“Security System in Train” A PROJECT REPORT Submitted by Vaibhavi Parekh

“Security System in Train” A PROJECT REPORT Submitted by Vaibhavi Parekh

“Security System in Train”
Submitted by
Vaibhavi Parekh (150373111021)
Krutika Shimpi (150373111034)
Kirtan Patel (130370111051)
In partial fulfilment for the award of the degree
Parul Institute of Engineering & Technology, Limda-391760.

Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad.

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This is to certify that the project entitled “Security System in Train” has been carried out by Vaibhavi Parekh(150373111021) under my guidance in partial fulfilment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics & Communication (8th Semester) of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad during the academic year 2017-2018.

Internal Guide:
Guide Name – Umang Soni
Designation – Faculty
Head of the Department
Prof. Anuradha Gharge
This is to certify that the project entitled “Security System in Train” has been carried out by Krutika Shimpi(150373111034)under my guidance in partial fulfilment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics & Communication (8th Semester) of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad during the academic year 2017-2018.

Internal Guide:
Guide Name – Umang Soni
Designation – Faculty
Head of the Department
Prof. Anuradha Gharge
This is to certify that the project entitled “Security System in Train” has been carried out by Kirtan Patel(130370111051) under my guidance in partial fulfilment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics & Communication (8th Semester) of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad during the academic year 2017-2018.

Internal Guide:
Guide Name – Umang Soni
Designation – Faculty
Head of the Department
Prof. Anuradha Gharge
This is to certify that the project entitled “Security System in Train” has been carried out by Vaibhavi parekh(150373111021), Krutika shimpi(150373111034), Kirtan patel(130370111051) under my guidance in partial fulfilment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics & Communication (8thSemester) of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad during the academic year 2017-2018.

Internal Guide:
Guide Name: Umang Soni
Designation: Faculty
Head of the Department
Prof. Anuradha Gharge
Any project survey and successful execution is not possible without kind support and precious help of many individuals. We would sincerely like to extend our thanks to all such people involved.

We warmly acknowledge the continuous inspiration, constant encouragement and timely suggestions of our internal guide Prof. Umang soni we are highly indebted to them for providing necessary information regarding the project & also for their support towards completion of the project.

We are grateful to Prof. Anuradha Gharge, HOD of Electronics & Communication Engineering for permitting us to make use of the facilities available in the department to carry out the project successfully.

Also we are grateful to our institute PARUL INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY? for allowing us to do project on the topic.

Finally, yet importantly, we would like to express our heartfelt thanks to our parents for their blessings and our friends for their wishes for the project.

Vaibhavi Parekh (150373111021)
Krutika Shimpi (150373111034)
Kirtan Patel (130370111051)
Today’s consumer demands the best ; comfortable services. People want their safety at whatever place they want to use those services. It is possible to make security system without any higher level programming or software. This security system requires minimum components to create a train control System. It has Automatic technology. This system has different mode like fire alarm, GSM module etc. for security system purpose. Where ever the problem is occurring like fire in train, fault in track etc. using GSM the message is directly send to the control room. Also camera is connected in train to observe whole the situation.

Index CERTIFICATE2Acknowledgement6Abstract7Index8List of Figure 9
Chapter 1 Introduction101.1Problem Summary or Introduction111.2 Aims and Objectives of the work 13
1.3 Usefulness of the project to the industry/user /society 13
Chapter 2 Literature review and work plan 14
2.1 Literature review 15
Chapter 3 Hardware and Software Description 32
3.1 Hardware 33
3.1 Software 36
Chapter 4 Results and Outcomes 42
4.1 Results 43
Chapter 5 Conclusion and Future Work 48
5.1 Conclusion 49
References 50
Annexure 1 Chart 1 51
Annexure 2 chart 2 52
Annexure 3 chart 3 53
Annexure 4 chart 4 54
Annexure 5 Chart 5 55
List of Figure
figure Name of the figure
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Chapter 1
Security system:-
The most basic definition of any security system is found in its name. It is literally a means or method by which something is secured through a system of interworking components and devices.

