ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Assalammualaikum w
Bismillahirahmannirahim, Alhamdulillah, praise to Allah SWT for giving us a chance to complete this assignment. For giving us spirit and gave us ideas despite having some difficulties. Alhamdulillah again, finally this assignment has been completed.
First thing first, we want to express our gratitude and thank you to our lecturer, Mr. Hasbullah for supporting and giving us guide for this project. With his support and guide, we get the ideas, comments and extra information.
We would like to thank the members for giving a best cooperation and help in order to make this assignment a success. Thank you for putting so much effort to make this assignment become great and done before the deadline. Never forget, we are all very grateful to our parents for giving us moral support, encouragement and advise us to do our best in this assignment.
Lastly, we also would like to thank to all of people that contribute directly or indirectly in this assignment. We appreciate all of the help they give us.
TABLE OF CONTENT
No. Content Pages
1 Introduction 1 – 2
2 Impact of Government Policy to domestic economy
Improving Urban Public Transport
Improving Rural Basic Infrastructure
Raising Standard of Lower Income
3 – 7
3 Economy concept 8 – 8
4 Charts/diagram/graph 9 – 9
5 Impact of government policy on social, moral or environmental
Improving Student Outcomes
10 – 15
6 Conclusion 16 – 16
7 References 8 Appendices
The Government Transformation Programme (GTP) is introduced by our Former Prime Minister Dato’ Sri Najib Abdul Razak back in April 2009 based on the people’s concerns about several key issues that burden the nation. The objective of this programme is to transform the government to become more effective in delivering services and prioritise citizen of Malaysia and also to bring forward Malaysia towards to create advanced, united and fair society with a high quality of life for all. This programme is parallel to the national mission towards achieving the ‘Vision 2020′ to form a fully developed country. As we all know, our fourth and now is our current Prime Minister Tun Dr Mahathir introduced Vision 2020 in 1990 in order to make Malaysia a fully developed country. Therefore, GTP is one of the courses of action established by Dato’ Sri Najib to achieve Vision 2020.
This entire programme is actually based on the principle of the government’s commitment to “People First, Performance Now” under 1Malaysia concept. In order to achieve the objectives, six National Key Result Area (NKRA) were introduced. There are reducing crime, fighting corruption, improving student’s outcomes, raising living standard of lower income household, improving rural basic infrastructure, and improving urban public transport. These six National Key Result Area is led by six prime minister respectively. Such as Minister of Home Affairs, Minister in the Prime Minister’s Department, in charge of law, Minister of Education, Minister of Woman, Family and community development, Minister of Rural and Regional Development and Minister of Transport.
GTP has been divided into three phases which are called GTP 1.0, GTP 2.0, and GTP 3.0. The first stage of GTP which is GTP 1.0 began in 2010 until 2012 following the identification of the national and ministerial key results areas (NKRAs and MKRAs). The goal of GTP 1.0 is to make the transfiguration and at the same time introducing the changes to the citizen of Malaysia.
Second phase of GTP which is known as GTP 2.0 Enhancing Change. This phase officially begin in 2013 and end in 2015 .The rationale behind this phase is to further develop and improve the GTP 1.0 which means that to enhance the transformation by government. Finally, GTP 3.0: To The Future and Beyond. This phase will operate from 2015 to 2020. In this phase new innovative ideas are established by government which will prioritize the people needs. Moreover, government will also give more importance on economic (PEMANDU).
IMPACT OF GTP TO DOMESTIC ECONOMY
IMPROVING URBAN PUBLIC TRANSPORT
In the mid-1990s, Malaysia invested heavily in public transport infrastructure with three major rail systems completed in the Klang Valley. Those are The Kelana Jaya Line, the Ampang Line and the Monorail system. According to Japan International Co-operation Agency Study (also known as the 1999 Study on Integrated Urban Transport Strategies for Environmental Improvement) , despite these developments , the public transport modal share dropped from 34% in 1985 to 20% in 1997 . In 2008, it fell down to between 10% and 12% simply because the public transport infrastructure cannot cope with the increase of population in the Klang Valley. In 2003, the Government began to restructure the Klang Valley transport industry by consolidating the majority of rail and bus systems under a single company, namely Syarikat Prasarana Negara Berhad (Prasarana). With approximately 60% of the market share, Prasarana is today the largest public transport operator in the Klang Valley.
