Chapter I INTRODUCTION Literature is any written work that has lasting importance and impact to its readers
Literature is any written work that has lasting importance and impact to its readers. It gives information to the readers using creative words and symbols that has meaning attached to it. As defined by Tan (1991) cited in Babista (2012), Literature is life, it represents human experience but unlike the great news photo literature, it represents life and experience not by telling you what they are but showing them to you through a medium called language.
Also cited from Henry Van Dyke, Literature consist of those writings which interpret the meaning of nature and life, in words of charm and power, touched with the personality of the author, in artistic forms of permanent interest.
Approaches in literary criticism is much needed in studying and reading literature, it is fundamental in learning considering that one will not be able to describe a literary material without having a background regarding this matter. Additionally, literary criticism approaches help the reader to understand the text easily and bring them closer to the author`s perspective in writing the literary work.
A reader`s understanding of a literary piece depends on how he interprets it. Literary criticism approaches also help readers to be able to form judgements in the literary work and can be able to resolve questions or difficulties in reading.
Feminism and Marxism are two of the literary criticism approaches that can help readers in analyzing and studying a certain literary work. These two approaches have the similarity of empowering people and breaking the biases of human classes whether it be on our society or gender. Numerous literary works such as the Divergent Series give the readers an opportunity to use Feminism and Marxism approaches in critiquing.
Therefore, analysis of a literary work using criticism approaches is much needed in understanding a literary piece. This will enable literature readers to easily and fully understand the meaning behind the literary work they are reading. It will also help the teachers to teach literature with ease and understanding that they are able to their students the real meaning of literature and its various kinds.
Background of the Study
Literature and literary criticism approaches is always connected with each other. Reading and analyzing literature requires the use of literary criticism approaches for the reader to fully understand the literary work they have. The Divergent series is one of the most popular series that people loves to read, having a concept of a dystopian world many readers find it interesting and has been thrilled by the series. The series has been adapted into a motion picture with the same name.
Analysis of a literary work is not new to the research field. Many researchers in The College of Teacher Education have already studied and examined literary works but only few have studied about the Divergent series and none had proposed a computer-assisted tool for the enhancement of teaching literary criticism.
Using Marxism and Feminism as the approaches in analyzing the Divergent series the researcher came up with the idea of having a computer-assisted instructional tool that can help both the students and teachers in learning and teaching literary criticism with ease and comfort.
Since our curriculum is now changing, it is more focused on the use of technology and performance-based activities. Given this premise, the researcher decided to conduct a study entitled Marxist-Feminist Analysis of the Divergent series: A Computer-Assisted Instructional Tool for Teaching Literary Criticism.
Objectives of the Study
This study aimed to analyze the Divergent series in Marxist-Feminist views with an end view of proposing a computer-assisted tool for the enhancement of Teaching of Literary Criticism.
Specifically, this study sought to achieve the following objectives:
1. Analyze the Divergent series using Marxist and Feminist literary approaches.
2. Propose a computer-assisted instructional tool for teaching literary criticism based on the analysis of the series.
3. Evaluate the developed material in terms of:
3.4 Appeal to target users
Significance of the Study
This study would be beneficial primarily:
Teachers. The study would provide them a computer-assisted tool which could possibly help them in teaching literary criticism to students.
Students. This will help them enhance their critiquing skills. Likewise, students will be familiar with the two kinds of literary criticism approaches that this study will focus on.
Future Researchers. This study will also serve as a reference or guide in the future if they wish to conduct a study like this and such could be a source of information for their future studies.
Literature Readers. This study can function as a guide and reference in understanding and analyzing a literary work.
Scope and Limitations
This research focused on the analysis of the Divergent series using the Marxism and Feminism approach in analyzing a literary work with the end view of proposing and evaluating a computer-assisted tool for teaching literary criticism in terms of contents helpfulness, , understandability and appeal to target users.
The study is limited to using content analysis of method research for it involves analysis of the content of the literary work and the probable effect of the material to be developed by the researcher. The data of the study is obtained through the instrument that is used by the researcher, a checklist questionnaire which consists of only one segment including the evaluation of the developed material.
