1.0 INTRODUCTION OF URBAN CRIME IN LEMBAH KLANG
Klang Valley is an area which is centred in Kuala Lumpur and includes its adjoining cities and towns in the state of Selangor. Urbanization can be defined as the process of city formation and city growth and it happens as the reason people move into urban to seek economic opportunities and to improve their living qualities (Ambe, 2003). Furthermore, according to Soh (2012), definition of crime is crime is not being plagued by a singular factor anywhere it occurred. Criminal behaviours are motivated by various circumstances of potential criminals. However, many scholars have identified some key factors that persuaded or influenced criminal behaviours of potential offenders. Factors of crime include poverty, unemployment, and failure of leadership as well as weaknesses in law enforcement.
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2.0 FACTORS OF URBAN CRIME IN LEMBAH KLANG
There are four factors of urban crime in Lembah Klang which are Increasing population and migration, Poverty, Unemployment and Influx of iilegal worker. The first factor of urban crime in Lembah Klang is Increasing population and migration. As we can see, the number of population and migration in Malaysia is increasing from day to day. The present global urban population is greater than the entire global population of 1960 and it is growing rapidly. As we can see, urban areas have become engines for economic growth and centres of diversity and change. Due to the increasing of population it is quite difficult to plan and manage the expansion of cities because it may cause unpredictable crime which it happens when there are, high population densities, and rapid changes in social environments and poor living conditions. Based on the statement by ACP Amar Singh Sidhu in his paper “The Rise of Crime in Malaysia” which has been presented during the Conference he has highlighted that due to the increase of population it has shown that the states of Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Penang and Johor has displayed higher index crime per 100,000 that the mean national crime index of 612 cases except for Selangor and Johor. It has been proven that when there are less of population in the country itself it could avoid and curb the cases of crime compare to the increase of population.
Second factor of urban crime is Poverty. Crime usually happens due to the poverty issues as has been stated by many authorities in the field of criminal they have stated that poverty is one of the major cause of crime. Urban poor happens due to certain issues such as the high cost of living, financial difficulties, unstable jobs, lack of capital , limited educational opportunities, inadequate housing that has led most of people who are living in urban area involved in crime (Clark, 1982). Poverty also has caused most homeless people suffer from mental problem and being alcoholic that lead them to involve in crime activities until there are many victims suffered due to their criminal behaviours.
Third factor of urban crime in Lembah Klang is Unemployment. Unemployment is one of the factor that can cause urban crime, this is because when there are a lot of people are being unemployed they will tend to involve in crime such as robbery, snatch thief and many more as long as they are able to get money (Becker,1968). This can be proven from the study by Nor-ina Kanyo and Norizan Hj Md Nor which is in their paper that has been presented at Persidangan Geografi 2007 where they have come out with the statistics regarding the unemployment rate where during the economy crisis in 1997, unemployment rates increases from 2.5% in 1996 to 2.6% in 1997 and 3.2% in 1998 (Malaysia Economy Report, 1999). Besides that, according to department of statistics Malaysia, it has shown that the unemployment rate in Lembah Klang has increased from 2.9% in 2014 to 3.9% in 2015.Unemployment factor has proven that number of crime in Lembah Klang has increased drastically because there are a lot of people are jobless and they are seeking for money and due to the financial constraints they face they have involved themselves in crime activities.
Last factor of urban crime in Lembah Klang is Influx of illegal worker. Influx of illegal worker also has caused to the crime in the urban areas especially in Lembah Klang. As we can see in Malaysia, the number of labour that migrate from other countries such as Indonesia, Bangladesh, and Vietnam are based on contract labour migrants. Most of them are low skilled worker because they have a low qualification to apply for a professional jobs in Malaysia and due to that they need to do involved in contract work in specific sectors. The number of migrant workers in Malaysia is between 800,000 and 1.2 million and the illegal workers are about 500,000. According to statistics in 2002, crimes committed by migrants has increased three- fold from 1,333 in 1992 to 3,113 in 2002 and the Indonesian .The presence of foreigners in Malaysia country has shown that 30,000 foreigners are in Malaysia prison that effect to crimes because they are involving in crime activities such as drug cases, robbery and many more until people that living in Malaysia feel insecure with their presence and existence in the country (Amar Singh, 2005).
3.0 IMPACTS OF URBAN CRIME
The first impact of urban crime in Lembah Klang is Affect tourism and business. Crime may affect tourism it is because when tourist from other countries or foreigners found out that the country that they are tend to visit is high crime rate thus it could affect tourism and business and it can also give impact towards the economy of that cities because when there are lack of tourists to visit their country it is hard for the country to gain its revenue when the number of tourists is decreasing from day to day.
Second impact of urban crime in Lembah Klang is Affect economic perspective. For the economic perspective crime in urban area it can contribute a lot of consequences in economic perspective. As we can see, when there are a lot of crime cases happen in Malaysia, there will be a lot of victims suffering due to the crime cases. Besides that, due to the urban crime there are a lot of victim that loss cash or property and also they feel threaten due to the serious crime that usually happens in urban areas. Furthermore, crime also contribute to the damaged property, increased property insurance claims, increased health and life , higher workers compensation premiums, private legal costs increase and readjusting the lifestyle and involve costs to the victim when they need to move house and due to the problems it could give huge impact towards the economic (Soh, 2012).