Security system for train:-
From nowhere to anywhere, from metro, commuter train to high-speed, long-distance train, railway has brought big convenience to human transportation. Nowadays, train is no longer for just transport, the security it possess and the passenger information, advertisement, audio-visual entertainment it provides has been highly valued.

Safety is accorded the highest priority by Indian Railways and all possible steps are undertaken on a continual basis to prevent accidents and to enhance safety because of which during the last three years, the number of consequential train have decreased from 135 in 2014-15, to 107 in 2015-16 and further to 104 in 2016-17. In the current year (up to 28th February, 2018) the numbers of consequential train accidents have further reduced to 70 as compared to 99 in the corresponding period of the previous year.

Security has been identified as one of the priority areas by Railways for strengthening and up gradation. Measures initiated in recent past to strengthen security over Indian Railways include installation of CCTV cameras at railway stations/trains, operationalization of security helpline 182, and development of security App etc.

Operational measures to strengthen security of passengers include escorting of about 4500 important mail/Express trains daily by Railway Protection Force / Government Railway Police, access control at important railway stations, prosecution of offenders for unauthorized vending/hawking, entry into ladies and reserved compartments, touting of tickets, trespassing, roof travelling, alarm chain pulling etc. under relevant provisions of the Railways Act., detection of passenger related crime, arrest of criminals and handing over to GRP for further legal action.

Close coordination is maintained by the RPF with GRPs to strengthen security over railways. State Level Security Committee for Railways (SLSCR) have also been constituted for all State/UTs under the Chairmanship of respective Director General of Police/Commissioner of States/UTs for regular monitoring and review of security arrangement for the Railways.

Prevention and detection of crime related to passengers, registration of such cases, their investigation and maintenance of law and order in railway premises as well as on running trains are the statutory responsibility of the State Governments. For this purpose, a separate wing of State Police in the name of ‘Government Railway Police’ (GRP) functions in respective States. Ministry of Railways are supplementing efforts of States in providing security over railways through the Railway Protection Force (RPF).

1.2 Aim and Objectives
Aim of our project is to reduce the problem which occurs in train every day.

Now a day the accident of train is general things. This happens because of less attention on track and in train.

Our main aim to create this project is better, secure, and easy operates train.

First of all we include some new parameters in train like fire detector, authorized vendor, security checker, long distance track detector etc. also we use GSM(global system Module) for high technology and easy to commutation.

GSM is very useful module. By using this message or call is directly send to the authorized person like fire station, control room.

1.3 Usefulness of the project
This project is use full for general public who travel from the train.

Because of low cost is project idea is also use full for poor person.

Only limited person in each compartment is travel so the overflow of the compartment is reduced.

Chapter 2
Literature review and work plan
2.1 Literature review
The Arduino Uno R3 is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328. It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. Simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with an AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1
The board has the following new features:
1.0 pinout: added SDA and SCL pins that are near to the AREF pin and two other new pins placed near to the RESET pin, the IOREF that allow the shields to adapt to the voltage provided from the board. In future, shields will be compatible both with the board that uses the AVR, which operate with 5V and with the Arduino Due that operate with 3.3V. The second one is a not connected pin, which is reserved for future purposes.

“Uno” means one in Italian and is named to mark the upcoming release of Arduino 1.0. The Uno and version 1.0 will be the reference versions of Arduino, moving forward.
Operating Voltage- 5VInput Voltage(recommend) – 7-12VInput Voltage (limits)- 6-20VDigital I/O Pins- 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output)Analog Input Pins- 6DC Current per I/O Pin- 40 mADC Current for 3.3V Pin- 50 mAFlash Memory 32 KB (ATmega328) of which 0.5 KB used by bootloaderSRAM -2 KB (ATmega328)EEPROM -1 KB (ATmega328)Clock Speed -16 MHz
Power:-The Arduino Uno can be powered via the USB connection or with an external power supply. The power source is selected automatically.