The time frame of this study will be from September 2017 to March 2018.
Definition of Terms
For the clarity of the study to guide and enlighten the readers, the following terminologies are hereby defined both conceptually and operationally.
Appeal to target users refers to how the material developed in this study will attract the users.
Computer-assisted Instructional Tool refers to an interactive instructional technique where a computer was to use to facilitate learning (Dowdle, 2009). In this study, it is used as the outcome or product of the data gathered.
Contents refers to the ideas that are contained in a piece of writing or a film or a speech (Meriam Dictionary, 1835) and is operationally defined as the knowledge and ideas that the material should have for the readers.
Divergent series is a series of young adult science fiction adventure novels by American novelist Veronica Roth set in a post-apocalyptic dystopian Chicago. The trilogy consists of Divergent (2011), Insurgent (2012) and Allegiant (2013).
Feminist Literary Approach is concerned with the impact of gender on writing and reading (Babista, 2012). This approach is used in this study as one of the basis for the analysis.
Helpfulness refers to the property of providing useful assistance; or friendliness evidenced by a kindly and helpful disposition (Wikipedia, 2017) which in this study is one of the parameters for the evaluation of the computer-assisted material.
Literary Criticism refers to the study, evaluation and interpretation of literature and includes critiquing, opinions, questions and observation (Babista, 2012). In this study, it is used as the basis for the analysis of the series which include both the theories that will be used in the study.
Marxist Literary Approach is a literary approach based upon the political and economic theories of the German philosopher Karl Marx (Babista, 2012). In this study, it is used as one of the two theories which was the basis of the analysis of the series.
Understandability refers to the concept that information should be presented clearly so that the readers can understand it without confusion (Meriam Dictionary, 1835) which in this study is used as one of the parameters for the evaluation of the computer-assisted instructional tool.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter presents the different literature perused to gather insights for the study. This also includes the studies considered to strengthen the concepts. Moreover, the chapter provides the conceptual/theoretical framework and research paradigm.
Literary Criticism is a major part for a reader to understand a literary work. Readers and even writers might find working on a text impossible without its knowledge and guidelines. Many researchers had already proven that literary criticism is a major part for a reader and a writer. Many approaches in literary criticism had been agreed and studied by researchers that help in analyzing and working on a literary text. It is said that Literary Criticism is thought to have existed as long as literature. It is a study, evaluation and interpretation of literature.
There are different literary approaches used by different writers in different eras and periods in our history. Thus, the approaches in dealing with one literary piece depends on how a reader see the descriptions and the background of the author. Understanding a text depends on how a reader approaches it.
According to Babista (2012), the main point of Literary Criticism is to bring readers closer to the texts they were reading. It helps readers to simplify and clearly understand the deeper meaning of the literary text and it also helps the readers to understand the author’s point of view. While for Brizee and Tompkins (2007) as cited in Balmeo (2013) they defined Literary Criticism as an attempt to evaluate and understand the creative writing and the literature of the author.
However, Hazelton (2012) in Balmeo (2013) believes that classic novels or works written by eccentric authors requires further analysis to understand the single or multiple meanings present in the text depends on the content and author and oftentimes the same work can be read through different lenses to provide a more comprehensive picture of what the author may have been trying to express. Different styles and approaches has been used by many authors in writing their work which may confuse the readers in interpreting the text so literary criticism enters to sort things and eventually give help to the readers. Literary Criticism also helps the reader in providing them the different approaches that they can use in analyzing the text.
Habib (2011) stated that “If we had no tradition of critical interpretation, if we were left with the text themselves, we would be completely bewildered.” The use of literary criticism in analyzing a text also helps the reader to identify and know what kind of genre a literary work is either it be epic, poem, short story etc. Literary criticism also shows us which tradition a given writer was working on and how they put and interpret it in their work. Literary Criticism is a method used in interpreting any given work of literature.
