-150495-652145 College of Leadership and Governance School of Policy Studies Department of Policy Analysis ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY

-150495-652145 College of Leadership and Governance School of Policy Studies Department of Policy Analysis ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY

-150495-652145
College of Leadership and Governance
School of Policy Studies
Department of Policy Analysis
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY:
THE CASE OF SEBETA TOWN, ETHIOPIA
By: Milkessa Bayana (ECSU1600650)
A Thesis Submitted to the Policy Studies of the Ethiopian Civil Service University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Policy Analysis
June 2018
Addis Ababa
-548640-144145
College of Leadership and Governance
School of Policy Studies
Department of Policy Analysis
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY:
THE CASE OF SEBETA TOWN, ETHIOPIA
By: Milkessa Bayana (ECSU1600650)
A Thesis Submitted to the Policy Studies of the Ethiopian Civil Service University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Policy Analysis
Advisor: Anandi Dantas (PhD)
June 2018
Addis Ababa
DeclarationI, the undersigned affirm that the thesis entitled “Environmental Impact of Textile Industry: The Case of Sebeta Town, Ethiopia” is a bona fide record of independent work done by me and has not been presented in any other university and College. All sources and materials used in this research are duly acknowledged.

Milkessa Bayana ____________ _______________
Name of Candidate Signature: Date:
The thesis entitled “Environmental Impact of Textile Industry: The Case of Sebeta Town, Ethiopia” is a record of Bona-fide work carried out by Milkessa Bayana and has been submitted for final examination with my approval as an advisor. Therefore, I recommend that the student has fulfilled the requirements and hence hereby can submit the thesis to the Academic Unit.
Anandi Dantas (PhD) ________________ ________________
Name of Advisor Signature Date
ApprovalWe, the undersigned certify that we have and here by recommendation to the Ethiopian Civil Service University to accept the thesis submitted by Milkessa Bayana entitled “Environmental Impact of Textile Industry: the Case of Sebeta Town, Ethiopia” for the fulfillment of the requirement for the award of a Masters degree in Policy Analysis.

Examiners:
____________________ ______________ ______________
Chairman Signature Date
__________________ ____________ _____________
Internal examiner Signature Date
___________________ _____________ _____________
External examiner Signature Date
Head of Policy Studies School:
_______________________________ ____________
Director Signature Date
AcknowledgmentAbove all, I would like to thank God for his immeasurable and incredible mercy. Without his grace, this achievement would not have been thought of.
I would like to express my sincere appreciation and gratitude to my advisor Anandi Dantas (PhD) for her consistent and sincere supervision and guidance in completing this thesis. My compliment also goes to all instructors and staff of policy studies school for their kind support at all times which has given me invaluable opportunity and guidance in my quest for knowledge and achievement.
It is also my pleasure to acknowledge with much appreciation Sebeta Town Environment, Forest and Climate Change Authority and Sebeta Town Industry Development and Expansion Office for their cooperation in providing data all necessary data which played significant role for the successful accomplishment of this thesis.
My heartfelt gratitude also goes to my wife Hawi Girma for her consistent encouragement and support which have given me a momentum for better achievement than otherwise I could have done.

Table of Contents Title Page
TOC o “1-3” h z u Declaration PAGEREF _Toc516180026 h iApproval PAGEREF _Toc516180027 h iiAcknowledgment PAGEREF _Toc516180028 h iiiTable of Contents PAGEREF _Toc516180029 h ivList of Tables PAGEREF _Toc516180030 h viList of Figures PAGEREF _Toc516180031 h viiList of Pictures PAGEREF _Toc516180032 h viiiList of Annexes PAGEREF _Toc516180033 h xAcronyms PAGEREF _Toc516180034 h xiAbstract PAGEREF _Toc516180035 h xiiCHAPTER ONE PAGEREF _Toc516180036 h 1INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc516180037 h 11.1.Background of the Study PAGEREF _Toc516180038 h 11.2.Description of the Study Area PAGEREF _Toc516180039 h 21.3.Statement of the Problem and Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc516180040 h 41.4.Objectives of the Study PAGEREF _Toc516180041 h 61.5.Scope of the Study PAGEREF _Toc516180042 h 71.6.Significance of the Study PAGEREF _Toc516180043 h 71.7.Limitation of the Research PAGEREF _Toc516180044 h 71.8.Operational Definitions PAGEREF _Toc516180045 h 81.9.Organization of the Paper PAGEREF _Toc516180046 h 8CHAPTER TWO PAGEREF _Toc516180047 h 92.LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc516180048 h 92.1.Introduction PAGEREF _Toc516180049 h 92.2.Theoretical Review PAGEREF _Toc516180050 h 92.2.1.Industrialization Nexus Environmental Protection PAGEREF _Toc516180051 h 92.2.2.Textile Industry: A Strategy for Economic Growth PAGEREF _Toc516180052 h 122.2.3.Impact of Textile Industry on Environment PAGEREF _Toc516180053 h 132.2.4.Ethiopia’s Industrialization Strategy PAGEREF _Toc516180054 h 162.2.5.Impacts of Textile Industry on Environment in Ethiopia PAGEREF _Toc516180055 h 172.2.6.Green Climate Resilient Strategy of Ethiopia PAGEREF _Toc516180056 h 182.3.Empirical Review PAGEREF _Toc516180057 h 192.3.1.Textile Industry and Environmental Protection in Developing Countries PAGEREF _Toc516180058 h 192.3.2.Effects of Textile Industry on Environment in Selected Urban Areas of Ethiopia PAGEREF _Toc516180059 h 212.4.Conceptual Framework of the Study PAGEREF _Toc516180060 h 222.5.Chapter Summary PAGEREF _Toc516180061 h 24CHAPTER THREE PAGEREF _Toc516180062 h 253.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc516180063 h 253.1.Research Type and Approach PAGEREF _Toc516180064 h 253.2.Data Type and Sources PAGEREF _Toc516180065 h 253.3.Method of Data Collection PAGEREF _Toc516180066 h 263.4.Sampling Design PAGEREF _Toc516180067 h 273.5.Method of Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc516180068 h 283.6.Ethical Consideration PAGEREF _Toc516180069 h 29UNIT FOUR PAGEREF _Toc516180070 h 304.RESULTS AND DISCUSSION PAGEREF _Toc516180071 h 304.1.Introduction PAGEREF _Toc516180072 h 304.2.Demographic Characteristics of Study Population PAGEREF _Toc516180073 h 304.3.Effects of Industrial Effluents on Axaballa River PAGEREF _Toc516180074 h 344.3.1.Description of the Wastewater Parameters PAGEREF _Toc516180075 h 344.3.2.Descriptive Analysis of Effluents Discharged From Factories PAGEREF _Toc516180076 h 364.3.3.Implication of Wastewater Parameters on Environment PAGEREF _Toc516180077 h 404.4.Factors Determining Axaballa River Pollution PAGEREF _Toc516180078 h 414.4.1.Descriptive Statistics PAGEREF _Toc516180079 h 414.4.2.Econometric Results and Discussion PAGEREF _Toc516180080 h 444.5.Impacts of Axaballa River Pollution PAGEREF _Toc516180081 h 524.6.State of Environmental Protection and its Implication PAGEREF _Toc516180082 h 564.7.Industrial Investment and Environmental Sustainability PAGEREF _Toc516180083 h 574.8.Review of Industrial Development Strategy With Reference to Environment PAGEREF _Toc516180084 h 584.9.Chapter Summary PAGEREF _Toc516180085 h 60CHAPTER 5 PAGEREF _Toc516180086 h 615.CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS PAGEREF _Toc516180087 h 615.1.Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc516180088 h 615.2.Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc516180089 h 62REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc516180090 h xii
List of Tables TOC h z c “Table” Table 1: Sampling design framework PAGEREF _Toc516178692 h 27Table 2: Selected Demographic Characteristics of Respondents PAGEREF _Toc516178693 h 31Table 3: Pollutants of water discharged from factories versus standard limit PAGEREF _Toc516178694 h 36Table 4: Range and Mean and of Wastewater Parameters PAGEREF _Toc516178695 h 39Table 5: Description of variables PAGEREF _Toc516178696 h 42Table 6: Test of association between Axaballa River pollution and other variables PAGEREF _Toc516178697 h 43Table 7: Regression result: Binary logistic regression model. PAGEREF _Toc516178698 h 45
List of Figures TOC h z c “Figure” Figure 1: Environmental Kuznets’s Curve PAGEREF _Toc516180103 h 11Figure 2: Conceptual framework of the study PAGEREF _Toc516180104 h 23Figure 3: Gender distribution of the respondents PAGEREF _Toc516180105 h 32Figure 4: Age distribution of the respondents PAGEREF _Toc516180106 h 32Figure 5: Distribution of the respondents’ Educational level PAGEREF _Toc516180107 h 33Figure 6: Proportion of different respondents of questionnaire in number PAGEREF _Toc516180108 h 33Figure 7: Proportion of different respondents’ of interview in number PAGEREF _Toc516180109 h 34Figure 8: Amount of BOD and COD in wastewater from factories PAGEREF _Toc516180110 h 37Figure 9: Amount of P and N in wastewater from factories PAGEREF _Toc516180111 h 38Figure 10: Amount of TSS and FOG in wastewater from factories PAGEREF _Toc516180112 h 38Figure 11: Mean values of selected wastewater parameters from factories PAGEREF _Toc516180113 h 40
List of Pictures TOC h z c “Picture” Picture 1: Map of Sebeta Town PAGEREF _Toc516180138 h 3Picture 2: Partial view of extremely contaminated Axaballa River PAGEREF _Toc516180139 h 48Picture 3: Axaball River with easily detectable dying chemicals discharged to it PAGEREF _Toc516180140 h 52Picture 5: Livestock drinking contaminated Axaballa River PAGEREF _Toc516180141 h 56
List of Annexes TOC h z c “Annex” Annex I: Data Collection Instruments PAGEREF _Toc516180159 h xxAnnex II: Activity Plan PAGEREF _Toc516180160 h xxvAnnex III: Budget Breakdown PAGEREF _Toc516180161 h xxviAnnex IV: Method of Pyhsico-Chemical test PAGEREF _Toc516180162 h xxvii
AcronymsAACCSAAddis Ababa Chamber of Commerce and Sectoral Associations
BODBiological Oxygen Demand
CSACentral Statistical Agency
CODChemical Oxygen Demand
CRGEClimate Resilient Green Economy
ECEuropean Commission
EPAEnvironmental Protection Authority
ETIDIEthiopian Textile Industry Development Institute
EUEuropean Union
FDREFederal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
FOGFat, Oil and Gas
GDPGrowth Domestic Product
GIZGerman Agency for International Cooperation
GTPFirst Growth and Transformation Plan
TSSTotal Suspended Solids
UNUnited Nations
UNDPUnited Nation Development Program
WHOWorld Health Organization
USAUnited States of America
AbstractThe issue of priority for industrialization or environmental protection is seemingly a prominent debate evolved over years. Particularly, textile industry is known to release a large amount of hazardous pollutants to the environment. This research was conducted to analyze the impact of textile industry on environment in Sebeta town. Four textile factories were selected to analyze their effect on Axaballa River, a river to which the factories discharge wastes. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression model were applied to analyze effect of wastewater parameters on the River and factors determining pollution of the river using data collected from different government institutions and local communities through questionnaires and recorded data from government institutions. Qualitative analysis was also applied to explain results collected through interview and direct field observation and to complement the quantitative analysis. The research revealed that effluents from factories polluted Axaballa River. Poor waste treatment, weak compliance to environmental standards, poor monitoring and inspection, size and production level of factories are found to have significant effect on pollution of the River. Loss of agricultural productivity, public and livestock health problems was identified as major impacts of the river pollution on local communities. Besides, there was lack of proper integration in the implementation of industrial development strategy and environmental policy which let industrial expansion at the expense of the environment. Hence, proper application of industrial waste management as well as harmonization of industrial development strategy and environmental policy should get due consideration.

