Module: from odorous goods, liquids and incorrect
Module: Marine cargo operation Topic: Safety handling methods of containersSubmitted to: Submitted by: Submission Date:CONTENTS PAGE Acknowledgements 3Introduction4General safety aspects4Containerization5Movement damage 5Ventilation 6Above deck carriage of containers7 Lifting containers 7Refrigerated cellular container carriage 8I.S.O8Hazards with containers8Stuffing and stripping 9Conclusion 10Bibliography11AKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank my colleagues and friends in my class, who helped me to complete this project, not only by providing me information and data, but also by exchanging views on this subject.The topic of present essay is to analyze one of the most or the most important issue that we should bear in mind when we load and stow commodities.
Particularly in this essay we are going to examine, the safety handling methods of containers into general.GENERAL SAFETY ASPECTSThe overriding consideration overall is for the safety of ship and crew. This implies that the cargo is placed with due regard to the stability characteristics of the ship and such a way as to avoid excessive bending or shearing stresses in the loaded condition, bearing in mind the intended voyage and likely weather to be experienced.
Furthermore, the total weight loaded must not exceed that which is permitted to meet the appropriate load line indications. Pre-planning calculations will be made with this in mind.The distribution of cargo must always leave adequate access to crew and navigation spaces, nor must it prevent the correct closure of hatchways and hatches or accommodation doors through which water could enter in adverse weather.
Damage to cargo can arise from a considerable number of causes some less obvious than others and precautionary measures need to be applied over broad parameters. Particular preventative measures are necessary with crushing possibilities in compartments where fragile consignments are stowed with heavier loads; with taint from odorous goods, liquids and incorrect mixing of different consignments giving off moisture affect.CONTAINERAZATIONContainerization implies the practice of grouping loads of cargo together. The creation of this change in method is aimed at cargo being handled physically as little as possible and by mechanical means as much as possible, both in the ship and on shore.
This is lessening the need for the conventional derrick, but promoting ship crane age, as already mentioned. It is also promoting greater use of conveyor systems. MOVEMENT DAMAGEThe conventional systems of cargo handling frequently resulted in damage from handling, dropping, impact, crushing and slinging and also from broken stowage. In the container, fewer units are being stowed at one time and by more sophisticated methods, while the number of handling procedures are less, reducing all the above-mentioned damage possibilities.On the other hand solidarity of stowage within the container is essential by conventional dunnaging or cushioning material since not only must damage to the goods be avoided but also to the container itself. Indeed, with a standard-size container20 ft x 8 ft x 8 ft or indeed with those of 40 ft, goods should be selected by packaging size to have a solid relationship to the interior volume of the container so that movement within cannot take place. In some container fittings are available from which lashings can be fixed and for relatively heavy cargo units this is desirable.
Crushing can be avoided by height separation in quasi-decking fashion, using material such as hardboard. It isnt unusual to find container operators using air-filled dunnage bags or blocks of expanded polystyrene for separation and blocking purposes. It is also important that the distribution of cargo within the container is balanced. That is to say that the center of gravity of the container is indeed central. Without this precaution, and with unsuitable lifting, the container may slew with probable movement of cargo within it.From the ship officer point of view the more general use of containers will prevent the attentions referred to earlier, since the unit will arrive at the ship sealed and ready for loading.
There will, however, be occasions where the container is stowed, or stuffed, as is the term applied, at the berth in which case the officer must apply the attentions necessary. Irrespective of system, however, the lifting precautions do apply.VENTILATIONWhile climatic conditions are paramount in ventilation precautions with conventional cargo carriage, i.e. rain, temperature and humidity, in the case of the container humidity calls for the greater attention. Since the container is virtually a closed box, care must be taken with goods placed into it at temperatures likely to change considerably during passage.Sweat can be present in containers as in a ships hold, resulting from the metal of the container itself or from the moisture-laden goods within it.
As changes of air, as from ventilators or air-conditioning are not available, cargoes susceptible to damage from sweat and condensation must be protected in conventional fashion.ABOVE-DECK CARRIAGE OF CONTAINERSContainers stowed above deck are subject to all climatic conditions as with any other type of deck cargo. Water, however, is the greatest hazard and, in the absence of extremely efficient safeguards, only those containers in good condition should be accepted for on deck stowage.LIFTING CONTAINERSA container is designed to be lifted by fitted attachments as its four top corners. Any other form of lifting imposes strain or may indeed cause the container to overbalance. For this reason the ideal system is by properly designed container gantry cranes, now provided by ports equipped to receive container vessels or with some ships of such design as to carry their own fitted facilities.