Literary criticism includes the classification by genre, analysis of the structure and judgment of value in evaluating a literary work (Beckson ; Ganz, 2014). The different schools of literature give us lenses which most likely reveal important aspects of the literary text (Asuncion, 2014). Simply explained, as the readers’ judgment of the literary work.
Aside from the readers Grewal (2012) believes that poets or writers also used literary criticism as a tool for self-evaluation and self-improvement. He also stated that literary criticism also provides and introduces work of periods and cultures that differs in theme and treatment. It is a view or opinion on what a particular written work means. Literary Criticism is all about the meanings that a reader finds in an author’s perspective.
The aforementioned claims by experts about literary criticism is a proof that it provides not just the readers the advantages and guidance in reading but also for the poets and writers to open their works to different doors that can help them in writing. Readers may find literary criticism a big of help for them to understand and analyze the literary work they are reading with, the various kinds of literary criticism approach they can use in interpreting them. It is said that it is difficult to understand a literary text without knowing what approach the author used in making the text. We can draw on the richness of our literary, philosophical, and literary-critical heritage in realizing the potential of the humanities to help shape the political, educational, and economic discourses that will determine our future, and to foster an increased understanding of our world, ourselves, and others.
Marxist Literary Approach
Having all the concepts in mind the researcher used the Marxist Literary Approach to be one of the literary criticism approach in analyzing the selected literary text. Marxism analyzes the society at the grandest or in the most detailed level it also sees literature as connected to social power. Marxist criticism analyzes literature in terms of the historical conditions which produce it; and it needs, similarly, to be aware of its own historical conditions.
Stated by Babista (2012a) Marxism is a literary approach that tells that literature is used a tool in the revolutionary struggle of the working class. Basically, writers who uses this approach focuses the topic of their work with the conflicts in our society. This approach promotes to its readers the social inequality through the perspective of the working class. Babista also believes that Marxist critics are generally focused on the unresolved tensions within the works of literature. Marxism is that of a society that forms more complex modes of production, it becomes more stratified; and the resulting tensions necessitate changes in the society.
Marxist critics also see literature as intimately linked to social power. The real purpose of Marxism is to analyze the tensions and contradictions within the society (Babista, 2012b).
Ultimately, Marxist literary criticism is part of a much larger effort to uncover the inner workings of society. Marxism also tells about the sufferings of the poor and the anticipation of the victory of the working class. This theory is a theory of revolution, history, economics and of politics and it served as the ideology for communism. Bulusan (2012a) believes that Marxist Criticism is a belief that literature reflects this class struggle and materialism and that Marxism promotes the idea that literature should be a toll in the revolutionary struggle. Marxist writers want to bring to the readers the unequal treatment of the society to the people. How society sets standards on who will only benefit to something and how they judge what a working class can give and do.
However, Bulusan (2012b) stated that Marxism also looks at how literature functions in relation to other aspects of the superstructure, particularly other articulations of ideology. The same with the feminist critics, it investigates how literature can work as a force for social change, or a reaffirmation of existing conditions. This approach uses literature to promote social change and it aims to awaken the minds of the reader about the reality of what they see as unequal treatment of the poor.
Marxist literary criticism is a form of critique or discourse for interrogating all societies and their texts in terms of certain specific issues including race, class and the attitudes shared with a given culture (Teachers’ Web, 2015). Marxism do not focus its content in just the working class but also this approach tackles about how a person or a group is treated based from their native roots and culture. Jameson (2005) admitted that the Marxist critics of the 1930s had been “relegated to the status of an intellectual and historical curiosity” but he also points out that “In recent years … a different kind of Marxist criticism has begun to make its presence felt upon the English-language horizon.”
Grewal (2012) stated that Marxists praise work that exposes and describes the injustices the Marxist societies wants to overcome. This literary criticism approach helps the reader identify the social conflict or biases the text intended for the readers to see. As cited in Babista (2012) Marx stated that “it is not the consciousness that determines their being, but on the contrary, their social being that determines consciousness.” Simply stated that a person’s decision is determine in where he or she was born or the society he or she grew up.