Most of the citizens use the public transport as their daily transport, particularly in the urban cities. Urban cities can be said as the capital city of each land in Malaysia. It is a necessity of the citizen as most of the citizens used it as a transport for them to travel to another place as some of the public transport users do not use their own vehicle to travel from one position to some other. Some of them do not have their driving license. According to Cambridge Dictionary Online, public transport is a system of vehicles such as buses and trains that run at even times on set itineraries and are employed by the public. Hence, urban public transport is a need for the community living in urban areas.
Under the Government Transformation Programme 2.0, which the focus is on enhancing the bus system, enhancing the rail system, transforming Malaysia’s Taxi System and others. In the element of enhancing the bus system, it includes the efforts on establishing city-bus service within the CBD, reorganizing the stage bus and feed bus network , monitoring bus lanes and stage bus drivers , and implementing the Bus Rapid Transit BRT . Then, on the elements of enhancing the rail system, enhancing the KTM Komuter, extending the Kelana Jaya and Ampang LRT lines and expanding the KL Monotrail capacity. Next, on the element of transforming Malaysia’s Taxi System, there are many ways outlined such as implementing a centralized taxi service system and introduce a new taxi business model.
Next, Malaysia has a world-class urban public transportation system. With a large portion of the population migrating to urban areas and rapid development taking place, there is a dire need to set in place a comprehensive, affordable and comfortable “people-mover” to facilitate travel within towns, in particular Kuala Lumpur. The implementation of such a system would help ease traffic congestion, lead to cleaner air once traffic congestion is reduced and help reduce the city’s population density. The Urban Public Transport or UPT NKRA was conceived to address these aspects of public transportation.
IMPROVING RURAL BASIC INFRASTRUCTURE
Government Transformation Programme is coming out with something that is beneficial for the public. Government Transformation Programme is not only effect on education field but also in economic and public or society. The purpose of this programme is to ensure that public services are achieving the Malaysian needs.
Another plan under the National Key Result Area or NKRA is the one who helps the Government Transformation Programme to be implementing in this country there is Improving Rural Basic Infrastructure. It is a process that improves the economic base and life of people who live in populated areas. Rural Basic Infrastructure are commonly been exploit by land intensive natural resources such as agriculture and forestry.
Malaysia has had a long and successful history of rural development. Through the various Malaysia Plans, the Government has made rural development as an important item on the national agenda. The Rural Basic Infrastructure (RBI) NKRA follows this trend even with one distinction: the delivery of big and quick wins never achieved before in the history of Malaysia. The rollout of development initiatives for roads, electricity, water and housing have been accelerated to bring the fruits of modernization to the less developed areas of the country. The purpose of this program is to ensure that the fruits of the country’s development and prosperity are shared by all.
According to Dato Seri Kong Cho Ha (former Minister of Transport) stated that by improving rural basic infrastructure it will strengthen the country’s public transport system and to boost the ridership percentage. They are satisfied with the achievements although the road is long. They are committed to have more people to use public transport to reduce the traffic jam in the cities.
RAISING LIVING STANDARDS OF LOW-INCOME HOUSEHOLDS
Regardless of Malaysia long-term success in minimize number of poverty in Malaysia, there are still number of households that are categorized as poor and extreme poor. In managing the divide between Malaysia’s economically well-off and the disadvantaged, the raising of living standards of low-income households (LIH) was designated as a NKRA to increase the income of middle class people or as low-income households (LIH). To achieve this, government made some efforts which are standardize the definition of low-income groups. An ordinary definition of poverty will be take on by all ministries and agencies to accelerate coordination in identifying and assisting poverty target groups, despite the many difficulties it encountered, the Lead Ministry for the LIH NKRA – the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development (Kementerian Pembangunan Wanita , Keluarga dan Masyarakat or better known by the acronym KPWKM) – successfully achieved most of its targets .