Keywords: Textile industry, Environment, effluents, Axaballa River, Wastewater parameters, Logistic regression.
CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTIONBackground of the StudyThere are various views on industrialization for economic growth nexus environmental protection for sustainable development. Industrialization is taken to be the main strategy pursued by many countries to ensure sound economic growth. It is taken as more resilient and has a potential to help achieve a variety of social objectives such as employment, poverty eradication, gender equality, better labor standards, and greater access to education and healthcare (EC, 2006). Among various categories of industry, textile industry is perceived as a very important sector for growth, especially in terms of trade, GDP and employment (Keane and Velde, 2008).

On the other hand, there is an equally valued view that environmental protection is and should be an integral part of economic development strategy and failure to do so will curtail the sustainability of the development in the long run. Taking this view into account, countries devise and apply mechanisms to mitigate the environmental challenges of industry. However, it is invariably seen that most countries give priority for economic growth and embark on industrialization with unbalanced consideration for environmental protection. As a result, it is found to be one of the leading drivers of environmental problem that our world is facing today. EC (2006) acknowledges that current patterns of industrial development are unsustainable and its processes play a major role in the degradation of global environment. Particularly, Textile industry is condemned as one of the world’s worst industry in terms of pollution (Toprak and Anis 2017)
Currently, many developing countries are also considering industrialization as a typical means of structural transformation and economic growth (Ronge and Nyangito, 2000). According to Keane and Velde (2008), textile industry is among the manufacturing industries taken by many low-income countries as an opportunity for export diversification and expansion of manufactured exports. Being one of the developing countries of the world, Ethiopia has aspired to achieve rapid economic growth and reach lower-middle income by 2025. To this end, the country has set a vision to make the country a leader in light manufacturing industry in Africa and one of the leaders in overall manufacturing globally (GTP II, 2016). As a strategy of ensuring the vision, textile industry is the major manufacturing industry given due attention to foster the development drive of the country.
The country has also considered environmental sustainability in its constitution and national policies as a key requirement for lasting success and sustainable development. Ensuring environmental safety in the course of rapid and sustainable economic growth and building climate resilient green economy are identified as a priority area of the GTP II (2016) of the country. But studies have witnessed that, regardless of resilient green economy strategy, manufacturing industry is causing serious environmental problems. For example, Daley (2015) has affirmed industrial emissions are significantly causing health problems and ecological degradation in the country. Of different manufacturing industries, textile industry is highly contributing to the environmental pollution of the country (Abrehet, Shewit ; Belayneh, 2015, Hamere ; Eyasu, 2017, Diriba, Stellmacher, Feyera, Passel ; Azadi, 2016 and Yared, 2009).

Description of the Study AreaSebeta town is among the hotspots of manufacturing industry in Ethiopia and embraced many factories of different kinds. It is a capital of Sebeta Awas woreda in Oromia special zone surrounding Finfinnee of Oromia Regional State. The town was founded in 1933 and located at 24 km west of Addis Ababa along the Jimma road. It lies between 80 52` to 80 59` N latitude and 380 34` to 380 41` E longitude and has slightly north-south sloping topography, rounded in the north by a chain of mountains which include Mogle and Wochacha and to the north-east by Furi. According to Sebeta Town Land Development and Management (2017), the total area of the town is 98.28 square kilometers. According to population projection of Ethiopia, the total population of the town in 2014 was 69,116 of which 33,840 were males and 35,276 were females (CSA, 2014). Since 2003, the town has a separate municipal function headed by the mayor based on proclamation No.65/2003 of Oromia National Regional State that provided for the establishment of urban local governments in the region. Currently the town is structured into nine kebeles which is the lowest administrative level of the town.

-1422402006602651760302895Picture SEQ Picture * ARABIC 1: Map of Sebeta TownSource: Sebeta Town Land Development and Management Agency (2018)
According to Sebeta town industry development and expansion office (2017), there are about 423 large scale manufacturing industries at the town, broadly categorized as textile industry, chemical industry and agro industry. However, according to the few studies dealing in this area, in spite of its contribution to employment creation and country’s economic growth, the industries in the town are causing serious environmental problems. Government institutions in charge of environment and industrial development of the town, local community and empirical studies indicate that industries in the town are highly affecting the environment. Particularly, rivers in the town are highly polluted due to effluents from factories which are primarily attributed to textile industry. However; enough studies were not conducted in the town with regard to effect of textile industry on environment. Hence, this study critically examined environmental effect of textile industry in the town particularly focusing on Axaballa River pollution and its impact on local communities.Statement of the Problem and Research QuestionsIndustry is a crucial sector to bring about economic growth and transformation. Particularly, textile sector is an important part of the manufacturing industry and world’s second-biggest economic activity in terms of intensity of trade (EC, 2013). On the other hand, Brundtland Commission in 1987 stressed that environmental protection is an integral part of sustainable development due to the fact that economic and social well-being cannot be ensured without taking in to account environmental protection (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987).

However, environmental deterioration due to industrialization has become a serious problem affecting health and stable development of almost every country and is becoming a serious cause of concern for human survival. According to UNDP (2017), environmental pollution is a serious global problem affecting many places around the world. WHO (2016) also affirmed environmental pollution as deadliest problem and leading risk factor for human death. It indicated that the aggregate cost of premature deaths due to pollution was more than US$5 trillion worldwide in 2013. It further stressed environmental pollution is among prominent cause for human suffering and economic development recession. According to Toprak and Anis (2017), textile industry is one of the world’s biggest criminal in environmental pollution.
Environmental problems are becoming a serious pressing issue more in developing countries than the developed ones (Kelsey, 2017). According to the author, this problem is mainly linked to weak technological development and environmental protection mechanism in those countries. He claims that the relationship between pollution and productivity remains poorly understood, hence the magnitudes and mechanisms associated with the tradeoffs between economic growth and environmental quality has emerged as a key challenge for the developing world. WHO (2016) indicated the fatality of environmental pollution in sub Saharan countries. According to this organization, about 90 percent of the populations in low and middle-income countries are exposed to dangerous pollution due to emissions from industry and transport, among others.
Ethiopia is also facing serious problems of environmental pollution in spite of climate resilient green economy strategy of the country. EPA’s Ethiopian National Report (2012) for United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) identified pollution in industrial zones, rivers and urban areas as environmental challenges of the country. Daley (2015) also affirmed industrial emissions as one of the primary pollutants which cause significant public health problem as well as for multiple ecological effects.
A study by Hamere and Eyasu (2017) has shown that rivers in and around Addis Ababa are contaminated due to different industrial wastes. They have indicated that depositing solid and liquid wastes and dangerous substances in rivers and riversides has been a critical problem in the city. According to their finding, as much as 90% of industry located along the river banks of Akaki and its tributaries do not have any kind of treatment plant and discharge wastes untreated into the environment. They further attested that even if others have some degree of on-site treatment plant, they discharge effluents into adjacent streams. They have identified textile industry among the major pollutants of rivers in and around Addis Ababa city.
Sebeta, an immediate adjacent town to Addis Ababa and home to huge number of manufacturing industries is among areas facing serious environmental problems. A case study by Hunegnaw (2015) on Haffede tannery in Sebeta town witnessed that, the tannery is causing perilous environmental pollutions in the town. According to the study, due to untreated waste discharge from the tannery, the nearby communities and their cattle are facing critical problems as they use unclean and poisoned water discharged from the tannery. Preliminary data from Sebeta town Environment, Forest and Climate change Authority, industry development and expansion office and residents of the town confirmed that the town was under serious environmental problems due to emissions from manufacturing industry. According to the sources, textile industry is a major environmental pollution factor in the town and many of these factories do not properly apply environmental protection standards.
It indicates that this problem results in multifaceted consequences if not properly handled. So, intensive investigation of environmental impact of textile industry in such industrial center needs to be undertaken to offset the imbalanced consideration and implementation between the two strategies. However, there was no comprehensive study which has ever addressed the impact of textile industry on environment in Sebeta town. Therefore, this research focused on critically analyzing the environmental impacts of textile industry in the town.

The study was conducted to answer main key questions stated hereunder:
What are the effects of effluents from textile industry on Axaballa River?
What are the main factors determining pollution of Axaballa River with regard to textile industry?
What are the impacts of Axaballa River pollution on local community due to textile factories?
Does industrial development strategy positively or negatively associated with environmental sustainability in the town?
Objectives of the StudyGeneral objective of the StudyThe overall objective of this study was to analyze environmental impacts of textile industry in Sebeta town.
Specific Objectives of the StudyThe study was conducted towards achieving the following specific objectives
To analyze the effects of textile industry’s effluents on Axaballa River.

To analyze factors determining pollution of Axaballa River with regard to textile industry
To examine the impacts of Axaballa River pollution on local community
To examine the state of industrial development strategy with reference to environmental sustainability.
Scope of the StudyThematically, the study was limited to analyzing large scale textile industry with regard to Axaballa River pollution. Spatially, the study was undertaken exclusively in Sebeta town. This is due to the fact that, many textile factories are concentrated in the town.

Significance of the StudyFor Ethiopia, textile industry is important to transform the country’s economy and expand employment opportunity among others. It is also vital for the country to make sure environmental protection as it is a base for the livelihood of the citizens and difficult to replenish once it is exhausted. Hence, this study will help to clearly understand the cost to the environment entailed by textile industry and indicate proper strategies to ensure sustainable development of textile industry complaint to the environment at Sebeta town. The study can also be used as a reference for establishment of textile industries in other areas of the country in environmentally friendly manner. Moreover, the study can be used as a bench mark for those who are eager to carry out further investigations in this study area.
Limitation of the ResearchThe major limitation to conduct this research was unavailability of respondents in due time and place during data collection. To avoid this limitation, and ensure the reliability and validity of the research, consistent follow up of the respondent as well as substitution of respondents who could not be accessed after many trials was undertaken.
Operational DefinitionsUnless the context requires otherwise in the research, the following are some of the operational definitions used in this research.
Textile Industry: Manufacturing textile (material made from fibers, yarn or thread) and garment (any item of cloth) products in Sebeta town.

Large Scale Factory: Factory which has greater than 20 million birr capital according data from Sebeta Town Industry Development and Expansion Office in 2018.
Environment: Is an aggregate of natural resources like water, soil, air and associated living organisms.
Effluents: Wastewater containing various pollutant chemicals or matters discharged from textile factories to Axaballa River
Wastewater parameters: Are chemical or physical pollutants or matters in water discharged from textile factories to Axaballa River.
Environmental standards: Refers to environmental policy and Environmental Pollution Control Proclamation No. 300/2002 of Ethiopia. Organization of the PaperThe paper is organized in to five chapters. The first chapter outlines the introduction part which comprises background of the study, statement of the problem and research questions, research objectives, scope of the study, limitation of the study, significance of the study and operational definition. The second chapter of the study dealt with literature review in order to substantiate the research and help readers clearly understand the theoretical and conceptual frame work of the study. The third chapter focuses on research methodology which includes research type, approach and methods which were used to collect and analyze data. The fourth chapter focuses on detailed data analysis and discussion of the research findings. Finally, conclusion and recommendations is addressed under chapter five. CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEWIntroduction
In this chapter, review of various theoretical views on industrialization and environmental protection, impacts of textile industry on environment, Ethiopia’s industrial and green economy strategies as well as environmental impact of textile industry on environment in the country were discussed. Besides, different empirical studies on textile industry and environment in Ethiopia and other selected developing countries as well as conceptual framework of the study were addressed.
Theoretical ReviewIndustrialization Nexus Environmental ProtectionIndustrialization is perceived as an instrument of transformation from traditional standard of living toward advancement. According to Kreis (2011), industrialization was started in England after the middle of the 18th century and has revolutionized the production capacity of England, Europe and United States in the late 18th and early 19th century. He attested that, industrial revolution has improved standard of living of the society and served as a key to the origin of modern Western society. According to the author, cotton industry is the oldest manufacturing industry. According to the New World Encyclopedia, industrial revolution was a major shift of technological, socioeconomic, and cultural conditions that occurred in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century in some western countries. It indicated that industrialization led to the creation of the factory and rise of the modern cities.
According to Gylych, Iheoma and Abdurahman (2016), industrialization plays an important role in the accelerated economic growth and long-run poverty reduction. The authors attested that industry has had played a crucial role in economic transformation and development of many countries. They also argued the importance of industry for developing countries. They attested that the releasing of labor force from the agricultural sector to the industrial sector increases the marginal product of labor in the agricultural sector and increases the overall economy of the society.
However, industrialization has been found to be one of the main threats to the environment. As a result, the issue of environmental protection has become a critical global issue. Various theories and growth models argue industrialization as a decisive instrument for development taking into account its economic significance while others refute the acceleration of industrialization taking in to account its adverse effect on environment. The debate between the two views has evolved over the years and appears to be non stopping. According to the Lewis Model of development and structural transformation; processes of industrialization, urbanization and modernization are important drivers of growth and living standards, because productivity and living standards differ significantly between rural and urban areas, between informal and formal sectors (Mookherjee, 2014). According to Mookherjee, this model presented that agricultural production is limited by scarcity of land where as industry is not limited by any such fixed factor and productivity raise in industry far more than in agriculture. The author argued that development goes hand-in-hand with industrialization and urbanization (Ibid). The author stated that, industrial sector is a main impetus for growth and development. Environmental Kuznets Curve, one of the dominant theories in economic development and environment, also linked environmental degradation to stages of economic growth. According to this curve, environmental degradation initially increases in pre industrial economy reaches at its peak and turning point and decreases in post industrial economy (Pettinger, 2017).The hypothesis appears to be pro-industrialization which compromises environmental protection, particularly at early stage of growth.
1465228600Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1: Environmental Kuznets’s Curve

Source: Pettinger,T. (2017).