According to Marx cited in Babista (2012), the moving force behind human history is its economic systems, for people’s lives are determined by their economic circumstances. A society, he says, is shaped by its “forces of production,” the methods it uses to produce the material elements of life. The economic conditions underlying the society are called material circumstances, and the ideological atmosphere they generate is known as the historical situation. This means that to explain any social or political context, any event or product, it is first necessary to understand the material and historical circumstances in which they occur. Some of the damage caused by the economics of capitalism, according to Marxists, is psychological. In its need to sell more goods, capitalism preys on the insecurities of consumers, who are urged to compete with others in the number and quality of their possessions: a newer car, a bigger diamond engagement ring, a second house. According to Marx, reality is material, not spiritual. Our culture, he says, is not based on some divine essence or the Platonic forms or on contemplation of timeless abstractions. It is not our philosophical or religious beliefs that make us who we are for we are not spiritual beings but socially constructed ones.
The previously mentioned theories are all helpful for readers and writers in evaluating, analyzing and creating a literary work. These theories can all guide and provide further knowledge and information for the future readers as well as those aspiring literary writers. Marxism literary approach simply believes that as a person grew into a society where there is a certain belief the person will inherit what the society tells him. Marxism is also greatly influenced by structuralist criticism and post-structuralist criticism the only difference from them is the refusal of structuralist and post-structuralist to separate literature and language from the society. Marxist criticism is said to be materialist that is why is has more in common with theories that talks more about social, political, and economic structures in literature. Marxist critics are aware that the working class does not always recognize the system in which it has been caught. One of the basic assumptions of Marxism is that the “forces of production,” the way goods and services are produced, will, in a capitalist society, inevitably generate conflict between social classes, which are created by the way economic resources are used and who profits from them.
Marxist critics must be concerned with identifying the ideology of a work and pointing out its worth or its deficiencies. The good Marxist critic is careful to avoid the kind of approach that concerns itself with form and craft at the expense of examining social realities. Marxist critic operates a warning system that alerts readers to social wrongs. Marxist critics believes that the function of literature is to make the populace aware of social ills and sympathetic to action that will wipe those ills away.
As said by Karl Marx “The philosophers have only interpreted the world in different ways; the point is to change it.” Marxism wanted to change the dependency of human culture to economic materials and serves economic ends.
Feminist Literary Approach
Feminist Literary Approach is one of the many approaches Literary criticism have. It basically promotes woman empowerment and woman rights. This approach specifically includes how a woman should be treated in our societal hierarchy. As Judith Fetterley (2005) puts it, “Feminist criticism is a political act whose aim is not simply to interpret the world but to change it by changing the consciousness of those who read and their relation to what they read. . . The first act of a feminist critic is to become a resisting rather than an assenting reader and, by this refusal to assent, to begin the process of exorcizing the male mind that has been implanted in us.”
Feminist Criticism attempts to set standards for literature that is free as possible from biased portraits of individuals because of their class, race or sex (Sharon Spencer, 2005 in Babista, 2012). Feminism is the representation of women in literature it wants to emphasize that women should have an equal opportunity with men not just in writing but in many distinct aspects in the society. Babista (2012a) stated that feminist insists that a literary work must truly portray the struggle and conflict that a woman faces to be free from the political and social oppression by a system that frequently uses sex for the mere purpose of domination.
This approach focuses on the society’s treatment on women based from their gender this approach uses literature to pass to the readers the awareness of how women should stand and claim their rights. Feminist writers’ intention was to truly expose the unfairness of how women is seen in our society they emphasize that because woman is merely a woman it cannot stand equal to what the opposite sex can do. Feminism approach intends to break the stereotyping that women are weak and that they cannot do the same as the opposite sex.
Also defined by Babista (2012b) feminism is concerned with the impact of gender on writing and reading. It is concerned with what really is the place of women in the society. Often political and revisionists, Feminism argues that by using female characters male fears are being portrayed. Feminism believes that the weakness and the things that men can do is passed on to females when they portray them specifically in a literary work. They may also argue that gender determines everything on just the opposite side: that all gender differences are imposed by society and that gender determines nothing.