External (non-USB) power can come either from an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery. The adapter can be connected by plugging a 2.1mm centre-positive plug into the board’s power jack. Leads from a battery can be inserted in the Gnd and Vin pin headers of the POWER connector.

The board can operate on an external supply of 6 to 20 volts. If supplied with less than 7V, however, the 5V pin may supply less than five volts and the board may be unstable. If using more than 12V, the voltage regulator may overheat and damage the board. The recommended range is 7 to 12 volts.

The power pins are as follows: VIN: – The input voltage to the Arduino board when it’s using an external power source (as opposed to 5 volts from the USB connection or other regulated power source). You can supply voltage through this pin, or, if supplying voltage via the power jack, access it through this pin.5V:-The regulated power supply used to power the microcontroller and other components on the board. This can come either from VIN via an on-board regulator, or be supplied by USB or another regulated 5V supply.3V3. A 3.3 volt supply generated by the on-board regulator. Maximum current draw is 50 mA.

Memory:-The ATmega328 has 32 KB (with 0.5 KB used for the boot loader). It also has 2 KB of SRAM and 1 KB of EEPROM (which can be read and written with the EEPROM library).Input and OutputEach of the 14 digital pins on the Uno can be used as an input or output, using pinMode(), digitalWrite(), and digitalRead()functions. They operate at 5 volts. Each pin can provide or receive a maximum of 40 mA and has an internal pull-up resistor (disconnected by default) of 20-50 kOhms. In addition, some pins have specialized functions:
Serial: 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). :-Used to receive (RX) and transmit (TX) TTL serial data. These pins are connected to the corresponding pins of the ATmega8U2 USB-to-TTL Serial chip.

External Interrupts:- 2 and 3. These pins can be configured to trigger an interrupt on a low value, a rising or falling edge, or a change in value. See the attachInterrupt() function for details.

PWM:- 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, and 11. Provide 8-bit PWM output with the analogWrite() function.

SPI:- 10 (SS), 11 (MOSI), 12 (MISO), 13 (SCK). These pins support SPI communication using the SPI library.

LED:- 13. There is a built-in LED connected to digital pin 13. When the pin is HIGH value, the LED is on, when the pin is LOW, it’s off.

TWI: A4 or SDA pin and A5 or SCL pin. Support TWI communication using the Wire library.

Communication:- The Arduino Uno has a number of facilities for communicating with a computer, another Arduino, or other microcontrollers. The ATmega328 provides UART TTL (5V) serial communication, which is available on digital pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX).The ATmega328 also supports I2C (TWI) and SPI communication. The Arduino software includes a Wire library to simplify use of the I2C bus.

Arduino – Board Description:-
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2
1)Power USB- Arduino board can be powered by using the USB cable from your computer. All you need to do is connect the USB cable to the USB connection (1).