Various scholars have come up with different views arguing for and against Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis. Yandle, B, Vijayaraghavan, M. and Bhattarai, M. (2002) Yandle (2000) argues that, Environmental Kuznets Curve is the best way to approximate the link between environment and industrialization. According to the author, some environmental degradation is inevitable during the take-off process of industrialization, when a certain level of per capita income is reached; economic growth helps to undo the damage done in earlier years. According to this view, environmental degradation is compromised and industrialization is supported since constructed capital can substitute for natural capital which has been destroyed by industrialization. However, there are various views and empirical evidences that indicate that advanced and industrialized countries take a major role of environmental degradation. According to Pettinger (2017), USA has CO2 emissions of 17.564 tons per capita and Ethiopia has by comparison 0.075 tones per capita.

McLamb (2013) also claimed that today’s changing weather patterns; global warming, environmental degradation; food production challenges and the state of the human condition are all attributed directly to the industrial revolution. According to the author, industrial revolution has provided ecological challenges and with its advent, the use of new non renewable resources and increase in energy consumption makes continued impact on the environment beyond the capacity of industrial and technological developments to keep up with the impacts. The author’s view resonate that, environmental degradation is too difficult to reverse and its depletion cannot be revitalized by industrial and technological development. IUCN Nepal (Undated) also affirmed the threatening impact of industrialization on environment and demonstrated that rapid industrial development posed detrimental environmental pollution that threatens the very existence of Lumbini, the renowned World Heritage Site in Nepal.
Porter Hypothesis as presented by Kriechel ; Ziesemer (2009) also rejected the views of industrialization and rapid economic growth at expense of environment and argued that environmental protection is justified for both environmental and economic reasons. According to this model, any technological innovation should minimize the adverse environmental impact of production
In sum, theories, hypothesis and models which take industrialization as an icon of development fall short of the underpinning values of the environment. They have inclined towards economic transformation through industrialization with no or little concern for the environment. As a result, these views have encountered various criticisms from different scholars particularly of environmental and ecological experts. The ecological imperative of environment rejects the notion that constructed (or human) capital can perfectly substitute for lost natural capital and argue that running down the natural environment and replacing it with technological substitutes is not consistent with sustainable development.
Textile Industry: A Strategy for Economic GrowthVarious data witnessed that textile industry is one of the oldest industry and played a significant role in the industrial revolution. EC (2013) affirmed that textile industry is the world’s oldest branch of consumer goods manufacturing industry. According to the New World Encyclopedia, cotton- spinning was the first mechanized manufacturing industry even before industrialization led to the rise of factory. According to Oates (2010), relative to other labor intensive industries, textile industry is characterized by few economies of scale and an ideal sector particularly for labor surplus economy.
Keane & Velde (2008) argued that textiles industries are important in economic and social terms, in the short-run by providing incomes, jobs, especially for women, and foreign currency receipts and in the long run by providing countries the opportunity for sustained economic development.. They indicated that textile industry is the typical manufacturing sector especially for developing countries in increasing GDP diversification and expansion of manufactured exports as well as to exploit their labor cost advantages. According to the authors, apart from economic significance, textile industry creates better employment opportunities and wage especially for women and appreciated in alleviating poverty and achieving development goals.
However, studies also indicated that the importance of textile industry to countries development is not without adverse effect especially on environment if proper measure or offsetting mechanisms are not properly executed. EC (2013) affirmed that, the environmental impacts of textiles industry have been a growing global concern. According to Keane & Velde (2008), the potential of the textile industry to contribute to long-run growth and development depends not only on the attributes of the investors, but also on the quality and effectiveness of government policies and institutions in developing sustainable and environmentally friendly industry. Therefore, to make the benefit of textile industry consequential, environmental protection should be given due consideration.
Impact of Textile Industry on EnvironmentDespite its economic significance, textile industry is one of the most dominant sectors posing critical environment threat. According to Przybylek (2017), textiles are made all over the world in an industry that has great economic impact, but adds a lot of pressure to natural resources. According to the author, the farms that grow raw materials used to make fabrics require a lot of water, use lots of pesticides and herbicides that then end up in the environment. He also attested that cotton, the primary raw material for textile industry is one of the most pesticide-intensive crops in the world. According to (EC, 2013) textile is coming fourth in the ranking of product category which causes the greatest environmental impact, just after food and drinks, transport and housing. Rogers (2017) argued that textile factories are second only to agriculture in the amount of pollution they create and the voluminous amounts of water they use. He also affirmed that textile industry uses high amount of chemicals which pose serious environmental pollutions. The major environmental pollution caused by textile industry can be seen as air pollution, water pollution and solid waste pollution. Particularly, with increasing trend of industrialization and poor control system of industrial activities, environmental pollution due to textile industry become a serious issue particularly in developing countries (Yang and Li, 2017)
Air PollutionAir pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate or biological material that cause harm to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment and the atmosphere (Tiwari, Meenaxi and Babel, Sudha, 2013). According to these authors, the textile industry is plagued by air pollution problems and smoke and odor arising in the process of textile production. Rogers (2017) also indicated that textiles move through the production process of numerous life-threatening pollutants which contaminate the air.

Rogers and Tiwari, Meenaxi and Babel, Sudha (2013) stated that textile industry involves many chemical types that are environmentally grave pollutants and organic emissions that highly contribute to air pollution. EC (2013) also indicated that textile industry involves emission of greenhouse gas (GHG) from processing fossil fuels into synthetic fibers and emissions associated with fertilizer generation and irrigation systems related to production of fiber crops like cotton. According to Khan and Malik (2014), the chemical pollutants generated from textile industry adversely pollute the environment causes harm to human being particularly on children even before birth.
It is possible to draw from these sources that textile industry plays a significant role in the emission of green house gasses and other pollutant substances which are the principal causes of global warming our planet is suffering from. Moreover, if proper environmental protection interventions are not employed, these toxic pollutants from textile industry would put our environment in a critical situation.
Water PollutionTextile industry releases toxic chemicals which can pollute waterways. According to Fiber2fashion.com and Quraishi (2013), about 20 percent of all fresh water pollution is caused by textile treatment and dyeing. Similarly, Khan and Malik (2014) attested that textile industry is causing a major problem of water pollution in the world. Many chemicals used in the textile industry and discharged to waterways cause severe environmental and health problems (Rogers, Fiber2fashion.com and Khan and Malik, 2014). According to Khan and Malik (2014), the effluent from textile industry drastically decreases oxygen concentration which is detrimental to the water ecosystem. Heavy metals present in textile industry effluent are not biodegradable; hence, they are accumulated in primary organs in the body over time, begin to fester and leads to various symptoms of diseases (Ibid). Water pollution due to effluents from textile factories also adversely affects agricultural productivity and public health (Roy, Banna, Mamun and Farukh, 2013, EU 2013)
These data clearly indicate the severity of water pollution that arises from textile industry especially if properly untreated textile effluents are discharged into the water bodies. They also make clear that, the long term adverse impact of water pollution on natural ecosystem and human health if cautious measures are not put in place.
Solid-Waste PollutionTextile manufacturing operations create large amounts of toxic and nontoxic solid waste; fibers, hemp, yarn and fabrics are solid wastes that are created directly from production lines (Rogers 2017). According to the author, common toxic-solid waste pollutants include the storage drums and plastic containers used to hold hazardous chemicals and solvents. He also identified that leftover powdered dyes and dye containers, scrap metal, oily cloths and wastewater sludge contaminate the soil and sources if not properly disposed of or released untreated. Fiber2fashion.com also affirmed that pollutants from textile industry pollutes land and makes them useless and barren in the long run. According to these sources, the textile manufacturing units release hazardous waste into the nearby land and release the highest amount of harmful pesticides and fertilizers. EU (2013) also confirmed that the effluents and hydrocarbons discharged from textile processing which are extremely toxic and hazardous, lead to health problems for workers and for communities living adjacent to textile production units.
The above data indicate that the textile industry is also one of the most pollutant industries of the world and contribute to dwindling productivity of land if proper textile waste management or environmental protection is not executed.
Ethiopia’s Industrialization Strategy”Build an industrial sector with the highest manufacturing capability in Africa, one which is diversified, globally competitive, environmentally-friendly, and capable of significantly improving the living standards of the Ethiopian people by the year 2025″ (Ahmed Abtew, Minister of Industry, FDRE, 2014).

Ethiopia has been a country dominated by agriculture. However, the country has taken industry as a key economic sector and designed a strategy to transform the country’s economy from agriculture led to industry led (GTP II, 2016). The Industrial Development Strategy of Ethiopia (2002) has given priority for industries which are primarily involved in the production of manufactured goods. It has given emphasis on export-led industrialization and expansion of labor intensive industry to ensure the expansion and development of industrial sector in the country. It has also envisioned the expansion of industrial zones in major cities and towns of the country. The strategy has identified textile industry as the basic subsector of the industrial development strategy intended to enhance the growth and productivity of the sector. According to Ahmed (2014), textile is among the prioritized sectors of industry
To achieve the industrial development strategy, the country has been striving to develop competitive industrial sector taking manufacturing as an important sector which plays a significant role in the development process of the country (GTP II, 2015). According to AACCSA and DAB DRT (2014), Ethiopia’s manufacturing sector is among the key productive sectors of the economy which can spur economic growth and development because of its immense potential for wealth creation, employment generation and poverty alleviation. They indicated that the manufacturing sector makes an important contribution to the Ethiopian economy and employs about 173 thousand people in 2012/2013. They also pointed out that the sector’s contribution to the GDP in 2012/2013 is 4.8%. According to these sources, the contribution of Ethiopia’s manufacturing sector in the country’s income and job generation has been improved and is expected to generate more jobs and revenue given the strategic expansion of industrial parks in the country.

Impacts of Textile Industry on Environment in EthiopiaAccording to International Journal of Analytical Chemistry (2015), the textile factory in Ethiopia dates back to 1939 in relation with Italian colonialism era, when the first industrial textile factory was established in Dire-Dawa in the name of Dire-Dawa textile mill. According to the journal, since 2010, the Ethiopian government has put effort to improve, support, and expand the textile industry, for serving the domestic market and export to global market.

However, studies indicate that textile industry is one of the major sources of environmental pollution of the country. According to Tessema and Adane (2015), Ethiopia, particularly urban centers, which are the areas of industrial expansion, are experiencing socio-economic and environmental problems related to industries. According to the authors, one of the various industries that are causing such environmental and social impacts is the textile industry. They identified dyeing and finishing processes in textile factories as the main cause of water pollution.