This approach also includes empowerment of women that can be found in a literary work that uses this approach. Feminist literary approach is a collective term for systems of belief and theories that pay special attention to women’s rights and women’s position in culture and society.
Patricia Meyer Spacks (2005) as cited in Babista (2012) points out that the difference between female pre-occupation and roles and male ones makes a difference in female writing. Contemporary American poet, Adrienne Rich (1969) as cited in Guerin, Labor, Morgan, Reesman and Willingam (2005) describes feminism as the “the place where the most natural, organic way subjectivity and politics have to come together.” Feminist Literary approach tends to evaluate a literary work in a woman’s perspective. It provides not just the readers but also the writers the guidelines of how women should stand in the society not just in literary writing. It also includes how women should be treated in the society. Elizabeth Abel (1981) as cited in Guerin, et al. (2005) argued that sexuality and textuality both depend on difference.
A feminist critic, Myra Jehlen as cited in Guerin, et al. (2005) believes that with authors who seem unconscious of gender as an issue in their work we must make an effort to read for it instead “…. Literary Criticism involves as much as reflection, and reading for gender makes the deed explicit.” Lisa Tuttle (2012) defined feminist theory as asking new questions of old texts. Feminist Literary Approach in criticism defines a new way of writing a literary work it depicts woman’s involvement on the changes that happens in a society. It pushes the awareness of woman on how they should act, and this approach demands to hear women’s voices like in Tillie Olsen’s 1978 work entitled Silences, which is about a study of the impediments to creativity encountered by women in her work cited that “mute inglorious Miltons; those whose working hours are all struggle foe existence; the barely educated; the illiterate. Simone de Beauvoir also argued that if women can practice and do individual decisions and collective action they can free themselves from being oppressed in the society.
Elaine Showalter, one of the leading feminist critics in the united states, has identified three historical phases of women’s literary development. The “feminine” phase (1840-1880) in this phase women writers imitated the dominant tradition. The “feminist” phase (1880-1920) in here women advocated minority rights and protested and lastly, the “female” phase (1920-present) in this phase women’s dependency on opposition – that is; on uncovering misogyny in male texts – is being replaced by a rediscovery of women’s texts and women.
As stated by Maggi Humm (1994) in Guerin, et al. (2005) that in literary studies male critics are seen as “unaligned”, while “a feminist is seen as a case of special pleading. She claims that male criticism not feminism is ideologically blind to the implications of gender.
However, Lilian Robinson (1997) as cited in Guerin, et al. (2005) stated that feminist criticism “is criticism with a cause, engaged criticism… It must be ideologically and moral criticism; it must be revolutionary.” Feminist Literary Approach addressed topics such as mothering, living within enclosures, doubling of characters and of the self, women’s disease and feminized landscapes and they make the interesting argument that female writers often identify themselves with the literary characters they detest.
Plain (2007) stated that “Feminism has transformed the academic study of literature, fundamentally altering the canon of what is taught and setting new agendas for literary analysis.” Feminist Literary approach may have distinctive styles in promoting and empowering women as Annette Kolodny (1980) in Babista (2012) stated that by employing a popularity in method will we protect ourselves form temptations of oversimplifying a text. Kolodny also points out that there is a one principle that unifies feminist critics under one roof regardless of their plurality of methods.
Feminism may be on women’s favor and empowerment but having the foresaid concepts in mind the true meaning of Feminist literary approach is to have an equality on both men and women in our societal hierarchy not just in writing and reading but also in politics and opportunities that both women and men should have. Above all the said facts Feminism is not the theory that feminists fight for to have equal rights with men instead is the theory that feminist critics used to truly portray the struggles of a woman to be free form oppression.
The Divergent trilogy is a series of young adult science fiction adventure novels by American novelist Veronica Roth set in a post-apocalyptic dystopian Chicago. The trilogy consists of Divergent (2011), Insurgent (2012) and Allegiant (2013). This young adult series became a hit both the big screen and the novel itself.
