes, however one year later with the Nazis vote rising it could show an increased view towards a strong leader due to the depression caused by the 1929 wall street crash.
With Hitler starting to pass certain acts in the Reichstag he was able to eliminate his competition making it increasingly easier to create a Dictatorship.In June 1933 Hitler had banned the SPD being the Nazis main rivals and by July 1933 all the parties in the Reichstag had disbanded, not only splitting up parties he also on the 14th July 1933 passed a law against the formation of new parties. This may be clear indications of a very large upheaval within politics in Germany at the time but people may argue it was already like that, this links to my next point on Hitler taking advantage of an already failed system.On the other hand, the political revolution may be distinguished due to the fact that he may have taken control of a failing political system, with their being a total of 4 chancellors in the space of 3 years the Weimar republic may had already started to create a change before Hitler was even appointed.
With Hindenburg able to appoint leaders without question from the Reichstag with the likes of Kurt Von Schleicher you may argue that the political side of Germany was ready to be taken into a dictatorship meaning they did not achieve a political revolution.Hitler however had agreed that the Weimar were trying to revolutionise Germany but that was not how he was going to approach the political side, “He formally declared an end to the revolution and demanded that “the stream of revolution must be guided into the safe channel of evolution” Geoff Layton. Although this may be a contradiction to the passing of the enabling at, this leads on to my next point of how they were able to achieve a revolution with the use of the Enabling Act when passed on the 23rd March 1933.In 1933 Hitler was able to pass the Enabling Act, granting the authority to enact laws without the participation of the Reichstag. This gave Hitler plenary powers in the Reichstag making him now able to make controversial decisions without question, the “Enabling Act was used to dismiss supposed enemies of the state, meaning enemies of the Nazis” Richard Overy.Being able to have a virtual dictatorship within the Reichstag could prove that the Nazis were able to create a successful political revolution after the breakdown of the Weimar Republic, after complete democracy of proportional representation in the Reichstag, Hitler was now almost invincible for the next four years with the Enabling Act by his side, my next point refers to the night of the long knives and how that proves that the Nazis were unable to perform a political revolution.
Between 30th June and 2nd July in 1934 the Nazis carried out a regime to carry out a series of political murders, called “The Night of the Long Knives”.This was most famous for the death of “Ernst Rohm who called for a genuine National Socialist Revolution” Geoff Layton, however Hitler states he wanted the 2nd revolution, this may explain that Hitler was not the first to create a political revolution as the Weimar Republic had already done it before him. With The Night of the Long Knives, Hitler contradicted himself by saying he would never turn to a violent revolution, however he did use violence and had to remove his enemies just to deter the threat of an uprising.
With this fear Hitler may have been seen not to have created a Political Revolution due to the amount of people he had to do so. I conclude, I believe that the Nazis were able to gain a political revolution, I think this due to the highly effective passing of the Enabling Act, this revolutionised Germans politics allowing Hitler to become a certified Dictator of Germany. With a majority of 92% in the elections there is no doubt that the Nazis were able to create a political revolution dismantling the SPD and the Communists at the same time.