According to Tsegay, Haddush and Asayehgn (2013), though the number of textile factories attempt to use different tools and management techniques to minimize or eliminate wastes from their production processes, there are substantial wastes in the production process from the start of production to delivery in the textile factories of the country which are discharged to water bodies without proper treatment. ETIDI also confirmed many textile factories do not operate according to the proclamation on Environmental Pollution Control No. 300/2002 and Solid Waste Management No. 513/2007 of the country Meron (2012). She also stated that many factories release wastes into Akaki River which flows through Addis Ababa to Sebeta Hawas woreda, instead of putting in place the appropriate effluent disposal mechanisms.
With respect to its expansion trends, the textile industry in Ethiopia did not equally take in to account environmental issue to ensure the development of the industry compliant to the environment. This problem urges for proper and systematic design and application of environmental protection regulations along with persistent surveillance of its implementation.
Green Climate Resilient Strategy of EthiopiaFormulating and effectively implementing environmental protection strategies is essential to achieve sustainable and environmentally responsible development. To this end, the Government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia has initiated the Climate-Resilient Green Economy (CRGE) to protect the country from the adverse effects of climate change and to build a green economy (FDRECRGE, 2011). The strategy is envisioned to ensure climate-resilient green economy while achieving ambitious growth targets of the country.
To ensure the objective of the strategy, new institutional structures have been put in place during the GTP I period (2011/12-2014/15). Key among these is the establishment of the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change to oversee and coordinate the implementation of the CRGE strategy (GTP II, 2016). According to GTP II (2016), significant achievements and opportunities have been witnessed during the implementation of climate resilient green economy strategy in the first GTP implementation. However, the plan also indicated that limited implementation capacity as well as inadequate adaptation and promotion of green technology packages were identified as the main challenges in the implementation of the strategy.
During the course of GTP II (2015/16-2019/20) implementation, building climate resilient green economy has also been given a prior attention. According to the plan, mitigation of environmental pollutions which arise due to industrial expansion, removal of dangerous chemicals, clearing of polluted areas are among the main target planned to be undertaken during the plan period. The strategy is also owed to create clean and green environment and make sure that citizens are living in clean and healthy environment. It also identified modern and energy-efficient technologies in transport, industry, and buildings as a pillar of ensuring CRGE. However, studies indicate that industrial activities become growing threats to green strategy of the country (Ademe and Alemayehu, 2014). According to the authors, industrialization of Ethiopia has positive relationship with increment of organic water pollution.
Empirical ReviewTextile Industry and Environmental Protection in Developing CountriesIndiaAccording to Indian Brand Equity Foundation (IBEF), textile plays a major role in the Indian economy. According to the foundation, textile industry contributes 14 per cent to industrial production and 4 per cent to GDP and accounts for nearly 15 per cent of total exports. It also indicated that the industry is one of the largest sources of employment generation in the country. IBEF indicated that the size of India’s textile market in 2016 was around US$ 137 billion. According to GIZ (2013), Textile industry of India is one of leading textile industries in the world and second largest producer of textiles and garments after China. It indicated that it is second largest employer in India after agriculture (provides almost 21% of the total employment) and earns around 27% of the foreign exchange from exports.
To promote environmentally conducive and economically viable and sustainable economy in general and textile industry in particular, Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) of India formulated comprehensive environmental legislations that are envisaged towards pollution management and control, environmental planning and monitoring, environment impact assessment/audit, technological intervention, environmental and capacity building (Kharka and Trivedi 2012). The authors indicated that the Central Pollution Control Board and the State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs) together form the regulatory and administrative core of the sector in the prevention, control and abatement of environmental pollution.

However, according EU (2013), environmental sustainability has been one of the key challenges accompanying the growth of the textile industry in India. According to the union, failure to adhere to environmental norms and build waste disposal mechanisms has led to environmental degradation and threatened the ecological and the socio-economic sustainability. GIZ (2015) also identified lack of chemical testing facilities, weak compliance to the effluent discharge and disposal, lack of guidelines on reducing waste generation and safe disposal, weak awareness related to the pollution and environmental hazards, poor in adaptation and adherence to environmental management system as the main challenges in textile industry of India. It also stated that high chemical load of the waste water, air emissions, solid wastes, odors, poor effluent treatment and space constraint for waste treatment plant, high textile effluents pollutants are attributed to textile industry in the country.
NigeriaIt is witnessed that Nigeria is among the first African countries embarked on textile industries with the first modern textile mill in Nigeria, Kaduna Textile Mill, which was started in 1956 (Makinde, Fajuyigbe, and Ajiboye, 2015). According to these authors, the Nigerian textile industry is the third largest in Africa after Egypt and South Africa (as they quoted from MNT, 2007 and Abimbola, 2010) and accounts for about 25 per cent of manufacturing sector.
However, the textile industry in the country is found to be environmentally unfriendly. Emigilati, Ishiaku, Usman, Kuta and Dangana (2015) identified that in Kanuda state, Nigeria, high levels and unacceptable pollution of effluents from textile industry is severe beyond the compliance levels of Federal Environmental Protection Agency guidelines and World Health Organization (WHO) tolerance limits. According to the authors, there are significant deviations of physiochemical pollution from acceptable standards. They indicated that due to pollution from textile factories, water constituents below the international standard of water quality and is not good for human consumption.
Uwidia ; Ejeomo (2013) also revealed that the textile waste waters in Lagos (Nigeria) were untreated and contained high amounts of pollutants. According to the authors, these pollutants are discharged daily into nearby receiving surface waters. They affirmed that, as a result of pollution from the industries and weak protection of quality and portability of the receiving surface water, there is rapid depletion of dissolved oxygen in the receiving water as well as adverse health problems on consumers in the surrounding environment. According to the authors, various chemicals employed during processing, nature of the raw materials used by the factories, high concentration of heavy metals and suspended solids which are non-degradable into non toxic end products as well as wastewater from the industry led to substantial pollution load and posed threat to the environment.
Effects of Textile Industry on Environment in Selected Urban Areas of EthiopiaGelan and DukemDukem and Gelan are among the urban areas where manufacturing industries have been expanding of which textile industry is the main one. According to Diriba, Stellmacher, Feyer, Passel ; Azadi (2016), since 2005, Dukem and Gelan towns have undergone rapid industrialization process that involved the rapid flow of investors. Their study revealed that effluents from textile factories at the towns were found to be higher than the permissible limit stated by the EPA of Ethiopian.

According to the authors, due to high concentration of toxic chemicals released from the industries, the residents who live along channels that transport textile effluents and those who live downstream are vulnerable to the effluents discharged by the factories. They also indicated that exposure pollution from textile industry has caused sickness such as skin disease (allergy) and other internal (stomach) health problems related to the usage of polluted water in the stream. According to this study, lack of proper orientation or awareness against the potential health risks of polluted water has exacerbated the negative effect of textile industry on environment and local community. The study also indicated that disposal of wastewater into the ambient environment, poor management of the vast amounts of waste generated from the industries are identified as the main causes of environmental problems of textile industry at the towns. Besides, indiscriminate conversion of large tracts of prime agricultural lands to industry has reduced the agricultural productivity which negatively affected the livelihoods of the affected households (Ibid).

Bahir DarBahir Dar textile factory is one of Ethiopia’s textile factories, manufacturing 100% cotton products with a production capacity of 17 tons per day (Abrehet , Shewit and Belayneh, 2015). According to the authors, the industries dispose solid and liquid wastes directly into the river. They identified higher concentration of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)/Chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen and alkalinity that the textile factories release to the river. They attested that the amount of these toxic chemicals released from the factories to the river are higher than maximum permissible limits set by WHO for drinking water at head of Blue Nile River. According to the authors, the textile factory poses serious pollution load to the river which posed a problem on aquatic habitat. They attested that as a result of deterioration of water quality at the head of Blue Nile River due to pollution from textile industry many immediate downstream users of the water river for drinking, fishing, bathing, and irrigation are facing serious problems.

Conceptual Framework of the StudyTextile industry and environmental protection are highly interlinked; especially the former has significant effect on the latter. Various theories, hypothesis as well as empirical studies have demonstrated the way textile industry affect environment particularly in the case where proper environmental protection is not applied. On the basis of theoretical and empirical evidences addressed in this review, the conceptual frame of this study is outlined below.
-40217220132Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2: Conceptual framework of the studySource: Researcher’s own visualization on the basis of reviewed literatures.

The framework of the study (figure 2) indicates that there are various interrelated factors which are determine environmental pollution. It also implies that environmental pollution is mainly manifested in three ways which are water pollution, air pollution and solid waste or land pollution. This research emphasized on analyzing pollution of Axaballa River, a river to which textile factories taken in to account in this research discharge wastes.
Chapter Summary
There are different views regarding industrialization and environmental protection. Broadly, the first view is giving priority for rapid industrialization at an expense of environment with the assumption that development will in long term compensate the degraded environment. On contrary, the second view claim environmental protection as an integral part of sustainable development and argues advancement in industry cannot substitute degraded natural environment. Textile industry is among manufacturing industries that plays significant role in economic development of countries specially developing ones. It takes a major role in foreign exchange generation, employment creation and GDP contribution to many developing countries. But, the industry is one of the most threatening environmental problems as it involve huge amount of water and toxic chemicals. Specially, various studies have indicated that textile industry is among the major contributor to environmental pollution especially in developing countries. Therefore, to make the industry beneficial and ensure sustainable development, adherence to environmental protection standards and controlling industrial effluent discharged to the environment should be properly applied.
CHAPTER THREERESEARCH METHODOLOGYResearch Type and ApproachWith regard to research enquiry, this research is a combination of descriptive and explanatory research. Descriptive research was employed to systematically describe realities that exist with regard to textile industry and its effect on Axaballa River. It is also used to describe association between variables of interest. Explanatory research was used to explain and clarify the effects of textile industry on the river and its associated impact on local community. It is also employed to evaluate industrial development strategy of Ethiopia in response to environmental sustainability. With reference to time dimension, this research is a cross-sectional research and dealt with an association of current state of textile industry in response to environment.
This research applied both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative approach was used to statistically analyze quantitative data on effect of textile industry on Axaballa River and factors determining pollution of the river through descriptive statistics and regression model. Qualitative research approach was used to generate in-depth and intensive information on the effect of textile industry on Axaballa River and its associated impact on local communities. It is also applied to review industrial development strategy with reference to environment as well as to reinforce findings achieved through quantitative approach.
Data Type and SourcesPrimary Data
Primary data were collected from Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Office of Prime Minister, Oromia Region and Sebeta Town Environment, Forest and Climate Change Authorities, Sebeta Town Industry Development and Expansion Office, administration staff of Kebele 07 and Chaffe Hora of Sebeta town and local communities living nearby Axaballa River.

Secondary Data
To substantiate primary data, secondary data were collected from Sebeta Town Environment, Forest and Climate Change Authority and Sebeta Town Industry Development and Expansion Office.
Method of Data CollectionPrimary data were collected through questionnaire, interview and direct field observation. Questionnaire were dispatched to respondents of Oromia region Environment, Forest and Climate Chang Authority, Sebeta Town Environment, Forest and Climate Change Authority, Sebeta Town Industry Development and Expansion Office and local community. Interview was conducted with respondents of Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Policy advisory experts of Prime Minister Office, Administration staff of Kebele 07 and Chaffe Hora as well as local community. Besides, direct observation of Axaballa River was conducted.

Respondents for questionnaire and interview from local community were decided on the basis of their capability to understand and properly respond to questionnaire. Accordingly, respondents who have relatively in-depth knowledge of the factory especially with respect to variables identified in the research were addressed through questionnaire. This was identified by prior discussion on the issues with the target respondents. On the other hand, interview was applied for other respondents especially farmers who have experienced the effect of Axaballa River.
Sampling Design-16510172720Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 1: Sampling design framework
Sample Size determination
1179635984494As indicated in table 1, all large scale textile factories were addressed in this study. Similarly, the entire sample frame from government institutions was addressed as sample or respondents for the study. On the other hand, the sample size for local community was determined using Cochran’s (1997) sample size determination formula which is:
Where n0 = sample size, z = is the selected critical value for confidence level of (95% confidence level with ±5% precision for this research), p = proportion of the population having the chance to be selected (0.5 used for this research), q = 1-p = 0.5, and e=desired level of precision (0.05 used for this research).
29556814996961610360499110Accordingly, n0= (1.96)2*0.5*0.5/ (0.05)2 =384.16. But since the population is finite or known which are 278, by applying a finite population correction factor, the adjusted sample size is:
Hence, the total respondents of this study were 40 officials and experts from government institutions +148 individuals from local community = 188
Sampling MethodsFor effective primary data collection from respondents of various attributes, simple random, purposive and availability sampling methods were applied. Simple random sampling was applied to select sample from local community living nearby Axaballa River. This method was applied because; households living nearby the river have good experience of the effect of textile industry on the river and could give substantial data.