Secondly, to Implement fast, High-Impact Initiatives Immediately and Lay the Groundwork for Longer-Term Actions. These initiatives will improve immediate welfare as well as build income earning potential to ensure sustainable income. Several visible measures that allowed for rapid effect were identified. These included welfare assistance programmes , housing support and the 1AZAM (Akhiri Zaman Miskin) programme . 1AZAM is a specific initiative that sets out to lift low-income households out of poverty through means of employment, entrepreneurship, agricultural activities and services. The government also provide support to increase home ownership by offering about 44,000 low-cost houses for sale, through Dewan Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur (DBKL) and Jabatan Perumahan Negara (JPN) .
Next, to put enablers in Place to Ensure that our Poverty Eradication Programmes are both Effective and Efficient. To enable the above initiatives to be delivered effectively and efficiently , we will implement structural changes , including creating a unified Social Development Services (SDS) entity to improve coordination of poverty mitigation initiatives , setting up an independent SDS Inspectorate to investigate and prosecute welfare fraud , consolidating all databases containing data of (LIH) into e-Kasih and reducing processing time for disbursement of aid (from the current two months to seven days by 2012) . The e-Kasih database has been designated as the sole database for low-income households and the Implementation Coordination Unit of the Prime Minister’s Department as the sole manager for this database. This will facilitate easier identification, approval and tracking of low-income households.
Dato’ Sri Shahrizat Abdul Jalil former Minister of Women, Family and Community Development claimed that more than 44,000 household in 2010 were taken out of extreme poverty. The number of poor and low-income households needs to be reduced. They may not be able to eradicate poverty in the country, but they were sure with their commitment. The living standards of the poor and low-income households were also raised by them. They will also make sure that no single Malaysian gets left behind.
According to www.thebalance.com, demand is the consumer’s desires and ability to purchase good or service. Nowadays, traffic jam is a common problem that faced by community in our nation. This problem makes peoples stress every single day especially peoples who drives to work. There are many factors that cause traffic jam. Firstly, too many cars for the roadway due to inadequate mass transit options or other reasons. Next, obstacles in the road causing a blockage and merger. Lastly, traffic signals out of sync many times on purpose or occasionally when the computers are malfunctioning.
Not only that, these days air pollution is widespread in Malaysia. The main factor of air pollution is smokes from the vehicle’s exhaust especially vehicles that uses diesel as fuel. The major effect of air pollution to the peoples is it is dangerous to human health. Therefore, through the execution of one of the NKRA which is improving urban public transport, encourage Malaysian citizen to use public transport that provided by the government
Therefore, based on those two explanations, these matters support the economic concept of demand and supply Government Transformation Programme (GTP). Public transport and hybrid electric car are highly demand nowadays. Public transport is demand because peoples hate to drive in traffic jam. Hybrid electric car is demand because vehicles already have now created air pollution by their smoke.
0878840CHARTS / DIAGRAM / GRAPH
IMPACT OF GTO ON SOCIAL / MORAL / ENVIROMENTAL
Nowadays, the amount of crime in our country increase drastically. It will be effects to all people especially in term of their safety. The incidence of crime will give a huge impact on our economic development. Crime can also affect quality of life. Furthermore, crime also affects all people regardless of age, gender, race, religion and wealth. Because of that, the government takes initiatives to reduce crime which is put national security at the highest level through the National Key Result Areas or NKRA Reducing Crime. The Ministry of Home Affairs is the leader of reducing crime program under NKRA, which involve the process of fighting crime, crime pursuing and arrest, trial of offender, rehabilitation and many more. There are 3 parts of reducing crime programs under NKRA which are GTP 1.0 2010-2012, GTP 2.0 2013-2015 and the latest GTP 3.0 (2015-2020).
There are 4 key areas of focus under GTP 1.0. First, reducing reported index crime is composed of 14 categories of serious crimes that occur frequently and serve as the main index to the amount of total crime in Malaysia. The targeted goal of the GTP 1.0 was to achieve a 5% reduction in overall reported index crime annually from 2010 to 2012 but results surpassed the target after reducing index crime by 15% in 2010 and 11% in 2011 and involved in reducing index crime such as motorcycle and car theft case. According to Bernama 2014, the then Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Tun Abdul Razak stated the national crime index has been reduced to 40% within five years of the Government Transformation Programme (GTP). Datuk Seri Najib Tun Abdul Razak also clarified that to ensure a peaceful environment for the citizens in Malaysia.
