By the Allah Almighty grace this project plays a significant role in my life as this shows dedication of my work
By the Allah Almighty grace this project plays a significant role in my life as this shows dedication of my work. For the past few months I’ve gone through many challenging times completing this project. But I’d like to acknowledge my research supervisor Ms. AMEERA MUZAMMIL who started me down towards this path with her guidance, as well as to COTHM for providing me necessary materials, guide for the project and their support for ending it with me. Finally, I’d like to thank all those who helped me, without their guidance it would be difficult for me to accomplish and complete the project. I shall be looking forward to seek more guidance, knowledge with depth conveniently.The environmental atmosphere quality, are basic part of tourism either it’s artificial or natural. In the recent years, the bond between them is very complicated with the involvement of one or many activities that can adverse the environmental impact on the tourism. Therefore, as the environmentally safe new ways of tourism such as nature based tourism , ecotourism and sustainable tourism is recommended. Many of these impact are connected between the architectural design in tourism such as roads, airports, resorts, hotels, restaurants, shops etc. There can be positive and negative effects on the tourism development which can gradually demolish the dependent environmental resources. Meanwhile, various segmentation of tourism and agriculture are very much interested in increasing the numbers of recreation activities which might would be beneficial for the economic growth as well. Having said that, tourism has potential to versatile the environment effects tourism which is beneficiary by protecting. On the other hand, by spreading awareness about saving the lands and nature areas would increases and protect their financial assets.As this research we describe the natural disaster that might affect the environment which would ultimately become difficult for the tourism management to protect their assets or reserve lands for the development. To adverse the effects natural resources, environmental pollution, water, sewage & drainage, earthquake, political involvement, legislation to the physical environment.1. Introduction Tourism is very vast and a fast growing sector in the global which has significant impacts on environment , culture , social and economic which affects positively and negatively.Natural resources helps generate and promote more income ability to provide settings which is environmentally safe for the domestic & overseas community (Cater 1993). Tourism plays a significant tool for developing tourism and economic tool with accuracy it may be the beneficial for the department. But one wrong turn could relatively destroy the natural resources or misuse it. One or the biggest barrier in tourism is water shortage which have affected the communities along with the industry. The natural resources have been damaged due to pollution , loss of natural lands and agricultural lands to the tourism development , loss of open space, destruction including plants, animals etc. degradation of historic sites and monuments , disruption of wildlife, introduction of exotic species(Hall, 2001). This research provides a critique of tourism literature and focuses on environmental impacts on tourism management. Expatriates & the communities indirectly generates revenue but tourists expenditures such as lodging , accommodation , transportation, food, guides and souvenirs (Laarman and Sedjo 1992). When economic stability is constrained and the demand of the visitors are higher than the level of negative tourism impact occur. Interactions between domestic and tourists improvise creative expression that provide new opportunities positively or individually with new negative factors (Przeclawski 1986). The numbers of people are tremendously increasing due to having enough financial means which often seen as an behavior expression. Tourism helps the community to gain knowledge , experience and providing a quality of life which exceeds the needs and the wants of the tourists and the communities. That includes one or many facilities i.e backpacking, assessing wildlife, camping and nature study (English and others 1993).Loss of such valuable assets that has an impact of the lands which leads to such areas soil erosion, increase pollution, discharges into sea or ocean and natural habitat loss and put enormous pressure on the areas (Zaiton & Hassan, 2012). Vulnerability in such critical factors which increase the pressure and endangered species. The research provides the basic information about nature-based , man-made , ecotourism and such issues relatively suggests the potential areas and sustain the tourism value (Al-Badi et al., 2017). As discussing the environmental effects on tourism management should be able to help out the community to create a sustainable and eco friendly tourism industry. Tourism have contributed a major part in the industry to enhance the activity in the market by raising the economic value throughout. To some extent, community thinks that having such activity on going is a bit dominant in the industry. Yet it’s not understood that the interest of fast growing industry is the concern for the community (UNEP, 1995, 1997, 1998; WTO, 1995). Tourism management must