Government institutions were purposively identified on the basis of their immediate relevance to the study. Sebeta Town Environment, Forest and Cliamte Change, Sebeta Town Industry Development and Expansion Office, Ormia Region Environment, Forest and Climate Change as well as 07 and Chaffe Hora Kebele were selected because, they engage in monitoring and inspection of textile factories in Sebeta town and closely know the effect of the factories on environment which enable them to provide substantial data. Moreover, federal level institutions that are in charge of environmental pollution and policy are also selected to address environmental problems with reference to industrial strategy. Hence, Office of Prime Minister Policy implementation Monitoring Sector and Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change were selected as relevant to address these issues.
Method of Data AnalysisData analysis and interpretation was conducted using qualitative and quantitative data analysis methods. Qualitative analysis was applied to describe and explain results collected through interview and direct field observation. With regards to quantitative data analysis, logistic regression model was used to analyze determinants of Axaballa River pollution using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Besides, descriptive statistics was also employed to analyze demographic characteristics of the respondents, laboratory test result of wastewater parameters and association between factors determining Axaballa River pollution. Ethical ConsiderationIntegrity of any participant in this research was respected utmost and no one of them was subjected to harm in any ways. During data collection, full consent of each respondent was confirmed prior to actual data gathering period. After data were collected, the privacy and confidentiality of research participants was ensured. In this research, there is no deception or exaggerations about the objectives and findings of the research. Besides, cautiousness and due consideration was given to avoid any type of misleading information and manipulation of primary data findings in a biased way.

Chapter Summary
This research is a cross sectional descriptive and explanatory study and employed both quantitative and qualitative research approaches. Primary and secondary data collected through questionnaire, interview, direct field observation and recorded documents were used. Different government institutions and local communities related with thematic and study area of the research was used as the sources of data. With regard to sampling method, simple random, purposive and availability samplings were applied to determine the sample size and participants of the study. Quantitative method such as descriptive statistics and regression model as well as qualitative method were used for data analysis and discussion.
UNIT FOURRESULTS AND DISCUSSIONIntroductionIn this chapter, the effects of effluents from textile industry on Axaballa River and main factors determining pollution of the River with regard to textile industry as well as its impacts on local community were addressed. The current state of environmental protection and its implication in relation to industrial pollution was also discussed. Moreover, Ethiopia’s industrial investment and industrial development strategy were examined with reference to sustainability of the environment.
Demographic Characteristics of Study PopulationThe study incorporated various target population such as officials and experts in charge of environmental policy and pollution at federal and regional level, environmental protection and industry expansion and development experts at town level, administrative staff of kebeles as well as local community at the study area. The study also included different age group of individuals ranging from youth to adult. The respondents of this research have an educational background starting from diploma and below to Masters and above. Table 2 below shows the selected demographic characteristics of respondents in terms of differences in gender, age group and educational background as well as proportion of gender in each age group and educational background.

-60325184150Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 2: Selected Demographic Characteristics of Respondents

Gender
About 69% of respondents were males compared to female respondents (Fig. 3). This difference is occurred due to the fact that in government institutions addressed by this research, the proportion of male employees was greater than female employees. With regard to respondents from local communities, majority of the respondents were household heads and male are mainly the heads of those households.
0184638Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3: Gender distribution of the respondentsAge
About half of the respondents are within an age range of 30-40. The missing value indicates two female respondents of questionnaire who have not identified their age category.
395654260350Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4: Age distribution of the respondentsEducational Background
Around half of the respondents have an educational background of diploma and below followed by 1st degree and masters and above. With reference to gender, male respondents have relatively better educational level than their counter females as the level of education increase. However, compare to their number, male and females have almost equivalent educational status with respect to respondents having diploma and below educational level. Majority of diploma and below holders are respondents from local community while except some Kebeles employees, all respondents from government institutions have 1st degree and above educational background.
-34290281305Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 5: Distribution of the respondents’ Educational levelTarget Respondents of Questionnaire and Interview
The highest number of respondents for both questionnaire and interview were local communities. This is due to the fact that the sample frame of households was greater than all samples from other target population.

-9101728575Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 6: Proportion of different respondents of questionnaire in number879235169Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 7: Proportion of different respondents’ of interview in numberEffects of Industrial Effluents on Axaballa RiverTextile factories release various chemicals with wastewater toward Axaballa River which highly pollute the river. The laboratory test result of biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solid (TSS), pH value, total Nitrogen, total phosphorus and Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) of Ayka Addis, Arba Minch, Mahvier and Jiang Dong Wang factories were analyzed using descriptive analysis with reference to national standard limit. BOD, COD, TSS and FOG were found to have significant effect on contamination of the river.

Description of the Wastewater ParametersBiochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD): BOD is a measure of quantity of oxygen used by microorganisms in the oxidation of organic matter (Apac Water, 2018). It determines amount of oxygen in the water and is considered to be a measure of organic content of the waste.

Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD): Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) is a measure of oxygen equivalent of the organic matter content of a sample that is susceptible to oxidation by a strong chemical oxidant (South African Water Quality Guidelines, 1996). On the other hand, it determines total amount of chemicals in the water that can be oxidized or measures oxygen required to oxidize soluble and particulate organic matter in water.

Total suspended solids (TSS): Total suspended solids (TSS) are one of the major pollutants that contribute to the deterioration of water quality. Excess TSS depletes the dissolved oxygen in the water and can cause many problems on health and aquatic life (Verma, Wei and Kusiak, 2012).
pH: pH is the measure of hydrogen ions, or acidity, in the water. Acidic waters can cause toxic heavy metals to be released into the water. It is numerically expressed as acidic from 0-7 and alkaline from 7-14 with neutral at 7pH solution. Too high or too low pH value of water has an adverse impact on organisms living in the water.

Total Phosphorus (TP): Phosphorus is a nutrient that is vital to human, animal, and plant growth. It is an important nutrient in the aquatic environment. However, excessive amount of it in water can speed up over enrichment of chemical nutrient which leads to reduction in dissolved oxygen in the water and affect aquatic life (Perlman, 2018).
Total Nitrogen (TN): Nitrogen is one of an essential nutrient for plants and animals. However, an excess amount of nitrogen in a waterway leads to low level of dissolved oxygen and negatively affects aquatic life and public health (Lenntech, 2018).

Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG): FOG is a group of related solid and liquid fatty organic materials in the waste water. FOG can cause pollution in environment when large amounts of oils and greases are discharged to receiving waters; they increase BOD and COD which have adverse affect on environment (Alade, Jameel, Muyubi, Abdul Karim and Alam, 2011).

Ammonium Nitrogen (NH4-N): NH4-N is a nitrogen-containing compound essential for aquatic plants and animals. However, too high ammonium nitrogen levels in surface waters can be toxic to aquatic life and may lead to diseases in those who use the water (Ahmed, Indris and Adam, 2005).
Descriptive Analysis of Effluents Discharged From Factories-42495879Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 3: Pollutants of water discharged from factories versus standard limitSource: Sebeta town environment, forest and climate change authority (2018)
9525012001712As indicated in table 3, the BOD and COD test of Arba Minch, Mahvier and Jiang Dong Wang was within the acceptable limit. However, The BOD test result of Ayka Addis was significantly greater than the standard limit. The result indicates that even though the other three factories are also contributing to depletion of oxygen content in the river, Ayka Addis factory take a lion share of rapid depletion of oxygen in the river and due to lack of sufficient oxygen; there is high concentration of pollutant materials in the river. On the other hand, there is greater amount of oxidizable organic materials in the water which reduces dissolved oxygen (DO) levels. These in turn caused high concentration of pollutant materials in the water.
-268817262466Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 8: Amount of BOD and COD in wastewater from factoriesThe pH of the Ayka Addis, Arba Minch and Mahvier factories ranges from 6.29 to 8.59 (figure 8). Thus, the pH values of the three factories are within the accepted range which is between 6 to 9. Though the test result is within accepted limit, relatively concentration of hydrogen ion or slightly alkalinity is seen in wastewater from Arba Minch followed by Ayka Addis. This indicates existence of some toxic contaminants in the water despite the fact that it is within acceptable limit.
On the other hand, the ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) test result of Ayka Addis is significantly greater than the accepted limit where as that of Arba Minch, Mahvier and Jiang Dong Wang is within standard limit. The concentration of NH4-N in wastewater from Ayka Addis indicates high concentration of toxic pollutant of ammonia in Axaballa River. With addition of contribution by other factories, the emission of this chemical into the river directly affected human health and disturb the quality of the river which was also confirmed by local communities and health extension workers.
289983135467Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 9: Amount of P and N in wastewater from factoriesFigure 9 indicates that the Total Phosphorus (TP) of the four factories is less than the standard limit. However, the test result of total nitrogen (TN) for Ayka Addis is greater than the standard limit whereas that of Arba Minch, Mahvar and Jiang Dong Wang is less than the standard limit. The laboratory taste of total nitrogen particularly of Ayka Addis indicates high emission of the chemical to the river.
-48684266277Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 10: Amount of TSS and FOG in wastewater from factories
Figure 10 indicates that TSS test result of Ayka Addis is greater than the standard limit whereas that of Arba Minch, Mehvier and Jiang Dong Wang are below the standard limit. This indicates that high concentration of solid materials suspended in the water is emitted from Ayka Addis to the Axaballa River. On the other hand, most of the solid material from the factory is released to the river before properly treated or removed from the water discharged to the river. The test result of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) for Ayka Addis and Jiang Wong Dang factories is greater than the accepted limit. It indicates that high content of fat, oil and grease are discharged to the river from Ayka Addis and Jiang Wong Dang factories. This leads to decrease in dissolved oxygen in the river and also causes various ecological and human problems.
8083339919Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 4: Range and Mean and of Wastewater ParametersAs indicated in table 4, the mean values of BOD, COD, TSS and FOG are significantly higher than the acceptable standard limit. On the other hand, the mean values of pH and NH4-N is almost equivalent with the standard limit whereas the mean values of TP and TN is less than the limit. The fewer amounts of total TP and TN is most likely due to the fact that textile industry does not use significant amount of these chemicals.
Figure 11 also depict that the mean values of BOD, COD, TSS and FOG discharged from factories to Axaballa River is greater than national standard limit. As shown in table 4 there is an excess of 21mg/l BOD, 34.5mg/l COD, 56.25mg/l TSS and 79.23mg/l FOG in the wastewater discharged to Axaballa River from the factories. This implies high concentration of suspended matters in the river that have substantial environmental and associated socio-economic effects.

-141817186267Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 11: Mean values of selected wastewater parameters from factories
Implication of Wastewater Parameters on EnvironmentEthiopia has adapted an environmental regulation standard that is set to limit the amount of various chemicals which industries discharge to environment. Accordingly, Sebeta town uses these standards to monitor, evaluate and take measure on factories to make them function within permitted standard limit. However, figure 11 indicates that there were excess pollutants discharged to the river from textile factories. This in turn affected the environment drastically. The laboratory test result also indicated that big factory is discharging high proportion of pollutants to the environment. In this regard, waste water discharged from Ayka Addis, the biggest factory in the town is found to have high amount of pollutants discharged to the river.
With regard to share of pollution, the test result of laboratory was also confirmed by respondents who affirmed that big factory is the biggest contributor of Axaballa River pollution. Albeit the test result of other factories that indicate relatively acceptable waste effluents discharged to the river, local community seriously argue that factories are not critically treating wastes. As a result, they do not believe that factories were discharging effluents to the river which is environmentally acceptable and friendly. Besides, experts in charge of environmental safety assume chemicals discharged from factories are not likely within standard limit. This was also possible to confirm through observation that the river is highly polluted which make sure the interviewees claim of factories poor waste treatment. Therefore, this discrepancy is likely attributed to temporary test result which might not be consistent overtime. On the other hand, since the sample was collected by factories themselves and laboratory test was conducted by private analytical testing laboratory; it is difficult to take the result for granted or there is a likelihood of credibility problem. This in turn insists on necessity of public laboratory test of wastewater parameters.
Factors Determining Axaballa River PollutionThe pollution of Axaballa River is attributed to various driving factors. Before examining the effect of these factors, descriptive analysis of association between Axaballa River pollution and other variables was conducted using Chi Square test of independency to make sure if there is significant relationship between the variables. Subsequently, the effect of explanatory variables on the dependent variables that is Axaballa River pollution was analyzed using binary logistic regression model.