2)Power (Barrel Jack)- Arduino boards can be powered directly from the AC mains power supply by connecting it to the Barrel Jack (2).3)Voltage Regulator- The function of the voltage regulator is to control the voltage given to the Arduino board and stabilize the DC voltages used by the processor and other elements.4)Crystal Oscillator- The crystal oscillator helps Arduino in dealing with time issues.5,17)Arduino Reset- You can reset your Arduino board, i.e., start your program from the beginning. You can reset the UNO board in two ways. First, by using the reset button (17) on the board. Second, you can connect an external reset button to the Arduino pin labelled RESET (5).6,7,8,9) Pins (3.3, 5, GND, Vin)3.3V (6) ? Supply 3.3 output volt5V (7) ? Supply 5 output voltMost of the components used with Arduino board works fine with 3.3 volt and 5 volt.GND (8)(Ground) ? There are several GND pins on the Arduino, any of which can be used to ground your circuit.Vin (9) ? This pin also can be used to power the Arduino board from an external power source, like AC mains power supply.10)Analog pins- The Arduino UNO board has five analog input pins A0 through A5. These pins can read the signal from an analog sensor like the humidity sensor or temperature sensor and convert it into a digital value that can be read by the microprocessor.11)Main microcontroller- Each Arduino board has its own microcontroller (11). The main IC (integrated circuit) on the Arduino is slightly different from board to board. The microcontrollers are usually of the ATMEL Company.12)ICSP pin- Mostly, ICSP (12) is an AVR, a tiny programming header for the Arduino consisting of MOSI, MISO, SCK, RESET, VCC, and GND. It is often referred to as an SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface), which could be considered as an “expansion” of the output. Actually, you are slaving the output device to the master of the SPI bus.13)Power LED indicator- This LED should light up when you plug your Arduino into a power source to indicate that your board is powered up correctly. If this light does not turn on, then there is something wrong with the connection.14)TX and RX LEDs- On your board, you will find two labels: TX (transmit) and RX (receive). They appear in two places on the Arduino UNO board. First, at the digital pins 0 and 1, to indicate the pins responsible for serial communication. Second, the TX and RX led (13). The TX led flashes with different speed while sending the serial data. The speed of flashing depends on the baud rate used by the board. RX flashes during the receiving process.15)Digital I/O- The Arduino UNO board has 14 digital I/O pins (15) (of which 6 provide PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) output. These pins can be configured to work as input digital pins to read logic values (0 or 1) or as digital output pins to drive different modules like LEDs, relays, etc. 16)AREF- AREF stands for Analog Reference. It is sometimes, used to set an external reference voltage (between 0 and 5 Volts) as the upper limit for the analog input pins.

GSM SIM900A Module

GSM is a mobile communication modem; it is stands for global system for mobile communication (GSM). The idea of GSM was developed at Bell Laboratories in 1970.  It is widely used mobile communication system in the world. GSM is an open and digital cellular technology used for transmitting mobile voice and data services operates at the 850MHz, 900MHz, 1800MHz and 1900MHz frequency bands.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3
GSM/GPRS module is used to establish communication between a computer and a GSM-GPRS system. Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) is an architecture used for mobile communication in most of the countries. Global Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is an extension of GSM that enables higher data transmission rate. GSM/GPRS module consists of a GSM/GPRS modem assembled together with power supply circuit and communication interfaces for computer. GSM/GPRS MODEM is a class of wireless MODEM devices that are designed for communication of a computer with the GSM and GPRS network. It requires a SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card just like mobile phones to activate communication with the network. Also they have IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) number similar to mobile phones for their identification. A GSM/GPRS MODEM can perform the following operations: 
1.      Receive, send or delete SMS messages in a SIM.2.      Read, add, search phonebook entries of the SIM.3.      Make, Receive, or reject a voice call. 
The MODEM needs AT commands, for interacting with processor or controller, which are communicated through serial communication. These commands are sent by the controller/processor. The MODEM sends back a result after it receives a command. Different AT commands supported by the MODEM can be sent by the processor/controller/computer to interact with the GSM and GPRS cellular network.

The GSM-900 has a down link frequency range of 935-960 MHz and an up link frequency of range of 895-915 MHz This frequency band is partitioned into 124 pairs of simplex channels with separation of 200KHz.A particular range of simplex channels is given to a particular network provider.

The type of interface used in GSM is digital air interface. The analogue voice signals are converted to digital signals before transmission. Up to 8 MS subscribers can be handled by the GSM RF carrier at a time. The rate of transmission is 270 Kbps.

Operations that can be performed using GSM modem:-1. We can read, write and delete SMS messages.2. We can start Sending SMS messages.3. We can reply to a SMS message.4. We can monitor the signal strength in particular locality.5. We can monitor the charging status and also the charge level in the battery.6. We can read, write and search phone book entries.7. We can use it in various projects for different purposes.

Features of GSM modems:-1. Support wide range of frequencies (from 850 MHZ to 1900 MHZ for different classification of GSM networks).2. Supports integration with RS232 cable.3. Can be interfaced to system using USB cables.4. Input voltage varies from 5v to 30v.5. Very less weight in few grams.6. Provided with SIM holder and SMA antenna connector.7. Programmable with AT commands.