Secondly, it will raise public confidence by improving justice system. According to Performance Management & Delivery Unit or PEMANDU 2011, one of crucial component in reducing crime is increasing public satisfaction with police performance as the people trust with the police. The improvement involved the satisfactions by the customers which are people who had a services, development of counseling in the police station, implementation of online system police reports and many more. It will comfort people having services or sharing problems about crimes that happen among them.
Street crimes are also the most dangerous cases like snatch theft, robbery and etc . By reducing reported street crimes, the citizens will feels more secured and safe. The target for reducing street crimes in the first year is by 20%. The government achieved the target. Then, the government continuously increases the target year by year. Their goal is to reduce street crime by a further 5.3% in 2012. The Safe City Programme, built on CPTED (Crime Prevention through Environmental Design) principles, is credited for having greatly reduced street crime levels (PEMANDU, 2011).
Dato’ Seri Hishammuddin Bin Tun Hussein Minister former Minister of Home Affairs believed that by reducing crime it will stop affecting all Malaysians regardless gender , status , race or religion . They have to planned an ambitious targets to protect love ones. As the Lead Minister, he responsible to delivering. An effort needed in order to make the targets successful. Although there are good signs at the nationwide level for overall index crime, they have lots of plan to lessen the fear of Malaysia when facing crime. With an open hand, he wants all Malaysians to join with all agencies to fight crime so all of us can live in safer nation.
IMPROVING STUDENT OUTCOMES
The importance of education for all country cannot be denied, especially in today’s modern, knowledge-based economy. Providing educational opportunities for people is a pre-requisite for optimizing our human capital in today’s competitive world. Investing in education is akin to safeguarding Malaysia’s future. The Education NKRA was established to support this aspiration by addressing the various issues and challenges faced in pre-school, primary and secondary education. The Lead Ministry, the Ministry of Education places an emphasis on providing opportunities as well as nurturing quality and excellence on the principles of merit. By focusing on both rural and urban constituents to ensure all Malaysian children have the right to quality education, they wanted to ensure the greatest reach possible.
There are programs to improve the productivity of the students. The first program under NKRA by government is increasing preschool enrolment rates. The importance is to give the children a head start once in primacy school. Pre-school and early childhood education improves cognitive development leading to stronger learning outcomes. It is also important to ensuring an equal head start for all children. The implementation of this program will help them to gain experience before starting with the primary school because the pre-school students are the students who have the early education. However, in GTP 1.0 government has set a goal to raise the per-school enrolment rate of children while the GTP 2.0 will get to see, the initiative to improve pre-schools enhanced and it will also look to improving the quality of pre-schools by introducing minimum standards.
The Government Transformation plan also focused on ensuring basic literacy and numeracy skills by the implementation of LINUS. The LINUS programme was set up to screen literacy and numeracy skill levels as students passed through the first three years of primary school , has been significant results . The LINUS program also provided remedial help for students identified to be falling behind. The success of the LINUS program in the GTP 1.0 showed the enormous impact early literacy and numeracy education can have on ensuring that all school children have a basic command of Bahasa Malaysia and Mathematics.
The government also has introduced High-performing school. This is to encourage and motivate educators in choosing best performing schools by giving them reward. High-performing school HPS was identified through a stringent assessment that looked at the school’s academic and non-academic achievement, strength of alumni and success at international competitions and linkages. The recognize of high performing school will enable them to receive a grant of RM700, 000 which as well additional financial and curricular autonomies. The recognized schools will be more accountable towards the excellent achievement in order to maintain the award as well as it received the additional autonomy. The HPS aims to create world class schools each with their own unique character. These 20 HPS comprise 14 secondary schools and 6 primary schools, which are located in various states across the country . It will be chosen based on their area of specialty. NKRA also introduce the incentives towards new deals for Principals and Head Teachers. An incentive culture where they will be rewarded in terms of financial and non-financial. The proposed reward to the top 2% of head teachers and principals is expected to result in improvements in student outcomes. This is the main objective of implementing this incentive as well. An incentive culture where Head Teachers or Principals and teachers are rewarded for performances will spur them to innovate, improve and deliver even better performance towards their career.
