INTRODUCTION Human rights are ethical principles or norms that describe certain guidelines of human behavior and are frequently secured as common and legal rights in municipal and international law
Human rights are ethical principles or norms that describe certain guidelines of human behavior and are frequently secured as common and legal rights in municipal and international law. They are commonly understood as unavoidable, crucial rights “to which an individual is inherently entitled essentially since she or he could be a human being” and which are “characteristic in all human beings”, in any case of their nation, location, language, religion, ethnic origin or any other status. They are applicable all over and at each time within the sense of being universal.
From this, we are able to say that every individual, each human can communicate and talk with others, can do the parties and etc. To this we are able include that each human have freedom to access to the Internet for different reasons. But is Internet access the human right? If yes, then when and why has become Internet access the human right?
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Internet access as human right…….………………………4
LIST OF LITERATURE……………………………………………..8
INTERNET ACCESS AS HUMAN RIGHT
a) Information about Internet and how it become a human right
What is the Internet? In formal terms, the Internet is a worldwide arrangement of interconnected PC organizes that utilize the Internet Protocol suite (TCP/IP). This empowers billions of gadgets to be associated around the world.
Through this system, the Internet declares a scope of services, including interconnected hypertext archives; the World Wide Web; electronic mail; communication; and record sharing systems. The origins of the Internet can be followed back to the 1960s, in spite of the fact that its popularity as an social organization probably started with British researcher Tim Berners-Lee in 1989, when the establishments of the web were set down.
How has the Internet get to end up a human right? The United Nations Human Rights Council has passed a resolution for the “promotion, protection, and enjoyment of human rights on the Internet” which censures any nation that deliberately disrupts the Internet access of its citizens.
The resolution focuses on that “the same rights that individuals have offline should also be protected online” particularly with respect to the freedom of expression already protected by articles 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
Despite the fact that it was passed by accord, the goals was restricted by few nations including Russia and China who wished to make various corrections, specifically planning to erase requirements for a “human rights based approach” for giving and expanding access to the Internet and delete key references to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and language on freedom of expression from the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
Thomas Hughes, Executive Director of Article 19, a charity that protect freedom of expression, said that the resolution is “a much needed response to expanded pressure on freedom of expression online in all parts of the world” adding that “From exemption for the killings of bloggers to laws criminalizing legal dissent von social media, basic human rights principles are being slighted to force more prominent powers over the data we see and offer on the web.”
Resolutions like this one aren’t legitimately binding, however, they do put pressure on governments and it’s especially meaningful that the UN has chosen to censure Internet shutdowns as it’s been uncovered an increasing number of countries are using this as a strategy for controlling citizens. Recently Facebook and Twitter in Turkey was throttled in the result of an explosion in Ankara and it’s even being utilized for smaller issues, for example, Algeria blocking access to social media in order to stop students cheating on tests.
In spite of the fact that content with the resolution and its explanation of “solid human rights standards” Hughes expresses that it could and ought to go further as “the worldwide circumstance for freedom of expression online requests more explicit and detailed duty from states to address other priority issues.” In future Human Rights Council resolutions, he focuses on that states must handle these more explicit need issues head on “includeing harsh laws that target legitimate online contradiction, government efforts to undermine annonimity and encryption, and attempts to apply undue pressure on private ICT performers to participate in oversight.”
b) The Internet’s job in our life
The Internet is changing the manners by which people cooperate, exchange, learn and communicate. For the individuals who have access to it, it is becoming progressively hard to envision existence without it. It offers us all kind of opportunities, including practicing our human rights both online and offline, as various United Nations (UN) Human Rights Council resolutions have set up.
The Internet also holds the guarantee of being an extraordinary equalizer. On the Internet, generally underestimated people and groups discover a space to voice their opinions. They can discover data and connect with other individuals and groups with the end goal to achieve the change they have yearned for.
The Internet’s role has turned out to be quite a lot more relevant today that numerous administrations have tried to regulate it in manners that compromise citizens’ rights. There are numerous examples: Internet shutdowns in entire areas used to restrict expression and political participation, unsafe laws that tries to regulate critical expressions on social media, unfavorable laws that limit critical expression and justify arbitrary and ill-conceived observation, and so on.
So, shortly, the Internet is used for:
1) expressing ourselves online
2) accessing information
3) accessing the opinions and expressions of others
4) exercising our knowledge
5) watching movies, listening songs
6) improving languages
Some of countries/people agree that Internet access is basic human right, but others says no, the Internet access can’t be declared as human right. For people that doesn’t agree we can list:
1. A vice-president of Google Vint Cerf says “The best way to characterize human rights is to identify the outcomes that includes the freedom of speech and the freedom of access to information. The US has never declared that everyone has a “right” to a telephone, but we have come close to the idea that telephone service (and electricity, and now broadband internet) must be accessible indeed within the most remote regions of the country. When we accept this thought, we are edging into the thought of web get to as a respectful right, since guaranteeing get to could be a arrangement made by the government”.
2. Matthew Ingram on Giagom says that not defining Internet access as human right allows governments to put restrictions on access and even shut down entirely.
In the summer of 2016, UN (United Nations) declared that it consider that Internet access as human right. But as I mentioned before, some people/countries doesn’t accept this.
Internet access should be human right because it is used for expressing our opinions, ideas, ourselves, accessing information and etc. If it isn’t a human right, then we mustn’t access to Internet because in such case it is illegal. So because of this Internet access is declared as human right. And this is done by United Nations.