According to Dominus (2011) the series has clearly thrills, but it also movingly explores more common adolescent anxiety and the painful realization that coming into one’s own sometimes means leaving family behind, both ideologically and physically. Turtle (2017) state that she enjoyed the book and that she loved the world that Roth, the author of the series had created with all the characters’ background. Turtle also stated that she bought the romance that blossom between the two main characters which is Tris and four. The Divergent series captured a lot of readers’ attention because of its plot and the dominance of female characters in the story. The series have also shown the conflict and tension between the five factions.
According to Sheri (2017) the second book which is the Insurgent picks up exactly where the first book Divergent left the readers. She stated that in the second book friends become enemies, enemies become allies and that lines are crossed and drawn. The major thing she discovered is that the series is packed with full of surprises. The heart pounding intensity was just for sure, there is no case of the sophomore slump here.
The Divergent series was hard to read because of the roller coaster emotion that it will give you. In the second book the female dominance is also seen as the female leaders of the factions dominated the entire city of Chicago.
Constant Reader (2017a) stated “this series is the first in a popular dystopian young adult trilogy. Dystopian societies are not my favorite setting. I had read very little about the series, so far for me it was interesting to gradually realize that the described crumbling world was Chicago. The story begins with our heroine at 16 making a momentous choice of her faction. It has elements of The Hunger games with young people fighting to the death and malevolent political powers. The violence is unrelenting.”
Constant Reader (2017b) also cited that the picture of humanity is repellent with our heroes and heroines hard to admire. Obviously, no one would want to live in this world. The dominant character trait of each faction (truthfulness, fearless/bravery, selflessness, studiousness, etc.) is carried to extremes. At those extremes, the traits become perverted, cruel, and unbalanced. The society certainly seems beyond redemption. The divergent heroes are not much more balanced than the faction members since they have been so damaged by the society in which they were raised. There is some romance among the teenagers, but it is of a chaste and innocent variety. They are more timid with sex than with brutality. Katniss Everdeen is a more sympathetic character than Beatrice because the bulk of the books were so violent with a little in the way of strategic thinking, grace or kindness, I am less inclined to read on the series.
According to Jia (2012) Insurgent (the second book of the Divergent series) was refreshing in that it allowed Tris (the lead female character) to have that weakness and that ugliness. So often that we are given protagonists with “flaws” that barely qualify. But while Tris is strong, she is also imperfect and that was shown so clearly on the book. She hides what happened because she can barely accept what happened herself. It left a tangible mark upon her. She cannot even lift a gun without panicking or freezing. The death left a visible scar on her psyche.
Also, she cited that “I liked that the events portrayed in Divergent left her mark on Tris. She was deeply traumatized by everything that happened, and I often feel that we don’t see enough of that in YA genre. Not to the extent that the subject matter deserves. Tris was forced to do some terrible things, and the book doesn’t prettify or soften it.”
However, James (2013) said that more than the grand unified theory of Divergence and factions, however, the thing he appreciated the most about Allegiant (third book from the series), lies with the shifting nature of the book’s allegiances and revelations. Divergent, Insurgent, and Allegiant are books about upheaval, of personal choice, and the dramatic implications of change. In many dystopian novels, he explained that “especially of the YA (young adult) variety, a government is framed as an evil body, corrupted often by ideals – the solution to such a heinous system? Why, rebellion, of course! Rebellion, however, is not a solution, and in Allegiant this concept of change and struggle against corruption is laid bare.”
He also added that rebellion does not automatically mean a happy ending, or that all the wrongs of a previous regime are magically healed. No, often rebellion sows’ chaos and deeper unrest – in Allegiant we see that the Factionless are not the end-all solution to what is broken with the city of Chicago; that the government outside the city’s walls is not all-knowing and benevolent; that the fringe fighters on the edge of those government enclaves are completely right in their righteous rage. Everything is flawed, everything is broken. There is no simple, right solution. I love that Veronica Roth explores the messiness that is political change in Allegiant in a way that is convoluted and infinitely complicated – but ultimately, it’s a way that rings as incredibly genuine.