To create a better future for the nation, the education standard needs to be raised. They decided to stretch a better level to make sure every child gets the opportunity to get an affordable and quality education. That was their commitment to the people in raising Malaysia name to be recognized globally.
( Tan Sri Dato’ Haji Muhyiddin bin Mohd Yassin ,former Minister of Education)
Nowadays, we always heard about the public often questioned the government integrity in handling their money. The government should know on how to fully utilize all the taxes that customers had paid to them. Political institution is the most dangerous in corruption problems which this will be discovered by public regarding the abuse of power by the politicians. In order to fight corruption not just in political institution but to other aspects, the government ready to take initiatives and think out the box to overcome the problems. With the Government Transformation Programme GTP, there is National Key Result Areas or NKRA .
The government takes an action where the corruption trials have to complete within one year period because according to The Star 2014, it was reported in 2009 that the number of corruption cases was 700 cases. It was also reported that the trials taking too much time. It takes 8 and a half to 15 years to complete it. This is because the conviction rate will be decreases if they took too much time to complete the case because the witnesses might be forgotten what already happened and some of them already passed away before they can investigate it. Time duration that takes too long can weaken the investigation as well. All this happened before the implementation of Government Transformation Programme and this lead to fighting corruption as one of government activities. The most important is people still do not want to believe that government can handle those cases that had been piled up for years now.
One of the effort from the government in order to control the number of backlog cases in Malaysia is ‘ Name and Shame ‘ Database. Through this method, Malaysia Anti-Corruption Commission MACC will list all the names, identity card and pictures those who have convicted in the corruption cases. The revelation of those convectors will be published to public. This has been practiced since the implementation of Government Transformation Programme GTP. This will exposed to the public those who involved in corruption and this will give lessons to the public as well. This shows that the government is in serious mode where fighting the corruption will always be the main aim to them.
It was found that corruption was the second biggest problem in Malaysia after economy when fighting was introduced as one of the main key areas.
Moreover, the government has come up with new programme which is auditor general online dashboard or AG’s Online Dashboard. This initiative will set up an online dashboard that monitors the actions taken on issues raised by the AG report. The aim here is to promote transparency and to induce pressure on the relevant authorities to act an outstanding issue. The reason that lead to the establishment of AG’s online dashboard is because there was no action taken by the government in order on issues raised by AG report but people still doubt whether the government able to take serious action on solving the cases . Therefore, Malaysian citizens take this as very serious issues. Malaysian citizens questioned the government what they have done in order to solve the cases or issues.
The members of parliament will be given training in order to ensure their effectiveness in handling public’s money because they need to hold responsibilities for the public. This will help them to be not accused in the corruption cases. 42% of Malaysian citizens believe that politicians are involved in the corruption cases. The purpose of the training is to create awareness and improve MP’s or the members of parliament understanding the corruption related to offences, penalties, impact and effect.
According to former Minister in the Prime Minister’s Department, Dato’ Seri Mohamed Nazri Bin Abdul Aziz, fighting corruption displaying a dedication towards eliminating corruption and graft in the nation under the Fighting Corruption NKRA. Recently, Global Corruption Barometer aftermath reflects this; he is confident they make a good decision. They will not be satisfied and will boost efforts to achieve the targets and objectives in 2011.
In conclusion, GTP brings more positive impact than negative impact to the citizen of Malaysia overall. GTP is capable to ensure government to undergo transformation that will directly transform Malaysians and realize vision 2020. GTP has allowed government to prioritize the six National Key Security Area (NKRA) which are important to the people. For example the number of crime in Malaysia decreased dramatically as years go on, which is stated by our former Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Tun Abdul Razak the national crime index has been reduced to 40% within five years of implementation of Government Transformation Programme (GTP). This was because of the unlimited effort that put by the government in order to minimize the number of crime that widespread in Malaysia over the past year. We hope that this programme makes Malaysia as one of the successful and well-known country in the world and can be a good inspiration to other undeveloped country. Also, it will bring good changes in our country.