Descriptive StatisticsBased on theoretical and empirical literatures discussed in chapter two, dependent variable and independent variables which explain the dependent variable were identified. To examine factors determining Axaballa River pollution, Axaballa River pollution is identified to be the dependent variable where as independent variables are classified as factors related to waste management and factors related to condition or state of the factories. Table 5 shows the description of both the dependent variable and the independent variables.
The chi-square tests of independence were used to analyze the association of Axaballa River pollution which is used as dependent variable with other variables which were used as independent or explanatory variables in regression model. The test association between Axaballa River and other variables is displayed in table 6.

19050140677Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 5: Description of variables19050158262Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 6: Test of association between Axaballa River pollution and other variables
Table 6 indicates that except year of establishment, the other variables have an association with Axaballa River pollution (p;0.005). The table clearly indicates that poor waste treatment, poor compliance to environmental standards and poor monitoring and inspection are more likely associated to Axaballa River pollution than strong poor waste treatment, strong compliance to environmental standards and strong monitoring and inspection respectively.
Big factory and increase in production level of factories are also more likely associated with the river pollution than small factory and decrease in production level of the factories respectively. The vast majority of participants (82.1%) believed that poor waste treatment is associated with Axaballa River pollution. About three fourth of respondents also believe that poor compliance of factories to environmental standards are associated with pollution of the river. Similarly, about 62.5% of the respondents affirmed that poor monitoring and inspection is associated with Axaballa River pollution.

Compare to small and medium factories, half of the respondents confirmed that bigger factory is more likely associated with pollution of the river. With regard to production level of factories, 94.1% of the respondents affirmed that increase in production level of factories is associated with Axaballa River pollution.
Econometric Results and DiscussionLogistic regression model was applied to analyze major factors determining pollution of Axaballa River. The pollution of the river by wastes from textile factories is taken to be dependent variables on which the effect of independent variables or factors such as factories waste treatment, compliance of factories toward environmental standards, monitoring and inspection by government bodies on the factories with related to environmental protection as well as factories size, production level and year of establishment were analyzed. Since the dependent variable has a dichotomous attribute which is either polluted or not polluted, binary logistic regression was used to analyze the effect of independent variables on the dependent variable (Table 7).

-7327167054Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 7: Regression result: Binary logistic regression model.Model one of the logistic regression (table 7) indicates the effect of waste management related factors which are waste treatment, compliance to environmental standards and monitoring and inspection on Axaballa River pollution. Model two shows effect of addition of factors related to state of factories which are size of factory, production level and year of establishment on the pollution of the river. The Cox and Snell square and the Pseudo R2 (Negelkerke) of the regression model indicates that 52.9%-72% of variation in dependent variable is explained by independent variables or factors (table 7). On other hands, about 52.9%-72% of variation in the pollution of Axaballa River is attributed to factories waste treatment, factories compliance to environmental standards, monitoring and inspection of factories, size and production level of factories and year of establishment of factories. However, year of establishment has no significant effect on the pollution of the river (p;0.05). On the other hand, being relatively recently established or earlier factory does not have significant effect on the pollution of the river. The interviewees also confirmed that, it is not year of operation but waste management system of factories and influence of government institutions which make difference in the river pollution.

In logistic regression model, it is worth considering the odds which is the ratio of the probability of success to the probability of failure instead of the probability of an event (Battle, 2012). Because, logistic regression does not assumes dependent and independent variables to be related linearly but assumes relationship between independent variables and log odds of the dependent variable. The transformation of probabilities to Odds ratio function can be defined by:
Odds= p/1-p = e (ß0+ ß1×1+ ß2×2+ ß3×3+…+ ßnXn)
Taking the logarithms of both sides Log (p/1-p) =log (ß0+ ß1×1+ ß2×2+ ß3X3+…+ ßnXn)
=Logit(p)=Log(p-1/p) = Y*=(ß0+ ß1X1+ ß2X2+ ß3X3+…+ ßnXn). Where:
Y*=Expected value of response or dependent variables
ß0= Intercept or slope
ß1, ß2, ß3,…, ßn = Coefficient of explanatory variables
X1, X2, X3,…., Xn = Explanatory variables
On the basis of this equation, the odds of the two regression models indicated in table 6 can be expressed as:
Model 1: ARP* = -4.046 + 2.80Pwt + 2.46Pces +2.62Mces + 1.85Pmi + 0.42Mmi.

Model 2: ARP* = -4.91+ 3.22Pwm + 3.07Pces + 2.58Mces + 3.45Pmi + 1.27Mmi + 2.37Msf + 3.874Bzf + 2.66Iplf-0.59Yef (e)- 0.91Yef (r)
Note: ARP = Axaballa River Pollution, Pwt = Poor waste treatment, Pces = Poor compliance to environmental standards, Mces = Medium Compliance to Environmental standards, Pmi = Poor monitoring and inspection, Mmi = Medium monitoring and inspection, Iplf = Increase in production level of factories, Msf = Medium Size Factory, Bsf=Big Size Factory, Yef (e) = Year of establishment of factory (early), Yef (r) =Year of establishment of factory (recent). = Indicates estimated or expected value.

Factors Related to Waste Management
Waste Treatment
Waste treatment is among the prime prerequisite to run any factory particularly for manufacturing industry like textile which use huge amount of water, chemicals and other materials as an input for processing. Ethiopian Environmental Pollution Control Proclamation No. 300/2002 stress that any factory should have proper waste treatment system and plant to prevent the negative environmental effect of the factory. However, ineffective waste treatment is found to be one of the significant factors determining the pollution of Axaballa River.

As indicated in table 7, factories poor waste treatment has a positive coefficient which indicates that poor waste treatment by factories have an increasing effect on the pollution of Axaballa River. The expected odd ratio of poor waste treatment shows that the chance of Axaballa river pollution is 25 greater for poor waste treatment as opposed to strong waste treatment. The severe pollution of the river due to wastes from the factories was also confirmed by repetitive direct filed observation and extensive discussion with local communities. According to the respondents, substantial discharge of wastewater and solid waste from factories to the river left the river to be highly polluted. Sebeta Town environment, Forest and climate Change Authority also confirmed that all factories have only primary waste treatment plant and even these primary waste treatment plants are not properly functioning.

It was clearly detected that the river is extremely contaminated and take on blackish color due to high accumulation of toxic chemicals in the river. The result of laboratory taste of wastewater parameters of the factories also verifies the accumulation of substantial amount of toxic chemicals above the accepted standard limit. It was clearly observed that the river became pool of solid and liquid wastes ranging from plastic bags to toxic chemical wastes. Depositing solid and discharging liquid wastes and hazardous substances in river and riverside has been a common practice by these factories.
272605526098560960260985Picture SEQ Picture * ARABIC 2: Partial view of extremely contaminated Axaballa River
(Photo: taken by researcher during field visit).

As a result of poor solid waste treatment and disposal, these problems have made the river unusable for local community especially for agricultural purpose. This finding confirms to findings in other studies such as GIZ (2015), Uwidia ; Ejeomo (2013), Abrehet, Shewit and Belayneh (2015) and Tsegay, Haddush and Asayehgn (2013) that affirmed poor waste treatment system as the fundamental problem of textile industry particularly in developing countries which leads to discharge and disposal of industrial wastes into nearby receiving surface waters.
Compliance to Environmental Standards
Compliance to environmental standards is also found to be the factor having significant effect on the pollution of Axaballa River (table 6). The poor compliance to environmental standards has a direct effect on the river pollution. On the other hand, lack of strong compliance to environmental standards has contributed to the pollution of the river. As indicated in table 7, the odd ratio for poor and medium compliance to environmental standards imply that strong compliance to environmental standards has more likely to decrease pollution of Axaballa River by 21.5 and 13.2 than poor and medium compliance to environmental standards respectively. This urges for strong compliance of factories to the environmental standard which significantly reduce the pollution of the river.
Environmental Pollution Control Proclamation No. 300/2002 of Ethiopia stipulate for proper compliance of industries to environmental regulations and to avoid discharging hazardous chemicals to the environment. However, poor implementation of environmental standards has contributed to the problem of immense discharge of wastes from factories to the river. Interview with local communities confirmed that factories do not pay due consideration for the environment and they focus merely on running their production. The low level of concern for environment by factories and poor compliance and implementation of environmental standards indicate that environmental pollution is not a deal for factories and is not endorsed as part of their business in the course of their project implementation. This is in real sense factories are not interested to keep environment clean. This negligence has put Axaballa River into serious stage of pollution. In this regard, initiatives taken to combat the problem are weak and environmental regulations were not put in to practice properly.

The finding of this research is similar with other studies like findings by GIZ (2015) and EU (2013) that assert poor compliance to the effluent discharge and waste disposal system as well as poor in adaptation and adherence to environmental management system as the main challenges in textile industry particularly in developing countries. It is also in conformity with report by Meron (2012) which indicated that many textile factories in Ethiopia do not operate according to environmental standards and release wastes into rivers.

Monitoring and Inspection
Monitoring and inspection of factories and environmental protection activity is a vital instrument to combat the adverse impact of factories on environment and ensure sustainability of environment in the course of industrial expansion. However, lack of strong monitoring and inspection is indicated as one of the significant factor positively affecting pollution of Axaballa River (table 7). The odd ratio of poor and medium monitoring and inspection indicate that strong monitoring and inspection likely decrease the pollution of Axaballa River by 31.5 and 3.7 than poor and medium monitoring and inspection respectively. This point to the crucial role of strong monitoring and inspection on factories to reduce their effect of pollution on the river in particular and its negative impact on environment in general.

Local communities also claim that the monitoring and inspection undertaken by government bodies are very weak and the effect of pollution by these factories seems negligible at practical level. They confirmed that there is no strong, consistent monitoring and corrective measures taken from concerned government bodies. According the local communities, the monitoring and inspection undertaken by government on the factories compliance to environmental regulations is very seasonal which gives only temporary relief with no permanent effect. They also attested that the level of pollution reduces when they complain to local government and rise again after few days. This indicates that factories are not willing to implement environmental standards if legal enforcement is not at hand. Besides, they do not strive to exert their maximum effort to make the factory friendly to the environment. On the other hand, it also assures that there is no strong and consistent monitoring and inspection by concerned bodies on the factories. Poor interest of factories to comply with environmental protection as well as poor monitoring, inspection and enforcement of environmental regulations by concerned bodies let the factories neglect the issue of green environment as a priority issue.
It is therefore proper to argue that a provision of Proclamation No. 300/2002 which attest strict liability or legal responsibility for non compliance to environmental standards is not being implemented on factories in Sebeta town. This finding is consistent with findings by Yang and Li (2017) who identified increasing emissions of industrial wastewater to the environment due to poor control measures by concerned bodies as one of the dominant determinants of environmental pollution.
Size and Production level of Factory
The other critical issue identified in this study was the direct association of Axaballa River pollution with production level and size of the factories. The regression model (table 7) shows that size and production level of factories have significant effect on the pollution of Axaballa River. Bigger factory take bigger share of the river pollution. Similarly, increase in production level of factories is associated with increase in the pollution level of the river. Therefore, addition of size and production level of factory as determinant factors significantly improved the model’s explanation of Axaballa River pollution.
The odd ratios of the bigger and medium factories indicate that bigger and medium factories have likely contributed to the pollution of Axaballa River 3.8 and 2.3 times the contribution by the smaller factory. This is also confirmed by laboratory taste of wastewater parameters in which Ayka Addis, the biggest of the four factories addressed by this research discharged greater amount of the effluents above acceptable standards. Besides, extensive interview with local communities and target government institutions also confirmed that relatively bigger factories pollute the river than the smaller one. Similarly, the regression model (table 7) indicates that increase in production level of factories is associated with increase in pollution level of the river. The odd ratio for increase in production level of factories indicates that an increase in a unit of production output of factory has likely to increase pollution of the river 2.6 times the factory which has made no increment in production.

