Biblical Minotaur. This adds immensely to the
Biblical and Mythological Allusions In Hermon Melville’s “Moby Dick”“An allusion is a reference to a well-known person, place, event, literary work, or work of art.” (Thompson 1155). Writers often use biblical and mythological allusions to which their readers are familiar. In Moby Dick, Herman Melville constantly uses biblical and mythological allusions. With these allusions the reader understand the topic of discussion and is also exposed to the wisdom and knowledge that Melville possess.The first allusion appears in the first line of the novel.
“Call me Ishmael.” (Melville1). Ishmael was the biblical son of Abraham and his servant Hagar. He was disowned in favor of Isaac, Abraham’s son with his wife Sarah.
An angel prophesied to Hagar. “his hand shall be against every man, and every man’s hand against him.” (Genesis 16:12). The name “Ishmael” has since become used commonly for an outcast, which is “quite timely since he is nothing more than a tenderfoot when it comes to whaling and is viewed as n outcast to the other sailors upon the Pequod.
” (Donahue 18).Another biblical allusion is that of the prophet Elijah and Captain Ahab. Elijah warms Queequeg and Ishmael of Ahab. Ishmael says that he and Queequeg and boarding the Pequod because they have just “signed the articles” (Melville 68) and Elijah responds “Anything down there about your souls” (Melville 68).
This conflict between Elijah and Ahab goes all the way back to the bible. I Kings describes the conflict between King Ahab and his wife Jezebel. Elijah tells Ahab that “in the place where dogs licked the blood of Naboth shall dogs lick they blood, even thine,” (I Kings 21:19), and that “the dogs shall eat Jezebel by the wall of Jezrell” (I Kings 21:23). This allusion is significant for foreshadowing the destruction of the Pequod” (Donohue 19). In Moby Dick the characters names are not so different than names in the Bible and neither is the outcome. Melville not only used a number of biblical allusions in Moby Dick, but he also used many mythological allusions.
He used Greek mythology in describing the tattooing on the Queequeg. “The counterpane of the patchwork, full of odd little parti-colored squares and triangles, and this arm of his tattooed all over with an interminable Cretan labyrinth of a figure. (Melvine 19).
The Cretan labyrinth was the maze that imprisoned the half-bull, half-human Minotaur. This adds immensely to the visual imagery of Queequeg. Being able to imagine this large, black harpoon with a “Cretan labyrinth of a figure” (Melville 19) the reader has a more appealing and specific picture of him.Another mythological allusion Melville used in Moby Dick is mentioned of the Fares. Ishmael justifies his boarding the Pequod when he says, “I should now take it into my head to go on a whaling voyage, this the invisible police officer at the Fates, who has constant surveillance of me, and secretly dogs me, and influences me in some unaccountable way…”(Melville 4). The Fates are the three goddess who control life and human destiny, Clotho spins the thread of life, Lachisis determines its length, and Attropos cuts in off” (Hayford, Parker 7). Melville creates a much more intellectual statement than if he were to say, “I decided to go on a whaling voyage because I felt like it” (Donohue 19).
There are many more allusions in Moby Dick. Melville effectively shows the reader his intelligence. The allusions in Moby Dick are to commonly known people and conflicts.
This makes the novel easier for the reader to comprehend. Although critics were harsh after the release of Moby Dick, the novel is now considered American Classic.