Ulam throughout the Old World tropics and

Ulam throughout the Old World tropics and

Ulam is a type of salad which includes fresh leaves, fruits and other part of plants which are eaten raw. It is a traditional Malay dish but it is now well accepted by other races. Examples of Ulam include Pegaga, Kacang Botor, Petai and Kemangi. They are rich in mineral ions, vitamins and fibre.

Some of the plants are also used in the preparation of herbal medicines and drink. Ulam was the title of the plants are eaten raw or just dicelur (soaked briefly in hot water) before being eaten with rice . Ulam is usually eaten with condiments such as budu , cencaluk , or sambal belacan , before being eaten with rice .Ulam is known as the main daily meals among the Malays in the villages. Ulam taken from various parts of plants that can be eaten. Ordinary vegetables can be eaten raw when eaten so alone. These include vegetables such as cucumbers , cabbage and eggplant .

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In addition to the regular vegetables, there is another group of vegetables is a traditional side dish. Ulam traditionally more widely used, including use as an ordinary salad, as in the preparation of dishes such as nasi ulam or nasi kerabu and cooking vegetable fats , and as medical materials such asdiabetes or high blood pressure Ulam also play an important role in the treatment of Malay and Western medical researchers now experts also recognize the benefits of good salads in addition to the body. For example, pennywort is now recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an herbal generate thinking skills in young children than to help blood circulation and improve the health of the skin . Ulam soaking alkaloid compound contains a laxative that could provide a stimulus to urinate. Besides soaking can be an effective cure patients with diabetes mellitus should be continued with a bit rate.

This is because the content of a compound of the alkaloid in it is able to neutralize the content of sugar in the body. Leaf kaduk also contains calcium which is needed by the body height to strengthen bones and prevent the disease osteoporosis , especially among women. Example of ulam Kemangi (ocimum sanctum) is an aromatic plant in the family Lamiaceae which is native throughout the Old World tropics and widespread as a cultivated plant and an escaped weed. 1 It is an erect, much branched subshrub 30–60 cm tall with hairy stems and simple opposite green leaves that are strongly scented.

Leaves have petioles, and are ovate, up to 5 cm long, usually slightly toothed. Flowers are purplish in elongate racemes in close whorls. 2 There are two main morphotypes cultivated in India—green-leaved (Sri or Lakshmi tulsi) and purple-leaved (Krishna tulsi). 3 Tulsi is cultivated for religious and medicinal purposes, and for its essential oil. It is widely known across South Asia as a medicinal plant and an herbal tea, commonly used in Ayurveda, and has an important role within the Vaishnavite tradition of Hinduism, in which devotees perform worship involving tulsi plants or leaves.Medical Uses One study showed Ocimum Sanctum to be an effective treatment for diabetes by reducing blood glucose levels. 7 The same study showed significant reduction in total cholesterol levels with Ocimum Sanctum.

Another study showed that Ocimum Sanctum beneficial effect on blood glucose levels is due to its antioxidant properties. 8Ocimum Sactum also shows some promise for protection from radiation poisoning9 and cataracts. 10 The fixed oil has demonstrated anti-hyperlipidemic andcardioprotective effects in rats fed a high fat diet11 Chemical ConstituentsThe leaves and flowers contains a volatile oil 0. 1 to 0. 23%. It contains fenile 45 to 73% and aldehydes 15 to 25%. Seeds contain stable oil 17.

8%. Besides, this plant contains alkaloid, glycosides and tannins. Leaves possess ascorbic acid and carotene. Habitat It is found throughout India. Toxicology It has no toxic effect when consumed in normal dosage Plant part used Seed, leaves, flowers and roots Uses 1. Paste- it is used to apply on the skin related problems.

2. Juice- it is used as nasal drops in case of headaches . It is also helpful in suppressing the ear ache. . Powder- it is helpful in maintaining the normal condition of the digestive tract. It is also helpful in maintaining the respiratory tract and resolving all its problems. It is very effective in suppressing any kind of infection invading the body and also helps in maintaining the normal body temperature.

Indications 1. Skin related problems 2. Head aches 3. Protozoa 4. Infections 5. Convulsions 6.

Indigestion 7. Worms 8. Cough 9.

Asthma Example of Kemangi.. PROTEIN Proteins are large complex organic molecules which play diverse roles in living organisms.Proteins are made up of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Some proteins also contains sulphur and phosphorus. Foods that are rich in proteins include fish, meat, milk, nuts and eggs. All proteins are made up of monomers or units called amino acids.