This urges the necessity of strong waste management system for bigger factories. Because, since the industry is meant to grow and enhance its production capacity to contribute to the country’s economic development, it can bring about environmental degradation as textile industry in particular and manufacturing industry expand. On the other hand, at current state of Sebeta town, the country’s strategy of enhancing manufacturing industry is less likely compliant to resilient green economy.

The state of association between textile industry and environmental relationship in Sebeta town corresponds to hypothesis of environmental Kuznets curve (Pettinger, 2017) which relates environmental degradation to stages of industrial development and claims an increment of environmental degradation in pre industrial growth. According to the hypothesis, the main reasons behind positive relationship between growing industry and increasing of pollution are low commitment, implementation capacity and technology which are also confirmed by this research. This finding also corresponds to finding by Arega and Molla (2014) which indicated the increasing trend of water pollution of Ethiopia due to growth of the manufacturing sector.

Impacts of Axaballa River PollutionIt is true that textile factory plays an important role in supporting economic development of a country predominantly with regard to job creation and generation of foreign currency. However, this economic return is being entertained at an expense of environment in Sebeta town.
2618317238972-1238972Picture SEQ Picture * ARABIC 3: Axaball River with easily detectable dying chemicals discharged to it (Photo: taken by researcher during field visit)
The interview with Axballa River downstream local communities intensely indicated that the river is causing critical socio-economic problems. According to the community, due to high toxicity of the chemicals, the river which had been used for domestic and irrigation purpose currently turned out to be a critical threat to their agricultural productivity, health and health of their livestock. These problems make sure that untreated discharge of wastewater is a detrimental to biological diversity, environmental resilience and play substantial role in dwindling of ecosystem services.
This finding confirms study by Tessema and Adane (2015) which asserted that industrial expansion in urban centers of Ethiopia is experiencing socio-economic and environmental problems. It is also similar to findings by Diriba, Stellmacher, Feyer, Passel & Azadi 2016 which affirmed critical vulnerability of downstream residents due to toxic chemicals released from industries in Dukem and Gelan towns. The impact of Axaballa River pollution on local community can be majorly expressed in terms of agriculture, human health and animal health.

Impact on Agriculture
The use of wastewater enriched with hazardous chemical for irrigation could impair soil functions and negatively affect agricultural productivity. Roy, Banna, Mamun and Farukh (2013) affirmed that industrial wastewater results in adverse affects on agricultural production, consumers of vegetables and neighboring communities. This reality is intensely confirmed by local communities living at the downstream of Axaballa River to which Ayka Addis, Arba Minch, Mahvier and Jiang Dong Wang textile factories and other factories are discharging their waste water. According to the community, due to high contamination of Axaballa River, they could not use the river to produce agricultural products. An extensive interview with local communities and two Kebeles’ agricultural extension workers indicate that due to over contamination of the river, it is completely disabled to support any form of agricultural activity despite its significant potential. According to the extension workers the polluted river of Axaballa dysfunction proper growth and content of crops, vegetables and despoil the fertility of the soil. They further stressed that even vegetables which had been produced using the river give foul smell and hadn’t have a market value which put the producers in loss. According to the sources, the river is no longer suitable for any means of agricultural use.

Local farmers have affirmed that, though agriculture is the pillar of their survival and means of income, they cannot make use of the river due to extreme level of pollution. According to the community, this problem has specially affected youth those who were organized and based their means of income generation through production of vegetables using the river. Apart from environmental degradation, Axaballa river pollution is emerged as one of a critical problem which resulted in economic loss and instigate fierce grievance from local communities.
The local communities also affirmed that since the river is a tributary of Awash River, all villages of Sebeta Hawas woreda through which the river flows are also suffering similar problems. This implies that the wastewater from these factories has an extended effect on agriculture especially irrigation activities based on Awash River. This finding is consistent to findings by Diriba, Stellmacher, Feyer, Passel & Azadi (2016) as well as Rogers and Khan and Malik (2014) which asserted the negative effect of industrial expansion on agricultural productivity and livelihoods of the affected households.
Impact on Human Health
Hazardous effluents from factories have various adverse effects on human health. These effects can be ranged from disease related to air pollution to use of wastewater for various purposes like for crops or vegetables production. As revealed by laboratory analysis, there was high level of toxic chemicals such as BOD, COD, TSS and FOG in waste water discharged to Axaballa River. These hazardous chemicals discharged by factories caused various health problems on local community.
According to local residents and Kebeles’ health extension workers, local communities are facing serious health problems which need immediate remedy. They affirmed that diseases like typhoid and typhus, diarrhea, coughing and itching are health problems local communities faced due to industrial effluents discharged to Axaballa River. According to the communities, waterborne diseases are frequently identified in the area especially among students commuting along the bank of the river to school. A farmer from Chafe Hora kebele said that “If proper measure is not taken soon, I don’t know, our bodies will be taken out of this area”. This is mainly due to the fact that the two downstream kebeles are highly exposed to the foul smell of the river which carries toxic chemicals emitted from the factories.
It is also confirmed by local communities, Kebeles’ health extension workers, Sebeta Town Environment, Forest and Climate Change Authority as well as seen during the field visit that local communities use the river for proposes of washing and cleaning. From these sources, it is possible to verify that the river has significant health problem on local community. Besides, the uptake of hazardous chemicals like heavy metals by crops and vegetables from contaminated soils may cause substantial health problem on consumers of the plant as Axaballa River joins Awash River, the one extensively used for irrigation purpose.
This finding confirms the findings in other studies (Diriba, Stellmacher, Feyer, Passel & Azadi, 2016), Rogers and Khan and Malik, 2014 and EU, 2013). These studies asserted the health effect of textile industry local communities living nearby to textile production units. However, it is worth mentioning that the severity of health problem attested by local communities due to pollution of the river needs further and exclusive research.
Impact on Animal Health
The polluted Axaballa River has harmful effect on animals which use to drink the river. According to the local communities of both downstream kebeles, a lot of cattle were died due to chemical contaminants carried by Axaballa River from factories. One of the Chaffe Hora Kebele administration members stressed that “cattle drink on the river for they do not have other alternative, they face chronic diarrhea and gradually their hair starts to be removed and subsequently death will be their fate regardless of whatever treatment measure we take”. This was also supported by other interviewees and agricultural extension workers. According to agricultural extension workers, many households lost their cattle due to drinking of contaminated Axaballa River. One interviewee stressed that .As verified by repetitive visit to the river, a lot of cattle use to drink the water which is highly contaminated by toxic chemicals from factories. Though needs to be confirmed by further research, this can also indicates that as community use dairy and meet product of the cattle, they are likely to be affected by the toxic chemicals embedded in these products. This finding is similar with a study by Hunaghew (2015) on Tannery at Sebeta town which indicated that wastewater from the factory highly polluted Sebeta River and many cattle were died to toxic chemicals from the factory.
263017024574525273084455Picture SEQ Picture * ARABIC 5: Livestock drinking contaminated Axaballa River (Photo: taken by researcher during field visit)
State of Environmental Protection and its ImplicationSebeta Town Environment, Forest and Climate Change Authority is the immediate government institutions undertaking monitoring on the activity of the factories and evaluate their operation. The authority has been trying to enforce factories to comply with environmental standards and reduce their negative impact on environment through monitoring, inspection. The authority also monitors wastewater measurement parameters and urges them to undertake their operation within accepted standard limit. However, data collected from the authority and other target respondents indicate that there is no strong monitoring and inspection on the factories which could bring significant change on the effect of these factories on the environment.
On the other hand, the extensive discussion with local community shows that due to the severity of river pollution, they are highly sensitive to the pollution issues. They attested that they frequently bring their grievances to local government which would end with only temporary solution. They underscored that, though temporary improvement is seen upon fierce grievance from the community, the solution would not last long and the problem remain a headache for them. Apart from environmental degradation, the pollution of the river has significant socioeconomic and political impacts. Agricultural productivity failed due to pollution of the river led to critical question of good governance among local community. The local communities stressed that the responsiveness of government is not sufficient to put this critical problem under control. A farmer from Chaffe Hora kebele said that “We are not clear even why government is such tolerant to the factories while the environment is severely ruined and citizens are suffering from its consequences”. An interviewee from kebele 07 also stressed that “the problem is serious and chronic, but still there is no solution and I think the remedy is beyond the capacity of the town”.

Therefore, the current state of environmental protection in Sebeta town is found to be under critical situation. If the current trend continues and proper measures are not taken soon, the industrial expansion will likely pose tragic environmental degradation which will in turn create multiple socio-economic and political problems. On the other hand, though industrial development is among crucial strategy for sound economic growth, expansion of factories at an expense of environment not only cause temporal environmental issues, but also violates the concept of sustainability and turn on the fundamental question of intergenerational equity.
Industrial Investment and Environmental SustainabilityEthiopia’s industrial strategy envisioned to build strong industrial sector with highest manufacturing capability which is globally competitive and environmentally-friendly. Particularly, the strategy has identified textile industry as the basic manufacturing scheme to transforming industry development aspiration of the country. However, this case study in Sebeta town indicates a clear implication that the industrial development is not taking place with mutual interdependency with environmental strategy as intended in countries development policy.
According to industrial development strategy and environmental policy implementation monitoring experts of Prime Minister Office as well as officials and experts in charge of environmental pollution in Ministry of Environment, Forest And Climate Change, industrial areas like Sebeta town where factories are located in fragmented way, there is neither appropriate waste treatment plant from factories side nor well facilitated one point waste treatment plant by government. According to these sources, this is mainly traced back to lack of proper feasibility study and strategy which would take in to account economic, social and environmental components of sustainability. They affirmed that this is a result of lack of integrative strategy and cooperation among concerned government institutions from the very beginning of project initiation to operation and evaluation.
According to these sources, industrial investment is greatly undertaken not by taking in to account environmental regulations but bargaining of investors with much promise which compromises environmental values. This way of industrial investment led to environmentally unfeasible tolerance toward environmentally unfriendly factories. Policy experts stressed crave for hard currency is downplaying the true value of natural environment. One expert stated that “starting from constitution and environmental policy, there are subsequent strategies and guidelines concerning environment which embedded explicit provisions on pollution but are all implicitly compromised for the sake of hard currency”.

