The human civilization underwent many changes and developments with the passage of time. Early man lived in caves and forests. They lived on the food available in the forests. Science has blessed mankind with all the basic comforts of life. Man started living in cities. Cities became the major centers of live hood. A city has larger population compared to a town and a village. Life is full of activities in a big city. A big city is a centre of all types of education. It is a centre of trade, medical facilities, business and recreation. The population increase during the daytime.

People staying the nearby villages and towns come to the city on different errands. Life in a big city starts early in the morning. Many school buses carrying school children can be seen playing on roads. School children dressed in their uniform can be seen on the roads walking or waiting for buses. Some are seen moving on scooters and in cars. Then a long queue of office-workers can be seen at the bus stops. Some go by their own vehicles and others go by buses or trains. Some people use cycles and auto rickshaws to go to their destination.

People flock to the market to buy vegetables and household goods. With every passing hour, the traffic goes on increasing. The shops and the market places remain crowded till the evening hours. Life in the city has certain charms. There are many places for recreation. There are big parks, hotels and clubs for entertainment. There are discotheques for music lovers and party-goers. In cities educational facilities are available. There are various institutions for education. There are Medical and Engineering Colleges. There are institutes for Law, Fashion Designing, Interior Designing, etc.

In rural, semi-urban areas, people have to travel long distances to reach educational institutions. Medical facilities are available in cities. Whereas in village, hospitals and clients are generally situated outside the village. In some villages, there are no hospitals and doctors and people have to go to the nearby cities of for medical assistance. So are postal services, in cities it is cleared and delivered once or twice a day. I village it may take a long time. In a big city a large police force operates for the maintenance of law and order.

In village Police Stations may be few and far between. Cities have big factories and industrial centers. Thousands of people earn their living from those. Thus, cities offer great employment opportunists. There is a great scope of earning money through business in a city. Even tailors, vendors, washer men and others earn enough money. Those how work hard in cities rise in life. Many cities are places of historical interest. For example, Jaipur is a city of forts. We find the Qutub Minar, the Red Fort, etc. in Delhi. These attract tourists from all over the world.

Tourism adds to the revenue of the respective states. A city is always crowded. Tall buildings and big bungalows take up the space in a city. There is less greenery in the cities compared to towns and villages. The roads are always full of vehicles. The market places are always crowded. A large city has many markets. Each colony is more or self self-contained and residents have not to go far for shopping. In contrast, a village shop stocks only bare essentials. Unlike villages, in cities there are good chances of amusement and recreation, not so in villages.

In cities, there are different types of food outlets, but in village there may be dhabas or tea stalls. In village, sanitation, drainage and water supply may not be up to the desired level. But in cities these facilities are more developed. A city has certain disadvantages, here, everyone remains busy. Neighbors live like strangers. One hardly knows who one’s next door neighbor is. Nuclear families dominate the cities. Most children stay away from their working parents during the day. In this case, infants and small children below four years who are kept at the mercy of minds are the worst suffers.

Everyone finds himself in hurry and worry. One even ignores the align person on the roadside. Industrialization has led to urbanization. But, it has added to the pollution problem. A city is full of smoke, fumes, dirt, dust garbage, gases and foul smell. People living in big cities no longer breathe the fresh air and see any green, open spaces. The deafening noises of vehicles and factories have created chaos everywhere. The migration of rural population to the cities has led to overcrowding. It has also led to the establishment of slum areas.

It would be a good idea to create facilities, inclusive of employment and work, in villages so that migration of cities is stopped. In India the Ministry of Rural Development has taken a number of new initiatives of creation of social and economic infrastructure in rural areas to bridge the rural urban divide. In a big city, there is competition everywhere. One cannot get admission in schools, colleges or other institutions easily. However, the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. Cities provide a lot of employment opportunities. Development takes place faster in cities.

A city broadens the outlook of an individual. It offers scope in many areas. One does not remain idle in a city. Thus, cities add to the economic development of the nation. Karachi is the biggest city in Pakistan and also one of the most thickly populated cities in the world. Its population has increased rapidly and accordingly has given rise to many social problems. People of this metropolis are becoming more and more concerned about solving these serious problems, some of which are discussed below. The ever-increasing rush of heavy traffic on the roads is resulting in heavy loss of human life.

One day or the other, people suffer form accidents due to reckless driving. Some lose their vehicles and some go to the police. This is due to lack of civic sense in the citizens and violation of traffic rules. Traffic jams, road quarrels, untidiness and damage of public property is also a result of this problem. The government has not done any planning to control this situation in the past two decades. In the same manner, the government has never emphasized upon population distribution. As a result, slum areas are rapidly being built, where poor labor lives.

The disordered development of small houses is spoiling the outlook of the city, as well as creating problems of illegal electric connections, water supply and pollution. The authorities have failed to reclaim the locations from these people. The academic career of children in Karachi is unpredictable due to lack of good schools and institutions. The need of recreational institutions, parks and play grounds is also felt at times and most of all joblessness creates problems for poor people. Another problem faced by the citizens of the city is the frequent power breakdowns.

Every other day, K. E. S. C cuts down the electric supply without notice. This becomes a great hurdle for industries and professional that use electric machinery for their work. Disturbance and shortage of water supply is also a cause of discomfort among the citizens. Sometimes, the dirty and unfiltered water becomes a major factor in food poisoning, which usually takes place on festive occasions, when demand of water in the city increases. Any measure to improve the supply of filtered water has also not been adopted by the government.

Problems due to improper drainage system are also becoming a matter of concern among the people. The alarming in crease in the disorderliness of drainage lines is posing serious threats for people, especially in poor areas. Filth and dirt runs down a channel by the footpath and children play over it. We have malaria, cholera and dysentery still destroying our children because such things exist. The attitude of beggars in Karachi is the most irritating problem. They are worthless idlers robbing good-natural people. It has become their regular practice to crowd public spots and cheat people.

The adverse effects of begging problem are noticeable in sum areas. There are too many dirty and ownerless dogs roaming about in the streets of Karachi. They spread many diseases and sometime become a danger by injuring people. Lack of environmental care among people and drivers of public service vehicles is giving rise to pollution problems. Dust fills the air in most of the roads all the time. Improper turned cars fill the atmosphere with deadly smoke at hours of rush, which causes disease among the policemen and common public. The blowing of pressure horns is always there, deafening the ears.

Karachi is also often subjected to terrorist activities. Bomb blasts and firings at public spots are resulting in great loss of human life. The terrorists deserve no less than capital punishment. It is the duty of the police to intensify their investigation to stop such activities. For the well to do class, life in Karachi may be fascinating, but for other citizens it is a center of drawbacks. It is only through the concentrated efforts of each and every person, including the members of law-enforcing and administrative agencies, can we overcome these serious problems of the metropolis.