The Bauhaus art cognoscente that I chose as a topic to survey is Johannes Itten. He was a airy colour and art theoretician who developed colour wheel and stars which are widely studied by art pupils. He besides delved into religious and psychological facet of colour. I feel profoundly connected to his work as the first measure towards understanding art is to understand colour. I feel Johannes Itten ‘s simplistic attack towards encompassing colour and portraying his sensitiveness in his graphics is rather tangible and that is the ground I feel the demand to larn more about his graphics and colour theories.
Where are they located? When were they born? What was the universe like when they were working?
Johannes Itten was born on 11th Nov, 1888 in Sudern-Lindern, Switzerland in a school instructor ‘s household. After recognizing his passion for Humanistic disciplines he moved to Vienna for art surveies in 1916 and so moved to Weimar in 1919 to learn in the Bauhaus.
It was a competitory universe when Johannes Itten lived. Europe was war trodden and people laid more accent on rewards and nest eggs so cultivating artistic aptitude. Although Johannes Itten someway escaped the horrors of war, most of the creative person, painters, designer during that period had to forcibly inscribe in the war. In the art universe people were sceptic of new thoughts and that was one of the chief grounds of his ejection from the Bauhaus. Art and trade was booming in that period and in writing designing grew bold with experiments in typography, penmanship and picture taking etc which led to a sudden involvement in in writing designing.
Did they go to school? Where? What did they analyze?
Since Johannes Itten was a instructor ‘s boy he trained as a primary school instructor to prosecute a calling in the field. Itten nevertheless realized that learning primary school was non his thing and that he has preference for colour and humanistic disciplines. Under parental force per unit area he decided to take Diploma in mathematics and scientific discipline to learn at a secondary school, but non before taking a semester at Geneva Ecole des Beaux – Humanistic disciplines in Genf. It was after analyzing at that place that he realized his disposition towards humanistic disciplines. He so studied under Adolf Holzel in Stuttgart.
After completing his surveies he moved to Vienna in 1916 where he met Walter Gropius in 1919 ( laminitis of the Bauhaus ) who extended him the invitation to talk at the Bauhaus in Weimar. In 1926, nevertheless, after falling out with Gropius Walter, Johannes Itten established an art school in Berlin to develop designers, creative persons, painters and lensmans. From 1932 to 1938 Itten taught at the Krefeld School of Textile Design, where he edified industrial interior decorators. He became the manager of the Museum and Institute of Arts and Crafts in Zurich before retiring in 1955.
Having being to the full dedicated to the instruction institutes Itten ne’er found much clip to give to his ain creative activities until 1955, after retirement nevertheless he became more fecund so earlier. He died in Zurich in 1967.
Can you specify the interior decorator ‘s doctrine in his/her work ( i.e. did they follow or make a certain motion? ) What type of work did they make?
Frank WhitfordA ( Bauhaus, 1984 ) describes Johannes Itten as ‘a adult male of unusual beliefs, a instructor of unconventional glare and a confusing mixture of saint and mountebank ‘ .
His doctrine and learning methods is said to hold been extremely influenced by Friedrich Froebel ‘s tuition of ‘education through drama ‘ . Johannes Itten started the foundation class at Bauhaus which subsequently turned out to be important and Itten as one of the major pedagogical force, as the learning plan was based on Froebel ‘s principals. The class included presenting pupils with cast-off stuffs like wire, composition board, newspaper, blade, matchbox etc, and challenges them to improvize something. Course besides encompassed analyzing stuffs like wood, metal, feather etc, by looking, feeling and pulling them until they can be drawn from memory. The thought behind explicating such a class was to excel realistic reproduction to accomplish interpretive design alternatively of mere ersatz.
Itten taught in the Bauhaus boulder clay 1923, stressing chiefly on the constructs of making and concentrating on signifier and colour. It was while learning the foundation art class that Itten formulated his theories on colour which subsequently found their manner in his much acclaimed book – The Art of Color. In March 1923, Itten left the Bauhaus because Walter Gropius no longer approved of his learning method – in peculiar the preparatory brooding exercisings and because he followed an far eastern mysterious religion called Mazdazhan which involved him have oning a long robe and shaving his caput. With the going of Itten brought the terminal of the so called ‘Romantic ‘ or the ‘Universalistic ‘ epoch of the Bauhaus.
Johannes Itten wrote several books during his life-time. One of his most acclaimed work is ‘The Art of Color ‘ which trades with colour contrast, impregnation and chromaticities. He defined and identified schemes for successful colour combinations. He besides created Color wheel, trigon and four which are widely studied in the colour theories and mostly incorporated into computing machine systems where it organizes colour. Johannes Itten worked highly difficult till the twenty-four hours he retired in 1955 and it was after this that he started bring forthing his ain work in the signifier of books and pictures e.g. ‘My Preliminary Course at the Bauhaus ‘ and ‘Art and Color ‘ adverting few among the many.