A dipeptide consists of two molecules of amino acids that are linked together by a peptide bond through condensation. Conversely, a dipeptide can be broken down into amino acids by mean of hydrolysis. Protein Functions Antibodies – are specialized proteins involved in defending the body from antigens (foreign invaders).One way antibodies destroy antigens is by immobilizing them so that they can be destroyed by white blood cells. Contractile Proteins – are responsible for movement.

Examples include actin and myosin. These proteins are involved in muscle contraction and movement. Enzymes – are proteins that facilitate biochemical reactions. They are often referred to as catalysts because they speed up chemical reactions. Examples include the enzymes lactase and pepsin. Lactase breaks down the sugar lactose found in milk.

Pepsin is a digestive enzyme that works in the stomach to break down proteins in food.Hormonal Proteins – are messenger proteins which help to coordinate certain bodily activities. Examples include insulin, oxytocin, and somatotropin.

Insulin regulates glucose metabolism by controlling the blood-sugar concentration. Oxytocin stimulates contractions in females during childbirth. Somatotropin is a growth hormone that stimulates protein production in muscle cells.

Structural Proteins – are fibrous and stringy and provide support. Examples include keratin, collagen, and elastin. Keratins strengthen protective coverings such as hair, quills, feathers, horns, and beaks.Collagens and elastin provide support for connective tissuessuch as tendons and ligaments. Storage Proteins – store amino acids. Examples include ovalbumin and casein. Ovalbumin is found in egg whites and casein is a milk-based protein.

Transport Proteins – are carrier proteins which move molecules from one place to another around the body. Examples include hemoglobin and cytochromes. Hemoglobin transports oxygen through the blood.

Cytochromes operate in the electron transport chain as electron carrier proteins.Proteins serve various functions in the body. The structure of a protein determines its function.

For example, collagen has a super-coiled helical shape. It is long, stringy, strong, and resembles a rope. This structure is great for providing support. Hemoglobin on the other hand, is a globular protein that is folded and compact. Its spherical shape is useful for maneuvering through blood vessels. Proteins were first described by the Dutch chemist Gerardus Johannes Mulder and named by the Swedish chemist Jons Jacob Berzelius in 1838.

Early nutritional scientists such as the German Carl von Voit believed that protein was the most important nutrient for maintaining the structure of the body, because it was generally believed that “flesh makes flesh. “1 The central role of proteins as enzymes in living organisms was however not fully appreciated until 1926, when James B. Sumner showed that the enzyme urease was in fact a protein.

2 The first protein to be sequenced was insulin, by Frederick Sanger, who won the Nobel Prize for this achievement in 1958.The first protein structures to be solved were hemoglobin andmyoglobin, by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew, respectively, in 1958. 34 The three-dimensional structures of both proteins were first determined by X-ray diffraction analysis; Perutz and Kendrew shared the 1962 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for these discoveries.

Proteins may be purified from other cellular components using a variety of techniques such as ultracentrifugation, precipitation,electrophoresis, and chromatography; the advent of genetic engineering has made possible a number of methods to facilitate purification.Methods commonly used to study protein structure and function include immunohistochemistry, site-directed mutagenesis, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Distributed computing is a relatively new tool researchers are using to examine the infamously complex interactions that govern protein folding; the statistical analysis techniques employed to calculate a protein’s probable tertiary structure from its amino acid sequence (primary structure) are well-suited for the distributed computing environment, which has made this otherwise prohibitively expensive and time consuming problem significantly more manageable.

Protein structures… The primary structure of protein refers to the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. Different types of proteins have different sequences of amino acids. These sequence are determined by the genetic code carried in the DNA molecules in the nucleus. The secondary structure of protein refer to the polypeptide chain that is coiled to form an alpha-helix or folded into beta-pleated sheets.

The tertiary structure refers to the way the helix chain or beta-pleated sheets are folded into a three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide.Enzymes, hormones, antibodies and plasma proteins are example of proteins with a tertiary structure. The quartenary structure refers to the combination of two or more tertiary structure polypeptide chains to form one large and complex protein molecule. For example, haemoglobin has a quartenary structure of protein. Example of primary structure.. ?The sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide.

Example of Secondary structure.. ?The coiling and folding of polypeptide Example of Tertiary structure ?The overall three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide chain..

Example of Quartenary structure.. The combination of two or more tertiary polypeptides that makes up a protein Types of amino acids. *Divided into two groups. Essential amino acids : ;Cannot be snythesised by the body ;Can only be obtained from the diet Example : leucin ; animal proteins contains all the essential amino acids. Thus, they are called second class protein Non-essential amino acids : ?Can be synthesized by the body ?Derived from other amino acids ?Plant proteins do not contain all the essential amino acids.