In cases where conditions preclude these arrangements, such as in lesser ports handling containers by the lift on/lift off systems, the same principles of four top-corner attachments must apply. Containers are, however, loaded into roll on/roll off vessels. In such cases, where the size of the vessel permits, straddle carriers are used having the correct lifting devices. In others, and notably on some short sea routes to the continent, the container is lifted on to mobile carriers by gantry crane from the land vehicle, and these carriers are then drawn into the ship for stowage. The reverse procedure takes place on discharge. Container loading/discharging can be either a separate or simultaneous operation.
It is frequently the latter with vessels specifically designed (the cellular ship). REFRIGERATED CELLULAR CONTAINER CARRIAGEHolds cooled by air circulation, which is passed directly into and from each container, each of which is connected to the system by pneumo-mechanical means.I.S.O.
(INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ORGANIZATION)I.S.O is the organization mainly responsible for setting standards in respect of construction, durability, fixtures and attachments and for methods of handling, lifting and slinging of containers. The codes of practice issued by I.S.
O. are detailed, with a complexity not relevant to a book of this nature. However, the practices are of such importance that reference to the I.S.O. container standards and recommendations should undoubtedly exercise the mind of a ship officer.
Information in this respect can be obtained from the British standards institution. Notice should also be taken of the fact that some countries have established their own practices.Where officers find themselves serving on vessels in particular container trades it is necessary that they should become familiar with any such practices should they differ from the I.S.O. recommendations.
HAZARDS WITH CONTAINERSThe use of containers does introduce a hazard not in itself outwardly apparent. This is the use of these carrying units on an international basis and their exchange as between one country and another. The I.S.O. recommend standards of safety in use and also standards of construction, while it also lays down sensible methods of slinging and movements of these units but as yet these recommendations are not universally adopted.
Care is therefore necessary when transferring container units of such unknown strength and durability in ensuring that margins of safety are more than reasonable.Container procedures are greatly influenced by the design of the terminal. It must be such as to expedite the reception of export boxes, distribution within the terminal and the delivery of import containers.
Thus rail and road services, predominantly, must have unimpeded and non-congestion areas and approaches.In addition, adequate provision must be made for customs examination; comprehensive ship and shore documentation and ship loading/discharging lists information. Normally this latter aspect is centrally situated in and handled by control staff. It is anticipated that container carriage will lead to vessels able to handle 2500-3000 T.E.U.
through more moderately sized ships will continue to carry a large proportion of the trade. Two hundred and fifty to five hundred boxes are a fair general average on normal ocean trades.Gantry crane container handling can be of the order of anything from 25-40 boxes an hour. Complete loading/discharging cycles with transporter cranes is not unusual at 4 minutes.
STUFFING AND STRIPPINGWhile the container trades include the loading and discharging of its boxes at either container depots/stacking and distribution areas of the port or at the premises of the consignor/consignee, there will always be a need to fill a container with part loads, as these arrive from different shippers to the berth or quay. Similarly is the process reversed on discharge.This is termed, stuffing and stripping the former the loading aspect and the latter concerned with discharge. By its very nature the ship officer should be involved in these procedures in coordinated supervision with the berth/quay staff. The function of loading and discharging a container in these circumstances differs only in degree from that of normal ship-cargo handling, with all the attendant responsibilities of the ship towards safe stowage and damage controls. But not always is the labor force allocated to stuffing and stripping duties of the best, and may well be less adaptable than when normally employed on ship work. It is not unreasonable in these circumstances to be on the look out for less care and attention being given to the job.
Stuffing and stripping a container need not necessarily be labor intensive; indeed, more secure and effective distribution of the total load can frequently be obtained by judicious and sensible use of forklift trucks. But the ship officer must insist that the container load meets all the requirements of safe and undamaged cargo.The practice of stuffing is common in Far Eastern ports where feeder services bring small consignments for container transportation on liner routes.To sum up we can conclude that containers brought a revolutionary way in sea transportation & sea-trade as they combine, speed loading/unloading, reduced danger of damage and a variety of commodities to be carried. Of course extra care should be taken, when loading and lifting the container on board.BIBLIOGRAPHY -Cargo work, (By Cpt.
L.G.Taylor)-Sea trading, Volume 2 (By William V.
Packard)-Elements of shipping, 7th Edition, (By Alan E. Branch)