IC 7805 Voltage Regulator
Voltage sources in a circuit may have fluctuations resulting in not providing fixed voltage outputs. A voltage regulator IC maintains the output voltage at a constant value. 7805 IC, a member of 78xx series of fixed linear voltage regulators used to maintain such fluctuations, is a popular voltage regulator integrated circuit (IC). The xx in 78xx indicates the output voltage it provides. 7805 IC provides +5 volts regulated power supply with provisions to add a heat sink.

7805 IC RatingInput voltage range 7V- 35VCurrent rating Ic = 1AOutput voltage range   VMax=5.2V ,VMin=4.8V

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4
Pin Function Description
INPUT Input voltage (7V-35V) In this pin of the IC positive unregulated voltage is given in regulation.

GROUND Ground (0V) In this pin where the ground is given. This pin is neutral for equally the input and output.

OUTPUT Regulated output; 5V (4.8V-5.2V) The output of the regulated 5V volt is taken out at this pin of the IC regulator.

This difference between the input and output voltage is released as heat. The greater the difference between the input and output voltage, more the heat generated. If the regulator does not have a heat sink to dissipate this heat, it can get destroyed and malfunction. Hence, it is advisable to limit the voltage to a maximum of 2-3 volts above the output voltage. So, we now have 2 options. Either design your circuit so that the input voltage going into the regulator is limited to 2-3 volts above the output regulated voltage or place an appropriate heatsink that can efficiently dissipate heat.

MQ2 Gas Sensor:-
The MQ-2 Gas Sensor module detects gas leakage in home and industry.

In our Project we are using MQ-2 as smoke detector which is work for security system.

The MQ series of gas sensors use a small heater inside with an electrochemical sensor. They are sensitive to a range of gasses and used indoor at room temperature.

The output is an analog signal and can be read with an analog input of the Arduino.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 5
For Module:-1) Vcc- This pin powers the module, typically the operating voltage is +5V.2) Ground- Used to connect the module to system ground.3) Digital Out- can also use this sensor to get digital output from this pin, by setting a threshold value using the potentiometer.4)Analog Out- This pin outputs 0-5V analog voltage based on the intensity of the gas.

Features:-Operating Voltage is +5VCan be used to Measure or detect LPG, Alcohol, Propane, Hydrogen, CO and even methaneAnalog output voltage: 0V to 5VDigital Output Voltage: 0V or 5V (TTL Logic)Preheat duration 20 secondsThe Sensitivity of Digital pin can be varied using the potentiometer 
How to use MQ-2 Sensors to detect gas:-Using an MQ sensor it detects a gas is very easy. You can either use the digital pin or the analog pin to accomplish this. Simply power the module with 5V and you should notice the power LED on the module to glow and when no gas it detected the output LED will remain turned off meaning the digital output pin will be 0V. Remember that these sensors have to be kept on for pre-heating time (mentioned in features above) before you can actually work with it. Now, introduce the sensor to the gas you want to detect and you should see the output LED to go high along with the digital pin, if not use the potentiometer until the output gets high. Now every time your sensor gets introduced to this gas at this particular concentration the digital pin will go high (5V) else will remain low (0V).

We can also use the analog pin to achieve the same thing. Read the analog values (0-5V) using a microcontroller, this value will be directly proportional to the concentration of the gas to which the sensor detects. You can experiment with this values and check how the sensor reacts to different concentration of gas and develop your program accordingly.

Applications:-Detects or measure Gases like LPG, Alcohol, Propane, Hydrogen, CO and even methaneAir quality monitorGas leak alarmSafety standard maintenanceMaintaining environment standards  in hospitals.