Therefore, they are called second class protein. Example of meat that good for health..

Rabbit meat is rich in protein but low in fat and cholestrol. The meat has a soft texture and is suitable for young children. Rabbit meat has been used and is suitable for special diets, such as those for heart disease patients, diets for the aged, low sodium diets, weight reduction diets. Rabbit is lower in % of fat than chicken, turkey, beef, and pork. Cholesterol level in rabbit meat is much lower than chicken, turkey, beef, pork. Mushroom There are many types of mushroom available in our country for example button mushroom, abalone mushroom and shittake mushroom.These mushrooms have a high nutrient content and some are believed to be able to increase the body’s immunity.

Mushrooms themselves provide you with lean proteins as they have zero cholesterol, fats and very low carbohydrates. Moreover, the high lean protein content in mushrooms helps burn cholesterol when they are digested. Mushrooms are very effective in preventing cancer of breast and prostrate due to presence of Beta-Glucans and conjugated Linoleic Acid having anti carcinogenic effects.

Out of these two, linoleic acid is particularly helpful in suppressing effects of estrogen.This estrogen is the prime reason for breast cancer in women after menopause. The Beta-Glucans, on the other hand, inhibit growth of cancerous cells in cases of prostrate cancer. Selenium in mushrooms is very effective in inhibiting cancerous cells. Mushrooms can be an ideal low energy diet for diabetics.

They have no fats, no cholesterol, very low carbohydrates, high proteins, vitamins and minerals, a lot of water and fiber. Moreover, they contain natural insulin and enzymes which help breaking down of sugar or starch of the food.Again, they are known to contain certain compounds which help proper functioning of liver, pancreas and the other endocrinal glands, thereby promoting formation of insulin and its proper flow. Diabetics often suffer from infections, particularly in their limbs, which tend to continue for long. The natural antibiotics in mushrooms can help protect them from this dreaded situation too.

Method used to improve the quality and quantity of food production. 1 : Direct Seeding Is a method by which seeds are sown directly into the soil by using special machines.The seeds are covered with soil as they are being sown.

This method does not involve transplanting of seedlings and therefore results in less damage to the roots of the seedlings. The plants achieve faster growth and this increases the yield. Less water is needed to irrigate the fields. This method is widely used in the planting of paddy to obtain higher yields of rice.

2 : Hydroponics The hydroponics method does not involve the use of soil in vegetable cultivation. This is a commercial technique for growing certain crop plants in culture solutions rather than soil.The roots of the plants are immersed in a solution which contains all the marconutrients and micronutrients required by the plants in the correct proportion. The plants are supported by a medium such as pebbles. The culture solution is aerated to provide sufficient oxygen for respiration. 3 : Aeroponics This is a modified technique of hydroponics.

In this method, the plants are suspended in a special chamber with the roots are exposed to the air. Nutrients solutions are sprayed onto the roots of the plants at suitable intervals. This enables the plant roots to absorb more oxygen in between the periods of spraying.

Light intensity and temperature can be controlled to ensure that the environmental factors are at an optimum level for maximum growth. Plants achieve faster growth because the culture solutions provide nutrients in a form that can be readily absorbed by the roots and used by the plants to carry out various living process. 4 : Breedings of plants.. This method has been in existence for thousands of years. In this technique, different plant varieties with certain beneficial characteristic are selectively bred.

The resulting varieties of plants inherit the beneficial characteristic of both parents plant.They have increased nutritional value, higher yields and show greater resistance to disease and climate change. In Malaysia, the most widely planted variety of oil palm is Tenera. It is a variety produced by crossing the parent varieties of Dura and Pisifera. Tenera possess the beneficial characteristic of Dura and Pisifera. It produces fruits with less fibre and more oil content. The fruit do not drop offeasily from the bunch.

Example method Breedings of plants.. Example picture breedings of Tenera Example picture of Tenera… 5 : Animal BreedingThis method involves the cross breeding of two different breeds of animals. Animals have been selectively bred to enhance the yields of milk, meat and other products . In Malaysia, the hybrid cattle called Mafriwal is bred in farms for its milk. Mafriwal is a cross between a Friesian cow and a Sahiwal bull.

Mafriwal produces more milk with low fat content. 6 : Tissue culture With this method the cells or tissues taken from the parent plant are grown in a sterile culture medium or culture solutions which contains the necessary nutrients and growth hormones. Plantlets which are produced can be transplanted to nurseries.In Malaysia, tissue culture of plant tissues enables commercial propagation of clones which have all the beneficial characteristic of parent plant. This method helps increases the agricultural yield of many crop plant like papayas, pineapples and starfruit. Example of Tissue Culture..

