The for non citizens use of public benefits
The welfare legislation in 1996 reduced noncitizens access to public benefits. Research indicated that welfare reform has had a chilling effect. Because of this effect noncitizens are not utilizing them because of fear and confusion. The chilling effect also hit the refugees who were exempted from the benefit restrictions for a certain period following arrival.
The United States Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PROWORA) is the welfare reform,this program changed the nations approach toward legally admitted noncitizens . Before this program PROWORA native born citizens, naturalized citizens and legal permanent residents both had equal eligibility for public benefits and services, and few rights and privilidges were denied. The new law barred most new legal immigrants from receiving ford stamps and Supplemental Security Income (SSI), and cash assistance program for the elderly and the disabled. Also failed from receiving means-tested benefits like Temporary Assistance to Needy Families during the first five years in the United States. Research suggests that PROWORA had numerous consequences for non citizens use of public benefits and economic well-being.
The major studies in this area have been conducted by an Urban Institute (Capps et.,2002;Fix and Passel, 2002). Data being used from the 1995 and 200 Current population Surveys, Fix and Passel (2002) found that non citizens use the TANF, food stamps, SSI, and Medicaid declined substantially after welfare reform (1999) campared to before (1994), and that these declines were not attributable.One subpopulation of non citizens that would be vulnerable to chilling effects is refugees. Refugees were specifically exempted by PROWORA from the benefits restrictions.
The law stipulates that refugees reamin eligible for SSI, food stamps, and Medicaid during their first seven years in the United States and for TANF and state and local benefits during the first five years. The exemption was created in the recognition of the the refugees fleeing from persecution and admitted for humanitarian reasons. This was thanks to Refugee Act of 1980.ReferencesInternational Migration Review, Dec 22, 2004