Metal Detector:-
Nowadays, the metal detector is used to identify metallic devices such as bombs, guns for security purpose. To avoid any illegal or unauthorized entry of metallic objects, bombs, knives, guns within the luggage bags of the person carrying them in public places like theatres, shopping malls, parks, airports, hotels, railway stations. A security system is developed by using proximity sensor which is named as a metal detector. So, a metal detector is used in many robotic or electronics projects to detect any present metals which are nearby or the existence of hidden items within objects. This article gives an overview of metal detector working principle and applications.

The metal detector working is, when the electromagnetic field is transmitted from the search coil into the earth. Metals in the electromagnetic field will become strengthened & resend an electromagnetic of their own. The metal detector comprises of a search coil which receives the retransmitted field & alarms the user by generating a response of the metal.
Vk557 metal detector can be used to detect slightly big size metallic object. It used a sensing coil. This coil should be kept near metallic object for detection. Input of circuit is a weak colpitt’s R.F. range oscillator.
Servo Motor SG-90

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 6
It is tiny and lightweight with high output power. This servo can rotate approximately 180 degrees (90 in each direction), and works just like the standard kinds but smaller.
Most of the hobby Servo motors operates from 4.8V to 6.5V, the higher the voltage higher the torque we can achieve, but most commonly they are operated at +5V.  Almost all hobby servo motors can rotate only from 0° to 180° due to their gear arrangement.

Specifications:-Operating voltage: 4.8 V (~5V)Operating speed: 0.1 s/60 degreeDead band width: 10 µsTemperature range: 0 ºC – 55 ºC
Hardware connections:-1) Brown- Ground wire connected to the ground of system2) Red- Powers the motor typically +5V is used3) Orange-PWM signal is given in through this wire to drive the motor 
Applications:-Used as actuators in many robots like Biped Robot, Hexapod, robotic arm etc..Commonly used for steering system in RC toysRobots where position control is required without feedbackLess weight hence used in multi DOF robots like humanoid robots 
7) PIR Sensor
The electronic sensor used to detect the movement of human being within a certain range of the sensor is called as PIR sensor or passive infrared sensor (approximately have an average value of 10m, but 5m to 12m is the actual detection range of the sensor). Fundamentally, pyroelectric sensors that detect the levels of infrared radiation are used to make PIR sensors. There are different types of sensor and here let us discuss about PIR sensor with dome shaped Fresnel lens.

PIR Sensor Module:-The PIR sensor circuit is used in numerous electronics projects which are used to discover a human being entering or leaving the particular area or room. These passive infrared sensors are flat control, consists of a wide range of lens, and PIR sensors can be easily interfaced with electronics circuits.

Whenever, human being (even a warm body or object with some temperature) passes through the field of view of PIR sensor, then it detects the infrared radiation emitted by a hot body motion. Thus, the infrared radiation detected by the sensor generates an electrical signal that can be used to activate an alert system or buzzer or alarm sound.

PIR Sensor Working:-The PIR sensor internally is split into two halves, one half is positive and the other is considered as negative. Thus, one half generates one signal by detecting the motion of a hot body and other half generates another signal. The difference between these two signals is generated as output signal. Primarily, this sensor consists of Fresnel lens which are bifurcated to detect the infrared radiation produced by the motion of hot body over a wide range or specific area.

If once the sensor gets warmed up, then the output remains low until it detects motion. If once it detects the motion, then the output goes high for a couple of seconds and then returns to a normal state or low. This sensor requires settling time, which is characteristically in the range of 10 to 60 seconds.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 7
PIR sensor consists of three pins, ground, signal, and power at the side or bottom. Generally, the PIR sensor power is up to 5V, but, the large size PIR modules operate a relay instead of direct output. It is very simple and easy to interface the sensor with a microcontroller. The output of the PIR is either low or high.