Based from Michelle (2015) she mentioned that the heart of the Divergent series revolves around extremes – black versus white, good versus bad, nature versus nurture, the few versus the many, selfish versus selfless, knowledge versus truth versus action versus pacifism. There are few answers, and none of them are easy. Michelle also added that the story will break a reader’s heart multiple times, and it would be easy to dismiss the entire series because of these heart breaks.
She also explained that Roth demands readers to reflect on everything that happens, requiring them to search for the truth in their own hearts and apply those lessons to their own lives. The Divergent series comes at a time where people are dividing themselves into more opposing factions, trying to categorize things as black and white. The series serves as a warning that nothing is black and white and therefore to categorize anything as such is only to create future conflict. For that reason, no matter how one feels about how the story ends for certain characters, one must respect the sheer power of Roth’s message and the important themes she intersperses throughout the three novels.
Based from McFarland (2014) that while it improves on the book, Divergent remains in The Hunger Games’ shadow. McFarland also added that he likes the way the author portrayed Tris that Roth set an attitude that Tris doesn’t give any chance to those who tries to hurt her, he emphasized that the book engaged itself to a woman dominated approach that led the book to success that even if it showed societal problems and conflicts the women characters still dominated the situations and even led the city. The one nagging question McFarland had while reading the book is that “throughout the book though, under the assumption that the society could happen, why did it happen? That was never answered and continues to plague my mind. There has to be some explanation, that’s the main reason I hate most zombie novels/movies they tend to ignore the idea of why zombies or things are the way they are. To me it’s an empty hole.”
Another reader of the series Turtle (2017) said that the trilogy is something the three books has all gave her thrills that it made her hooked throughout the whole series. She first mentioned the first book which is the Divergent, she stated that the first book caught her attention by how the author made the female lead character Tris a strong and independent woman who can stand on her own and have courage to forgive even someone who tries to kill her. She also added the book truly depicts the reality of how unequal the treatment of every faction was. In the second book the she said that she liked the first book more but then continued reading the second book because she saw that tris grew more mature than what she is in the first book.
She also claimed that the second book, Insurgent brought more of what the reality of the city is she states “. I liked learning that there were more divergent and that there were brave people attempting to infiltrate the Erudite/rebel-Dauntless and fight for ‘freedom’ or order in their world.” Lastly, she stated that “- Honestly, I was not a huge fan. I thought it was a let-down experience after this world was created and built up only to have it be a complete fabrication and something that could be ‘reset’. It would have been cool for them to go outside the wall and had the fringe people come back and fight with them or something of that sort, but just having this all-powerful government in the ORD airport was really weird.”
Another reader of the series Robinson (2016) stated that the story behind the book is what made him hooked to the series. He explained that after knowing that Roth changed the lead from male to female character he got more interested with the book. He said that he thought it would have turned out wellbeing from Four’s perspective, but the author was probably right in deciding to create it from Tris’. Robinson added that he usually read series he loves more than once. Divergent series is one that he has only read once because it really got to him at the end. He also stated that he do get invested into the characters when he read, but the end of the series really got to him
According to Gaineson (2013) Divergent series is a straight-forward young adult drama-turned-action utopian story set in the near future. It has been oft compared to The Hunger Games, and that is a fair comparison if only for the fact that it involves a supposedly-perfect society in the future and centers around an adolescent girl with blooming, previously unknown potential. As explained by Gaineson the series is a good book full of interesting ideas, a writing style that is easy to read, and events that keep one tearing through large chunks in one sitting and coming back for more. A fun little piece of escapism with promise of greater things to come.