This is in real sense an indication that as far as factory is assumed to create an opportunity of foreign currency, it is amenable to cost environment in return. Interviewees also affirmed that inventors are also too negligent to take care of the environment. They attested that due to lack of synergy among concerned bodies particularly among institutions in charge of environment and industry as well as between federal and regional governments, there is a great deal of contradiction in ensuring the sustainability of environment in the course of industrial expansion and taking proper measure in the case of problem. These institutions appears to be an isolated body with no network of integration and common goal regardless of the necessity of strong cooperation to ensure green industrial transformation in the country. This finding is consistent to finding by Ademe and Alemayehu (2014) which urged improper identification of foreign direct investments has strong association with water pollution and subsequent health problems.
Review of Industrial Development Strategy With Reference to EnvironmentEthiopia is emerging as one of the most important industrial investment destinations and has been experiencing rapid industrial expansion in the recent years. The government of Ethiopia gave considerable attention to the development of industry as a means of economic transformation and base of sound economic development. The country has also endorsed sustenance of ecological processes and preservation of biological diversity as an integral part of sustainable development. The environmental policy of the country clearly stipulated proper use of natural resources to enable future generation to meet their needs as its primary objective. Moreover, climate resilient green economy was designed to ensure sustainability of environment in the course of industrial development.
However, as various literatures affirmed the gap between environmental policy and industrial development strategy of the country, this research ascertained that both strategies are poorly harmonized. These policies are not implemented in strategically integrated way rather industrial development appears to evolve at an expense of environment. Though designed to facilitate and ensure sustainable development plan of the country, they appear to compete to sustain their specific objectives regardless of viable opportunity cost analysis and mutual success for both strategies.
Lack of proper land use strategy for industrial investment is also among a prime concerns identified in this study. Apart from the industrial zone initiatives started in different part of the country, other investment related to manufacturing industry are not in proper and strategically identified location. Factories in Sebeta town and other urban areas like Sululta, Modjo, Bahir Dar and other urban areas can be taken as a justification for improper selection of investment location. Most factories are located in accessible and suitable areas for operation and transportation without taking in to account the surrounding natural environment and other land use. This problem in turn affects agricultural lands, water bodies and other ecosystem service in the areas among others. An interview with respondents at local community and federal government institutions also implies that industrial development strategy and its implementation do not take in to account the issue of environmental valuation. It is a clear indication that there is a sharp conflict between industrial expansion and environmental sustainability on ground.
The industrial development strategy of the country has not been implemented in a way that can ensure sustainable development based on proper management of the environment. According to the interviewees, the antagonistic feature of industrial expansion to environment is not compulsory cost that should be entertained to ensure the goal of industrialization. They affirmed that, in spite of various strategies and regulations for both industry and environment; they are not devised in supportive and co instruments for mutual development of the sectors. A policy expert from Prime Minister Office stressed that, “though the government initiated a strategy which is geared toward sustainable development through rapid industrialization while ensuring environmental protection as fundamental part of sustainability, it is not yet possible to put both strategies in mutually supportive manner”.
It is clearly understood that, environmental policy and resilient green economy strategies are not sufficiently put in place in industrial areas where factories are distributed in fragmented way. The interviewees argue that green economy is simply endorsed as a strategy with inadequate implementation in such industrial areas. According to the interviewees, the recent initiative of industrial zones plays crucial role in curbing environmental pollution due to manufacturing industries. They attested that this means of industrial expansion can ensure transformation of the country’s economy while ensuring environmental conservation utmost level which in turn realizes the resilient green economy strategy of the country.
Chapter Summary
The laboratory taste result of wastewater parameters indicated that BOD, COD, TSS and FOG were the dominant parameters significantly contributed to Axaballa River. Poor waste treatment, compliance to environmental standards and monitoring and inspection as well as size and production level of factories are found to be significant factors determining pollution of the river. Moreover, the study indicated lack of proper integration and implementation between industrial investment, industrial development strategy and environmental regulations which could ensure integrated sustainability of both sectors in industrial areas where many factories are scattered in fragmented way like in Sebeta town.
CHAPTER 5CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONSConclusionThis research was aimed at analyzing the impact of textile industry on environment in Sebeta town. The research focused on effects of large scale textile factories on Axaballa River and its impact on local community. The analysis of wastewater parameters indicated high concentration of suspended and dissolved organic and inorganic matters discharged to the river.

Poor waste treatment, non compliance to environmental standards, poor monitoring and implementation are found to have significant effect on Axabalal River pollution. Besides, increase in pollution of the river was associated with increase in the size of the factory and its production level. On the other hand, environmental protection initiatives taken in this regard were not adequate to mitigate the adverse effect of textile industry on the environment. Hence, the polluted river of Axaballa has caused various socio-economic problems on local communities like loss of agricultural productivity, public and livestock health problems. These indicate that at current state, textile industry is positively correlated to environmental pollution and negatively correlated to green environment. This finding confirms the finding by Ademe and Alemayehu (2014) which affirmed that industrialization in Ethiopia has positive relationship with water pollution.
Environmental problems due to textile industry were also linked to lack of integrative implementation of industrial development strategy and environmental policy. Industrial investment in fragmented way like in Sebeta town has been entertained at the cost of environment. These urge for proper application of industrial waste treatment as well as integrative implementation of industrial development and environmental protection strategies.

RecommendationsBased on the findings of this research, the following recommendations are forwarded as crucial measures to reverse the environmental effects of textile industry in Sebeta town and to contribute to the successful achievement of industrial development complaint to environmental sustainability and green economy.
For Sebeta Town Textile Factories and Government Institutions in Charge of Monitoring the Factories
Proper waste treatment is an important prerequisite for reducing industrial effluents discharged to river. This research identified high suspended solids, chemical and biological oxygen demand as the main pollutant effluents from textile factories of Sebeta town. So, these effluents need to be properly removed from the wastewater discharged to the river from the factories. In this regard, with the support of government and cooperation of factories, proper and advanced common waste treatment plant can be installed. Strong monitoring, inspection and evaluation of waste treatment by factories also needs to be consistently undertaken along with proper measure on non compliance of factories to environmental standards. Public laboratory test of wastewater from factories should also be facilitated to make sure that the factories are discharging effluents within standard limit and take corrective measures for failure to do so. The study has shown that the risk of pollution is high with bigger factories and increase along with increase of factories production level. So, cautious and prior consideration should be taken to mitigate possible raise of environmental degradation as manufacturing industry keeps on growing and enhance its production capacity.
For Policy Implication
Natural environment and its socio-economic benefits should be properly valued to make optimum tradeoff between industrial development and environmental sustainability. Government especially authorities in charge of industry and environment should be aware of the ongoing effect of industrial expansion on environment. Accordingly, they should look not only for economic return from industrial investment but also the consequences of industrial expansion on environment. This can help design proper mitigation strategy and achieve industrial development complaint to green environment in particular and green economy in general. The strategy of enhancing manufacturing industry in fragmented way is less likely compliant to resilient green economy. Therefore, strengthening strategy of industrial zones with zero tolerance on emission of industrial effluents to environment and full recycling strategy will be indispensable to ensure industrial development which is economically viable, environmentally friendly and socially responsible. Moreover, proper land use plan for industrial investment should be prepared and implemented with integration of concerned institutions. These will help to solve the deterioration of agricultural land and other natural resources due to spontaneous expansion of manufacturing industries. Proper harmonization of industrial development strategies and environmental strategies throughout formulation, implementation and evaluation stages should also get proper consideration in a way that can ensure mutual effectiveness of both strategies.
For Further Research
One of the critical impacts of Axaballa River pollution is public health problem attested by local communities and local government institutions. This is a critical concern which needs further and in-depth investigation particularly with regard to its severity and intensity. This research also revealed that beyond natural environment, the pollution of Axaballa River has affected livestock and agricultural productivity of local communities. In this regard, environmental valuation and socio-economic cost due to pollution of the river needs further study and can be considered as thematic area for future research. This research addressed the effect of textile industry on environment. However, there are also non textile factories which discharge wastes to Axaballa River. Hence, intensive study is needed to determine the effect of these factories on the river.
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Annex SEQ Annex * roman I: Data Collection InstrumentsThis research is conducted to analyze environmental challenges due to textile industry and environmental protection practice to mitigate its challenges at Sebeta town. Your genuine response for this research questions has a significant role to make sure reliability of the research finding and worth for recommendation to be made for concerned bodies. It is also worthwhile to be noted that any information you give will be maintained confidential and not made public. Your contribution and cooperation is highly appreciated.

NB: the scope of this research is limited to Ayka Addis, Arba Minch, Mahovar and Jiang Dong Wang factories while the river considered is Axabala River. So, you are kindly requested to consider only these factories and river in the course of addressing the questions.
Questionnaire for Sebeta Town Environment, Forest and Climate Change Authority and Industry Development and Expansion Office and Oromia Region Environment, Forest and Climate Change Authority
Is Axaballa River polluted by wastes discharged from factories?
Yes (Polluted) B. No (Not Polluted)
Is untreated water discharged to river?
A. Yes B. No
Is untreated solid waste disposed to river?
YesB. No
How do you evaluate waste treatment of factories?
A. PoorB. Strong
Do the factories waste treatment plant work properly?
YesB. No
How do you evaluate compliance of factories to environmental standards?
Strong B. Medium C. Strong
Do you think adequate initiatives are taken by factories to combat water pollution?
A Strongly agree B. Agree C. Disagree D. Strongly disagree
How much are the factories concerned about water pollution?
Extremely concerned B. Slightly concerned C. Not concerned at all
A factory established relatively earlier discharge more waste than the recent one?
Agree B. Disagree C. No difference
Which factory relatively discharges more wastes to the environment?
Small B. Medium C. Big
As the factories grow, their effect on water pollution increase.

Strongly agree B. Agree C. Disagree D. Strongly disagree
Factories with large export potential emit more wastes to the water.
Strongly agree C. Disagree
Agree D. Strongly disagree
How do you evaluate awareness of employees about waste management?
StrongB. Medium C. Weak
How do you rank monitoring and inspection by government bodies on factories?
Strong B. Medium C. Poor
How do you evaluate waste management of factories as their production increase
DecreaseB. No differenceC. Increase
Lack of advanced technology has contributed to untreated or poorly treated water to be discharged to the water.
Strongly agree B. Agree C. Disagree D. Strongly disagree
There is strong synergy between the factories and government institutions.
Strongly agree B. AgreeC. Disagree D. Strongly disagree
There is lack of strict policies on prevention of water pollution
Strongly Agree B. AgreeC. Disagree D. Strongly disagree
Factories lack sufficient capital to install proper waste treatment?
Agree B. Neutral C. Disagree
Lack of profit by factories due to cost of waste treatment causes problem of river pollution?
Strongly Agree B. Disagree C. Strongly disagree

Questionnaire for Local Communities Living Nearby Axaballa River
Is Axaballa River polluted by wastes discharged from factories?
A. Yes (Polluted) B. No (Not Polluted)
Is untreated water discharged to river?
Yes B. No
Is untreated solid waste disposed to river?
A. YesB. No
How do you evaluate waste treatment of factories?
A. PoorB. Strong
Do the factories waste treatment plant work properly?
A. YesB. No
How do you evaluate compliance of factories to environmental standards?
Strong B. Medium C. Strong
How much are the factories concerned about water pollution?
Extremely concerned B. slightly concerned C. Not concerned at all
A factory established relatively earlier discharge more waste than the recent one?
Agree B. Disagree C. No difference
Which factory relatively discharges more wastes to the environment?
Small B. Medium C. Big
There is strong cooperation between factories and local communities.
Strongly agree B. Agree C. Disagree D. Strongly disagree
How do you evaluate awareness of employees about waste management?
Strong B. Medium C. Weak
How do you rank monitoring and inspection by government bodies on factories?
Strong B. Medium C. Poor
How do you evaluate waste management of factories as their production increase
Decrease B. No difference C. Increase
Factories lack sufficient capital to install proper waste treatment?
Agree B. Neutral C. Disagree
Interview Questions for Office of Prime Minister (Expert in charge of monitoring industrial development strategy and environmental policy implementation) and Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (Officials and Experts in Charge of environmental pollution)
What is your view on expansion of manufacturing industry with reference to its environmental challengers
How do you evaluate the implementation of environmental policy to cope up with industrial wastes polluting the environment?
Do you think that environmental standards are properly implemented by manufacturing industries and particularly textile industry, if not what are the main challenges?
How do you evaluate the effect of textile industry on water resources?
What are the main challenges in implementing environmental policy and resilient green strategy to textile industry?
What is the best way of ensuring resilient green economy in the course of rapid industrialization?
Observation Guiding Checklists
Is water discharged from the factories to river clean or dirty?
Where do factories dispose their solid wastes?
Is factories solid waste disposed in the river or on river bank?
Is the waste discharged to the river associated with factories addressed in this research?
Annex SEQ Annex * roman II: Activity PlanActivity Period (2018)
January February March April May June
Validation of the research proposal            
Talks with some of target group to get preliminary data            
Identifying respondents based on convenience for questionnaire and interview            
Preparing data gathering instruments/tools            
Pretesting questionnaire and interview questions.            
Refining questionnaire and interview questions            
Data collection            
Data organization and entry            
Data analysis            
Report writing            
Research report presentation            
-63500197485Annex SEQ Annex * roman III: Budget Breakdown
16733122774 Annex SEQ Annex * roman IV: Method of Pyhsico-Chemical test

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