IR sensor
An infrared sensor is an electronic device that emits in order to sense some aspects of the surroundings. An IR sensor can measure the heat of an object as well as detects the motion. These types of sensors measures only infrared radiation, rather than emitting it that is called as a passive IR sensor. Usually in the infrared spectrum, all the objects radiate some form of thermal radiations. These types of radiations are invisible to our eyes, that can be detected by an infrared sensor. The emitter is simply an IR LED (Light Emitting Diode) and the detector is simply an IR photodiode which is sensitive to IR light of the same wavelength as that emitted by the IR LED. When IR light falls on the photodiode, the resistances and these output voltages, change in proportion to the magnitude of the IR light received.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 8
Active infrared sensors consist of two elements: infrared source and infrared detector. Infrared sources include an LED or infrared laser diode. Infrared detectors include photodiodes or phototransistors. The energy emitted by the infrared source is reflected by an object and falls on the infrared detector.

IR Transmitter:-Infrared Transmitter is a light emitting diode (LED) which emits infrared radiations. Hence, they are called IR LED’s. Even though an IR LED looks like a normal LED, the radiation emitted by it is invisible to the human eye.

When operated at a supply of 5V, the IR transmitter consumes about 3 to 5 mA of current. Infrared transmitters can be modulated to produce a particular frequency of infrared light.
IR transmitters can be found in several applications. Some applications require infrared heat and the best infrared source is infrared transmitter. When infrared emitters are used with Quartz, solar cells can be made.

IR Receiver:-Infrared receivers are also called as infrared sensors as they detect the radiation from an IR transmitter. IR receivers come in the form of photodiodes and phototransistors. Infrared Photodiodes are different from normal photo diodes as they detect only infrared radiation.
Principle of Working:-

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 9
An IR sensor consists of an IR LED and an IR Photodiode; together they are called as Photo – Coupler or Opto – Coupler.

When the IR transmitter emits radiation, it reaches the object and some of the radiation reflects back to the IR receiver. Based on the intensity of the reception by the IR receiver, the output of the sensor is defined.

2.2 Plan of Work
Research about the Problems
Study about Component
Study about PROTEUS
Software Implementation of Sensors
Power Supply Circuit
Hardware Interfacing of GSM, GPS and Sensors
Relay Hardware
Prototype Developed
Chapter 3
Hardware and Software Description
3.1 Hardware description:-
At hardware section we describe the whole block diagram in small parts which are initially connected with each other. Each section is having different application to reduce the problem in train.

Whole hardware structure is divided into four parts which are:-
Passenger Limit(IR sensor)
Fire System
Laser Detector
Passenger Limit (IR sensor): – The automatic train is equipped with a passenger limit sensor. In this only limited number of passenger is enter into the train when limit is goes above the door of train can’t open until the limit of passenger in train is start to decrease. The door open/close process is done by using laser rays. When passenger is outside the train rays are detect the body and when the limit of passenger is not fulfil then the door is automatically open and after detection of ray it close. Same procedure is repeated until limit of passenger is fulfilled. After fulfil the passenger limit when ray are detect human outside the train it cannot open so the passenger is identified that the compartment is full. In side of the train human is also detected by laser ray so the passenger can go outside while ray are detect.

27908261641475No Space
00No Space
38481001641475Door close
0Door close
2933700784225003009900288925Space Available
00Space Available
3800475441325Door open
Door open
3429000784225001457325784225001857375441325Laser ray
Laser ray

Fire System: – In railway advanced, multi-level fire detection and alert system is installed. In this system when the smoke level is rise the message is sent to the nearest fire station and also to the main control room by using GSM. When the smoke level is further increase the train is automatically stopped at a time.
40671752095504333875-129540Fire station
Fire station

14478003810MQ5/MQ2 sensor
00MQ5/MQ2 sensor

43624503175Control room
Control room

Laser Detector:- Main train operator who operate the hole train who cannot identify if any human, animal or train is on same track. The laser detector is identifying the disturbance created by human or another train while coming in front of train. For this detection the passive infrared sensor (PIR) is use.it place at the train control room. The laser is scan up to 50 to 80 feet on track. The PIR sensor is sense the warm of object and when warm is detected the signal is given to the operator. When signal is detected the buzzer is start buzzing and because of this the train operator and human/animal understand that the train is coming. While using laser detector possibility of accident is decrease.