maintain an array of impacts which are negatively and consistently affecting the community that aren’t applicable in such conditions. Management must have a vision, a plan and sensitivity to overcome the temptation of having such problematic issues in the industry (Seidl 1994). Opportunities and resources should be utilized as required by working against the effects which are beneficial for the geographical area and impacts that are fluctuating (Cater 1993). By neglecting such impacts on the tourism might be beneficiary for the tourists satisfaction, culture as well the community (English and others 1993). Elements are the main key to maintain tourism sectors which supposedly are invested in green environment. Having a plan might be useful to protect such assets that are valuable for the community and for the economic growth (Laarman and Sedjo 1992). 1.1 Scope of Study The purpose of this research is to divert the impacts on the other way around that would help government making the right decision of letting it damage the natural resources. Such influences along the way causes economic fluctuation and loss of environment. Although, by engaging the positive variables, cultural shock, economic benefits, negative impacts, self-centered community, noise, air, sewage, pollution, natural disaster & climate change for long-term forecasting and the experience should be sustainable on the development of tourism (Rukuižien?, 2014). Keeping these facts in mind to analyze how they might be transverse in 21th century to help make the economic better and develop eco friendly environment. Nevertheless, tourists wants to experience tourism without being revoked even when they shouldn’t be to help create a quality life and unique experiences for the visitors. Therefore, lodging industry, hotels ; motels are being pressurized from the government, natural disaster, political involvement, legislation, community and competitive regulations (Prayag, et al., 2010). The environmental development of tourism should enhance the experience,wants and needs of the tourists while taking precautions and enhancing further opportunities to meet in future. This research includes such process to overcome the impacts on the tourism and for the management to diversify the impacts from negative to positive that should be able to fulfill the requirement i.e cultural shock, biological and support life system (Prayag, 2010; Lee, 2013). Based on the previous research or the researchers analysis concludes that sustainable tourism emerges the development with economy for the betterment and for the protection of environmental life challenges ; resources such as water, sewage, pollution etc. 1.2 Problem statement Apparently, we discuss about the basic fundamentals of the environment , tourism and economic development and the impacts that could affect the process. By comparing the analysis derived from the previous research shows a dramatic change and a huge difference what it used to be as now in 21sth century. Therefore, still management needs to consider improving tourism and exceeds economic value. A comprehensive plan of the community should be the integral part of having a clearer vision. How management can diversify the impacts of environmental and biological life without being affected. ? How such obstacles can be resolved while emerging them and replacing it with positive impacts. ? To development a sustainable tourism, what factors management should consider minimizing the impacts. ? In which sectors it easily could determine the activity level of tourists are being respective. ? Will it ever be the community that prevent making the environment polluted to sustain the tourism.?2.0 Literature Review In this research, we all know that tourism is a very vast ; gradually increasing which pressurize the natural resources only if the usage is higher than expected. Although, due to environmental damage it is very difficult to manipulate ; save such resources. Whether, they’re tourism, or natural based such as erosion of land, animal, species & plants, depletion of sewage, water, air, pollution since (1990). Meanwhile, this research describes that the linkage between them isn’t strong as it should be ’cause such factors are mutually involved with that might adverse the impacts on nature. Therefore, tourism management is responsible for improving the economic, social & nature better & protective that would take care of the needs of tourists as well as industry and the community. The conceptualization was built in 1997 to sustain the tourism in many states (Rio de Janeiro, 1992). With the passage management were so possessed that they had to introduce new policies throughout the region as new policies were introduced they brought new issues & challenges to go through including, unsustainability, land use, noise, climate, water, natural disasters, increased in population, high consumption of energy, biological loss of life & unpredicted ways to deforestation those resources. Tourism industry affects the atmosphere as already discussed that issue. In this research and might have a hazardous effect upon the generation & the environmental atmosphere (G.R Cessford & P.R Dingwall state, 1998). The only reason is a basic need of the research is to sustainable tourism & having a long-term plan developed for each and every country. Researcher studies the significant relation of the industry & the environment (Buckley, 1994). Undisturbed environmental resources are involved by generated tourism activity (Valentine 1992, Weiler and Davis, 1993). If one group is creating the polices greater the good for the people and the community “globally or domestically”. Whereas, the other is experiences economic, cultural and social which are being affected by tourism negative impacts. The purpose of tourism industry is to build & develop a strong & maximize the positive impact while minimizing the negative impacts within the region. Identify and rectification of tourism possible impacts is very much important as segmentation it into various categories or grouping the impacts of tourism. In 1965, ecotourism terminology was used to secure the environment and develop a eco friendly tourism industry suggested by (Gossling, 1999). ecotourism simply means to set a benchmark for to achieve your desired goals by engaging people for economic development and captures the value from the resources. An ecology was derived from the framework which was developed to prevent the impacts on the environment (Terry Davies & Sarah Cahill, 2000). Few were noticed that may have an direct impacts, travelling to a destination and such activities for the visitors at the desired location including boating, hiking, camping, and more. Tourism industry can adhere the procedures within a range that of such an economic activity positively (Swarbrooke, 1999). Community may not experience the environmental or tourism impacts particularly. Apparently, the condition is to having the ability to link the tourists with the cultural activity. Where other describes as intensity of tourism development i.e such activities needs approval from the superiors. Many complex impacts of tourism development needs understanding which should be able to work together to plan, grow and develop. With proper planning and coordination it can help creating positive effects that lowers down the negative impacts such as enhancing the community with minimal costs. Some qualify researcher suggests that ecotourism is much more specific that provide or generate direct revenue and protect the natural resources or areas and spread awareness of to prevent the environmental issues while such resources are beneficial for the community to consider it as an opportunity for them (Wood, 1993). But someone of the researcher weren’t agreed with the ecotourism individuality, they said it should be more than that bring change in the attitudes of the community along with the visitors to protect the resources and help developing a better economic for the tourism (Orams, 1995). With tremendous growth of tourism industry that has led one or many problems which became more obviously includes social, environmental and cultural poverty. As mentioned before having a plan that might create several benefits towards the industry and manage it with responsibly (Shaw ; Williams, 2004). 2.1. Hypothesis H1 – There is a link between environmental effects and tourism. H2 – Environmental resources has negative impacts on tourism management. 2.2. Research Questions The main purpose of this research is to compare the analysis and rectify the cause of environmental impacts on tourism management. Which is why statements or questions are derived from the research’s to minimize the impacts and maximize the resources. 0.1. Environmental impacts Management should protect the natural resources to maximize the outcomes. Due of lack of knowledge & skills that are the biggest barrier in the community to lose such resources. Encountering the relationship between the resources might not be helpful for the development. 0.1.2 Tourism management Management should consider new ways to conduct the policies for the visitors and the community. Overcoming the obstacles would be an opportunity for the management to maintain the natural resources. Political involvement, legislation & security should be prioritized for the safety for biological and land.It is possible that environmental changes could make things better and restore the historical buildings structure, monuments with only the generated income by tourists (Williams 2004). Therefore, in highly valuable areas like natural waterfalls, oceans, lakes and mountains could attract people to enjoy a viewable moment and those who deeply seek inner peace and emotionally relieved by the nature. Although, tourism could protect its assets and lower down the environmental risks made by humans or tourists which is directly affecting atmosphere, water, noise and lands etc. 2.3.1. Water & Land resources Water is essential element for the biological life, humans, animals and all the living species on earth. Though, many construction companies use water to mix the products to build. The main impact of water on the land and for the tourism industry is that to control the level to keep the water diseases free and maintain its PH level (Seabloom, Plews, & Cox, 1989). An essential element is also critical natural resource, generally water usage increased due to such architectural buildings including, resorts, swimming pool, hotels, golf course and personal use in community as well the visitors. Not only water provides nutrition & necessary vitamins to detox the toxins from the body and human health is relatively important. Due to a large number of usage the water is being drained to sewage where potentially disease