How does the interior decorator ‘s doctrine and their iconic work tantrum into the modern-day design scene? Show ocular illustrations of modern-day plants from interior decorators who have drawn inspiration from your chosen interior decorator.
Johannes Itten doctrine involved encompassing colour as he believed “ to go the maestro of colour one must see, experience, and see each person colour in its eternal combinations with all other colour ” . It involves specifying and placing schemes of different colour combinations.
Although Johannes Itten was non the exclusive conceiver of colour wheel, his is one of the most widely studied one. Color wheel was foremost invented by Sir Issac Newton concentrating on continuum of colour, was subsequently expanded on by Goethe who concentrated on the psychological facet of colour. It was Johannes Itten who termed colour wheel as simple and easy to understand.
His colour wheel contains twelve colourss: three primary colourss, three secondary, and six third colourss.
Primary Color: These are the edifice blocks of all other colour. They can non be made by blending other colourss – Red, Yellow, and Blue.
Secondary Color: These are made when primary colour is assorted together – Orange, Green, and Violet.
Third Color: These are assorted when Secondary colour is assorted together – yellow-green, yellowish-orange, reddish-orange, reddish-violet, bluish-violet, and blue-green.
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FarbkreisA by Johannes Itten ( 1961 )
Color Theory: Johannes Itten formulated the ‘The seven methodological analysis ‘ for uniting colourss utilizing different chromaticities, contrast and impregnation of colourss – explained below.
The contrast of impregnation The contrast of light and dark The contrast of extension
Contrast of impregnation Contrast of light and dark Contrast of Extension
The contrast is formed by combination of light and dark colour and their comparative shadiness and shade.
It refers to the ratio of colorss used in ocular art. E.g. ratio of green to purple in the image above.
The contrast is formed by uniting visible radiation and dark colour.
The contrast of complements Coincident contrast The contrast of chromaticity
Contrast of complements Coincident contrast Contrast of chromaticity
The contrast is formed when two next colour of the colour wheel are placed together. E.g. ruddy and bluish flowers when are placed bordering each other appear green and orange.
The contrast is formed by combination of chromaticities across the colour wheel. Increasing the distance between the chromaticities increases the contrast.
The contrast is formed by uniting matching colour across the colour wheel. Blending such colour consequence in impersonal tones such as Grey or black.
The contrast of warm and cool
Contrast of warm and cool
Warm colour like ruddy, xanthous, orange when combined with cool colour like blue, green, violet make the contrast of warm and cool.
Roy Newell: Though Roy Newell ‘s pictures largely are abstract and non expressionist like Itten ‘s, still I felt a connexion in the work of the two fables. If we study Roy ‘s ‘The private myth ‘ I believe Roy uses fluctuation in colour with regard to strength of several chromaticities e.g. usage of different sunglassess of green and ruddy varying from light to dark, which illustrates the unequivocal attack of colour theory used by Itten.
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The Private Myth
Mark Rothko: This picture of Mark Rothko shows the same usage of warm and cool colorss as depicted in Itten ‘s Color Theory. The white, xanthous, orangish belonging to warm colourss while ruddy, tap and black belonging to cool colourss.
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Red Orange Tan and Purple 1949
Paul Klee: While analyzing Johannes Itten ‘s ‘Group of Houses in spring ‘ I found a dramatic similarity in these two painter ‘s manner of painting. I believe both ‘Temple Gardens ‘ and ‘group of houses in spring ‘ utilizations geometric forms and different chromaticities of colour in assorted ways to do beautiful piece of art. Paul Klee ‘s ‘Double collapsible shelter ‘ uses the Johannes Itten ‘s colour wheel to demo colour interaction by utilizing chromaticities along with shades and sunglassess.
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Temple Gardens 1920
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Double collapsible shelter 1923
Frank Stella: In my sentiment this picture has taken inspiration from Itten ‘s Color wheel as it forms contrast by utilizing the comparative impregnation of light and dark colour, and every bit good as takes inspiration from his colour theory as it uses warm and cool colourss with increasing and diminishing strength.
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Samples of Johannes Itten Visual Art
These are Ocular illustrations of him utilizing the contrasting belongingss of colour to bring forth phenomenal looks like deepness, semblance and dimension. What is alone in all these samples is that Itten used geometrical forms to show his art. Contrast is created in these samples by utilizing warm colour like yellow, ruddy and orange and cool colour like blue and black. Besides usage of opposite colour across the colour wheel besides creates contrast which can be seen here in the bold usage of yellow and blue.
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Johannes Itten, Depths 1915
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Johannes Itten, Group of places in spring, 1916
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Johannes Itten, The Bach Singer, 1916
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Johannes Itten, Horizontal Vertical 1915