4486275260350Train operator
0Train operator

8572529845PIR sensor
PIR sensor

Security:- when the passenger is carry the CNG, Alcohol or any metal object like Knife, gun the security detector is detect all the things also at platform and at the door of the train. MQ2 detector is also use to detect LPG, Natural Gas, H2, CO and some. While using metal detector all the metal components are detected and when any of the harmful material is detected using GSM the message is send to the Police station and Control room
455295050800Police station
Police station

200025328295Harmful material
Harmful material
1828800347345Metal ; MQ2 detector
Metal ; MQ2 detector
372427534925004667250270510Control room
Control room

3.2 Software description
In software description we simulate our main components which are used in our project.

The software which we use for simulation is proteus 8 professional.
12v DC power supply circuit:-

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 10
GSM SIM 900A interface with the ATMEGA328P (ARDUINO):-

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 11
VK 557 Metal detector:-

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 12
Main Circuit diagram:-

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 13

#include ;LiquidCrystal.h;
#include ;Servo.h;
Servo myservo;
// initialize the library by associating any needed LCD interface pin
// with the arduino pin number it is connected to
const int rs = 12, en = 11, d4 = 5, d5 = 4, d6 = 3, d7 = 2;
const int Obstacle = 8;
const int GAS = A0;
int Obstacle_state,Gas_state;
int count=0;
int pos = 0;
LiquidCrystal lcd(rs, en, d4, d5, d6, d7);
void setup() {
lcd.begin(16, 2);
// Print a message to the LCD.

void loop() {
Gas_state = analogRead(GAS);
Obstacle_state = digitalRead(Obstacle);
if(Obstacle_state == LOW)
lcd.setCursor(0, 0); lcd.print(“Count=”); lcd.print(count);
lcd.setCursor(0, 1); lcd.print(“Gas=”); lcd.print(Gas_state); lcd.print(%);
lcd.setCursor(0, 0); lcd.print(“Gas Increase….”);
Serial.print(“Gas level Increase Please take Action”);
lcd.setCursor(0, 1); lcd.print(“Msg sent….”);
void gsm_init()
// Serial.println(“AT+CMGF=1”);/////////////////////////////for Sim 300
lcd.print(“Finding Module..”);
boolean at_flag=1;

lcd.print(“Module Connected..”);
lcd.print(“Disabling ECHO”);
boolean echo_flag=1;
lcd.print(“Echo OFF”);
lcd.print(“Finding Network..”);
boolean net_flag=1;
if(Serial.find(“+CPIN: READY”))
lcd.print(“Network Found..”);
void init_sms()
// Serial.println(“AT+CSCS=”GSM””);///////////////////for sim 300
Serial.println(“AT+CMGS=”+919601934363″”); // use your 10 digit cell no. here
void send_sms()
void send_data(String message)
Chapter 4
Result and outcomes
4.1 Results
Program verify in proteus software:-
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 14
Metal Detector:-

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 15
Overview of the circuit:-

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 16
Detecting the human using IR sensor:-
Counter value-0
Door close

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 17
Counter value-5
Door open

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 18
Message receiver using GSM when the MQ2 sensor sense the Gas:-

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 19
Chapter 5
Conclusion and future work
5.1 Conclusion

??From the project we observer how the metal detector detect the metal object, also see how the GSM work with Arduino ; MQ2 gas sensor and last we use PIR and IR sensor for human detection and human counter.
??National transportation safety board, safety methodology in rail rapid transit system development t, report no. NTSB-RSS-73-1, Washington, D.C., august 1973.
??Jorn pachl (2002) railway operation and control. (2nd edition), vtd rail pub.
??Brain Solomon (2010) railroad signalling. Voyageur press.
??Francesco flammini (2012) railway safety, reliability and security; technologies and systems engineering. IGI global
Annexure 1: Canvas
AEIOU Summery

Empathy Canvas

Ideation Canvas

Product Development

BMC Model


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