Next impact of urban crime is Emotional and physical effects. Urban crime can cause emotional and physical effects if the victims is suffering mentally and psychologically due to the crime cases such as snatch theft, gang robbery with firearms, rape and aggravated assault, house breaking and violent crime (Soh, 2012). When the victim endure and experience with the crime cases it can affect their health as well as they will experience acute stress and depression and also their quality of life will drop when they become the victim of crime. For example, when the victim of snatch theft experience that they will automatically trauma to walk alone and feel insecure because of the bad experience they went through.
Last impact of urban crime is Social problems. Urban crime normally occurs is because of the social problem that arise among people who do not receive a proper education thus it will certainly affect them to continue with a lot of social problems and they will live in a crime cycle and will create a lot of problem to the society. Example of social problems that usually happens in urban area is prostitution, drug cases, bullying, murder cases, property theft and many more. Furthermore, according to Shamsuddin and Hussin (2013) the number of crime rates reported in 2009 is 588 murder cases and 3177 rape cases and concluded that the crime rate in Malaysia has worsened more than 300% since 1991.The crimes record has displayed in the distribution across states in Malaysia, where the highest number of violent crime cases was recorded in Selangor (91,962), followed by Kuala Lumpur (59,050) and Johor (49,105). On other hand the least violent crime cases were recorded in Perlis (1240), Terengganu (3869), and Kelantan (6821) (Amin, 2014). Due to the social problems that involve with crime, it can lead to health problem such as those who involved with drug and prostitution it can lead to AIDS infection and various health problem.
4.0 SOLUTIONS FOR URBAN CRIME IN LEMBAH KLANG (GOVERNMENT ACTIONS)
The first solution for urban crime in Lembah Klang in the aspect of government action is The Government Responds (NKRA). The concerns from Government to reduce urban crime cases can be seen through National Key Result Area (NKRA). Malaysian Government in September 2009 established a Crime Lab bringing together agencies from across the criminal justice system and from wider government such as Ministry of Home Affairs, RELA, PDRM, Attorney General Chambers, Federal Courts, National Anti-Drug Agency and many more. This effort bring in over 30 representatives from relevant ministries and agencies as well as the private sector and NGO’s work together to strategize the effort in combating crime in Malaysia (GTP Roadmap,2010). This government strategy and solution through National Key Result Area (NKRA) can be seen through GTP Roadmap where in reducing crime is employing stakeouts for motorcycle and car theft and house breaks-in. Stakeouts methods has been proven successfully when government has successfully improve security features for property to protect it from crime and a special lock known as U-locks which it is a technology from Japan and also government has able to eliminate illegal workers and improve the availability and usage of mobile devices and make it compatible between PDRM and JPJ is one of the successful strategy in reducing crime.
Second solution for urban crime in Lembah Klang is Safe city programme. In preventing crime a Safe City Programme or the SCP was launched in collaboration with local authorities and other bodies to deter crime. A successful implementation of safe city programme requires close collaboration between Police, State and Local Authorities in order to combat crime cases and police force as well should be accountable to ensure that law enforcement is effectively administered. In safe city programme there are few measures has been taken in order to ensure the city is safe such as providing lighting, safety mirrors, safety alarms and CCTV. One of the successful implementation in safe city program that has been taken by government in combating crime can be seen through the installation of CCTV. Close circuit television (CCTV) has proven to people that it is one of the best solution that could help in reducing crime this is because by having CCTV it could monitor the activities of crime as well as police could easily detect the person that involved in crime (GTP Roadmap,2010).
Third solution in combating crime in Lembah Klang is through Law and enforcement. By having law and enforcement people will not easily involve with crime because they know the punishment that will be taken against them. The effort must be well co-ordinate among the enforcement agencies to make sure the crime issues can be reduced. The law enforcement is an on-going process and must been done continuously. For example, by having law and enforcement every of the crime cases happen will be investigate by police and the person who involved in crime action will be taken against them by putting them in jail or fine them according to the cases they involved. The law enforcement is an on-going process and must been done continuously and the key aspects of crime prevention are the awareness among the general public.
Last solution in combating crime in Lembah Klang is through Omnipresence Programme. Omnipresence programme is one of the programme that attempts to prevent street crime. In this programme it is not relying on police force but must a take the form of Public-Private-Police partnership approach in order to reduce the number of crime. As such, other agencies within the Ministry of Home Affairs have been mobilised to create an omnipresence of troops to patrol crime areas and supplement PDRM officers. For example, “Feet on Street” initiative which currently involves RELA and JPAM troops. In 2010, there are 4,979 members of RELA and JPAM on the ground trained as Police Volunteer Reserve (PVR) to assist PDRM in combating crime. By implementing this it has shown that the number of crime cases able to be reduced from time to time because people are aware that other than police force there are another agency is performing their duty in combating crime (GTP Roadmap, 2010).
In conclusion, the best approach to crime management is primarily prevention strategy rather than waging war against criminal activities. Therefore, government, security and law enforcement agencies need to be more proactive in preventing crime. Among the strategies should also include the holistic strategy beyond police manpower and equipment, by eliminating the root causes of crimes such as reducing the aggregate level of unemployment and poverty among other things. When Governments and other stake holders initiated and implement economic and developmental policies for building sound economy that will generate employments, no doubt, it naturally reduces poverty level to the barest minimum as well as crimes. Moreover, if all the measures in preventing crime are addressed effectively it can ensure youths are not easily involve in crime because they are aware with the existing law and actions that will be taken against them when they involved in crime.