7 : Genetic Engineering This method has a great potential in improving the quality and quantity of food to meet the needs of an increasing world population. This technique enables the characteristic of an organism to be altered by changing the genetic composition of the organism.It involves the transfer of beneficial genes from one organism to another organism. For example , genes from plants can be inserted into the DNA of animals and vice versa. The genetically modified organism (GMO) is called a transgenic organism. Developments in genetic engineering have enable transgenic crop plants such as wheat, tomatoes, legumes, soya beans and potatoes to be cultivated commercially.

These crop plants contains genes from other organism to enhance growth. 8 : Soil management In this method soil should be cultivated in a controlled manner so that not all minerals are removed from it at any one time.Regular addition of organic or inorganic fertilizers returns the nutrient to the soil. Ploughing helps increase aeration in the soil. 9 : Crop rotation This method can maintain and improve soil fertility and prevent the build-up of pest which are peculiar to certain crop species. In this method, different plants are cultivated in succession on the same plot of land over a period of times.

In a typical four stages rotation, legumes are an important source of nitrogen for the soil. Steps also must be taken to reduce soil erosions and the leaching of the nutrients from the soil.Addition of organic matter promotes humus formation and improves the soil structure.

This helps promote plants growth. 10 : Biological control.. This is achieved by introducing a natural enemy of the pest, such as a predator or a parasite. The predator or parasite either feeds on or kills the pest. In Malaysia, owls and snakes have been used successfully to control the rat population in oil palm plantations.

This method of pest control is beneficial as it reduces a number of problems associated with chemical control which uses pesticides.Technological Development in Food Processing The necessity for food processing… Food processing is the process of preparing food to make it more attractive, more palatable and last longer. Food has to be processed so that it can withstand long periods of transportation and storage. The purpose of food processing is to preserve food by overcoming the factors that can cause food spoilage. As most foods remain fresh and edible for only a brief period of time, various methods have o be employed to preserve them.Food preservation involves methods of preparing food to extend the lifespan of food so that it can be stored for future use.

Food substances are processed in various ways to ensure that there is a continuous supply for the population. One of the causes for food spoilage is the action of microorganisms on food, especially decomposing bacteria and fungi which act on carbohydrates and protein in food to produce carbon dioxide, water, ammonia, hydrogen sulphide and other organic substances. The presence of these substances spoils the food and make It toxic.Oxidation of food also another cause for food spoilage. This condition is due to the oxygen reacting with enzymes and chemicals released by the cells in the fruit.

Oily food also will becomes rancid, smells and tastes different as a result of oxidation. Rancid food is harmful to he body. Food is also processed to increase its commercial value. Commercially processed food generally contains food additives.

Food additives play an important role in preserving the freshness of food and improving the taste, appearance and texture of processed food.Food is also processed with the intention of diversifying the uses of food substances. Milk is a good example of how food processing has increased the variety of dairy products. Cheese, yoghurt, ice cream, butter and chocolates are some examples of processed dairy products. Correlating the food processing methods with factors causing food spoilage Microorganisms, like other living organisms, require food, water, oxygen and a suitable temperature for growth and reproduction.

In addition, microorganisms can only survive in conditions with optimum pH and solute concentrations.Food can be preserved by destroying the microorganism present in food or by stopping the activities of these microorganism. Cooking is the easiest way to prevent food spoilage. Heating food at high temperature can killed microorganisms and denature the enzymes that cause the breakdown of food. Treating food with salt or sugar causes the microorganisms to lose water due o osmosis. Pickling food such as chillies with vinegar reduces the pH and prevents microorganisms from growing. Vegetables and fruits are normally preserved by using this method..Fermentation of fruit juices produces ethanol which, at high concentrations, prevents the juice from becoming spoiled. The ethanol produced has great commercial value. Traditional food such as tapai is produced by the fermentation of pulut rice or tapioca. Drying under the hot sun removes water from food, and this prevents the microorganisms from growing. The ultraviolet rays of the sun also kill bacteria and many other microorganisms. Milk is preserved by pasteurisation to destroy bacteria which cause disease such as those of tuberculosis and typhoid. This method of preservation retains the natural flavour of milk.The pasteurised milk can then be refrigerated to last for a few days. Canning uses heat sterilization to kill microorganisms and their spores. The food is packed in cans and steamed at high temperatures and pressure to drive out air. The cans containing food are then sealed while the food is being cooled. The vacuum created within the cans prevents growth of microorganism.. Refrigeration is a common method employed at home to keep food such as meat and fish from spoiling. The extremely low temperatures prevent the growth of microorganisms or the germination of spores.

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