occurs including hepatitis, viral infections, typhoid fever and more. In some area due to the tendency of the temperature or the climate it’s the another issue for the community to consume more water even when they’re on tour or at home enjoying holiday. A roughly estimate was imagined that normally the consumption of water goes up to 440 liters a day (UNEP,1999). People love to play golf and golf park or ground is being watered excessively which causes water scarcity, golf are usually built near the areas which are protected or gradually limited to obtain resources. Not just water helps the management to overcome the impacts that diversify the elements and the loss of lands minerals which creates pressure on the resources to be utilized likewise including, energy, food and other short raw materials supply. Researcher’s analyze that due to the constant construction of tourism is higher including recreational activities on the valuable assets and resources are associated with the physical impacts whether its natural or artificial. The use of such premises in tourism for tourists are high in demands that can be renewable and non-renewable in the facilities which causes the use of lodging ; motels properties. Negative impacts aren’t just affecting the land, water or such natural elements, it has also affected the forests by land clearing and collection of wood (UNEP, 1999). 2.3.2. Air & noise pollution As the increment of population which causes polluted air, noise, waste of chemicals and sewage affecting the industry and the atmosphere. Most the air pollution occurs due to high number of automobiles usage which release carbon monoxide that pollutes the atmosphere and becomes difficult to breath (Andereck, 1993). Not only specific automobile emits the dangerous smoke directly into the air there are many more likewise continuously increasing that polluting the air including airline, rails, light vehicles and heavy vehicles and more(1997). As the industry growing with that it brings more tourists and more tourists means more polluted air and loss of bio life. These dangerous gases which are produced by the transportation which causes an average person to consume more of that (ICAO,2001). These vehicles causes acid rain, global warming and damaging the ozone layer due to large number of carbon dioxide / monoxide which is a partial resource of energy and the impact would be directly affecting the tourists and the visitors. In a modern era of life the vehicle’s make noise which is affecting the atmosphere produced by cars, buses, airplanes as well as recreational or theme parks vehicles and more. 2.3.3 Sewage Dangerous chemicals coming straight from factories, hotels, recreational parks, hospitals and other facilities are directly goes into the sewage which led to causes pollution. Tourists, management and community should keep in mind that the more the garbage they’ll keep or throw around the oceans, lakes, seas and the nature areas would be polluted and damages the valuable resources (Andereck, 1993). In open area the when those chemicals and the garbage are thrown directly into the water not such diseases are born but causes serious damage due to having numerous nutrients in itn (Gartner, 1996). To prevent and keep the environment eco-friendly serious action should be taken against it. Human , wild and biological life is being threatened due to polluted sewage. Lack of knowledge many destinations have failed to provide such constructional pattern to prevent this happening. Instead of disposing the hideous elements which is supportive towards roads, infrastructure and other service locations(Bacon, 1987). 2.3.4. Climate change In my opinion, the climate is actually the temperature of the earth we’ve been living on and rapidly increasing due to the loss of ozone layer. The gases below trap the sun from putting too much heat and the most of the gases as carbon dioxide is being generated by such resources as coal, oil, fossil fuels and other natural gases. When deforestation happens while the land is in use show many changes frequently. Apparently, these gases cause environmental change as well the temperature to divert the global climate tourism. There’s a connection between tourism and climate , one depends on the other they’re supporting each other to enhance tourists experience(WWF,1992). Various factors are taken under consideration to find out the comparability among the resources whether its linked with tourism or environment. Based of climate changes high frequency of disaster are noted that affected the regions and different parts of the region. Driven impacts shows a greater risk of global warming that occurs to be in a loss of natural resources. This might decompose and increase the impacts which would be ultimately vulnerable likely to not to have rainfall, snowfall and shortening the seasons, water and more (Hall, 2001). To be seen that results might breach and damages the major attractions areas firstly and increase number of disasters like extreme weather, typhoons, tornadoes and hurricanes(UNEP,1997). 2.3.5. Natural disaster You can’t do anything about natural disaster causing severe damage and catastrophes like , earthquakes, floods, volcanoes, wildfires and more might seriously affect tourism and environment in result of happening that would cause many dangerous diseases throughout the region whether its inbound & domestically.