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In life, most people have to go to work every day to pay bills, buy desirables, and in many cases to take care of others dependent on them. Each person’s pay check motivates them to do their job. However, is each person feeling happy or appreciated and working to their fullest potential? Every workplace needs to get the most out of each individual person working for that paycheck in order to make the organization better as a whole. To obtain this, there are managers and sometimes several levels of managers to lead the workplace as we know it.
There have been several behavioral theories studied to understand how to be effective in improving performance in the work place. These theories are better described as management theories. One theory in particular, which we will discuss further, is Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory. This theory focuses on motivation. Motivation is the key and will be achieved if an employee feels that their hard work and efforts will lead to a job well done, which will then lead to an outcome rewarding the employee.The theory is that the level of effort and motivation is based on the product of these three key factors: expectancy, instrumentality, and valence. (site) Expectancy suggests that the efforts of work will result in a performance goal.
So, the employee in a given situation must believe that the harder efforts they put forth, the better performance will be achieved as a result. This involves having belief in the organization and managers. It seems this employee and manager relationship should have a good foundation of trust and appreciation for the expectancy and motivation to be evident.
The next factor is called instrumentality. The employee should also believe that the better performance achieved will lead to a reward for the associated outcome. Finally, the last key is called valence, which is the value of this reward to the employee. A manager should understand that the reward offered for the performance must be worth it for the employee and suit the employee’s needs in order for motivation to be present. It is clear to see that all three factors are needed to achieve the highest level of motivation from an employee.This theory can be tested in many different “real life” cases.
We will now look at one scenario and apply it to the Expectancy Theory. There is a new production process that being implemented at an audio products company. There are employees that are not putting any effort into mastering the new process, thus, not being productive to their highest potential. These employees believe it requires more work than they are able to do. Then there are employees who do master the new process and they do not feel it is worth the extra effort.The pay is the same, the bonuses are small after taxes, and the overtime pay is worth more than the bonuses. The supervisor must act quick to avoid unhappy employees, more loss of production, and in turn loss of profits for the audio company.
First, we must bring everyone to the level where they can all master the new process. The supervisor should offer some help and let everyone know that understanding the machine will help with productivity and not make it harder. The company must ensure the employees that they are capable of learning and once they learn the new way, it will be easier.After all, that is why they got the new process in the first place-to help the employees reach their goals. This will lay a solid foundation for the employee and supervisor relationship.
The supervisor can offer time off/early leave to those who master the skill in a given day. Also, the company will need to implement a weekly reward system. The most productive employee will recieve a bonus that very next paycheck equal to a few hours of overtime without having to work the overtime.
The reward should be percentage based, based on the performance of the individual’s previous week.This is not a reward for doing better than the people you work with. It’s a reward for outperforming yourself. All of the performances will be a basis for review when it comes time for promotion. The expectancy of the employees will be met through their belief that if they work harder they will in turn produce more.
Second, they will perceive instrumentality when they understand that they will be rewarded for a job well done. Finally, the employee will feel appreciated and they will find the rewards obtainable and valuable.