As for a reader Dominus (2011) she stated that Divergent clearly has thrills, but it also movingly explores a more common adolescent anxiety which is the painful realization that coming into one’s own sometimes means leaving family behind, both ideologically and physically. She added that it is not a coincidence that Tris falls in love while undergoing initiation into her new tribe. It is precisely the moment when young people discover romance that family life all but evaporates, at least in terms of its emotional
Terrible things happen to the people Tris loves, yet the characters absorb these events with disquieting ease. Here, somehow, the novel’s flights from reality distance the reader from the emotional impact that might come in a more affecting realistic novel. She believed that in this way, though Roth’s “Divergent” is rich in plot and imaginative details, it suffers by comparison with Collins’s opus. She explained that the shortcoming would not be so noticeable were there less blatant overlap between the two. Both “Divergent” and “The Hunger Games” feature appealing, but not conventionally pretty, young women with toughness to spare. Both start out with public sorting rituals that determine the characters’ futures. And both put the narrators in contrived, bloody battles that are in fact competitions witnessed by an audience. Even the language sounds familiar: The Hob is a central geographic point in “The Hunger Games”; in “Divergent,” it’s the Hub in the remnants of what was once the Sears Tower. For a book that explores themes about the right to be individual and the importance of breaking away from the pack, “Divergent” does not exactly distinguish itself.
However, some readers have a different take of the series. According to Johnson (2015) that after reading the first book he was so impressed how closely the movie followed along It was well written, perfectly paced, and for the movie to stick so closely was a testimony to how little room for improvement was left with Divergent. But then he added that when he started reading the second book he felt a bit of disappointment due to some completely nonsensical, rambling, all over the place mess. He said that “. It left me scratching my head wondering if these were even written by the same author.”
More likely, the divergent series did take a lot of attention and positive remarks from the readers. The whole series caught many attentions by portraying a love story, and a dystopian world. The book portrayed how a society works with women’s leadership. It also portrays the struggles of a woman in achieving her goals and fighting what they believe is the right thing. The series also tackled an issue about the society, how factions determines your faith. How a belief from the society you live in will become the belief that you also stand with. However just like other book series Divergent also has holes that some readers find not helpful for the series. The series is also always compared with other young adult books that have a similar plot story.
The two literary criticism approaches used in this study is Marxism and Feminism which will be the basis in analyzing the literary text. The first theory used is Marxism which is based upon the political and economic theories of the German Philosopher Karl Marx. Marxism Theory was formulated specifically to analyze and discuss how our society functions in the state of conflict and constant changes. This theory generally focuses upon the struggle of the working class and the ways and process they will aim victory.
The second theory used in this study is Feminism which is concerned with the place of women in societal ladder. The major critical studies of women writers form the viewpoint of the female tradition constitute the first serious female criticism. Elaine Showalter’s theory identifies the four models of difference. The first model is the biographical which states that women are more than just bodies. On the other hand, linguistic model states that there is a difference between women and men’s language. Showalter stated that if a woman continues to speak as men do when they enter discourse, whatever they say will be alienated. The third model is the psychoanalytic model which identifies gender differences as the basis of the psyche, it focuses on the relation of gender to the artistic process. Showalter’s last model and her most important contribution has been to describe the cultural model that places feminist concerns in social context, acknowledging class, racial, national and historical differences and determinants among women over time and space, a binding force. Feminism theory simply deals with the identity and inequality between male and female. The researcher had taken into account to conduct an analysis of the Divergent series using the two mentioned theories.
A Modified Input-Process-output (IPO) Model on Analysis of the Divergent series as basis for a Computer-Assisted instructional tool for teaching Literary Criticism
The above research paradigm illustrates the process of proposing a computer-assisted tool. The input in the first phase of the development which involves the analysis of the Divergent series. Internet surfing is another means of gathering information. The phase two of the process covers the development and construction of the evaluative checklist. As an output, a computer-assisted instructional tool for teaching Literary Criticism.
This chapter provides the research design used in the study. Likewise, this identifies the validation techniques for the instrument and data gathering complete the procedures utilized.
The descriptive method of research is used in this study to employ and gather information about the present existing condition of a study or a theory. This research design also deals with identifying and analyzing the two-literary approach used in the Divergent series. The descriptive method that will be used in this study was pointed out by Fox & Bayat, (2007), “descriptive research may be characterized as simply the attempt to determine, describe or identify what is, while analytical research attempts to establish why it is that way or how it came to be.”
Data are gathered through the analysis of the divergent series and making a validated checklist. The statements of the checklist include the contents helpfulness, understandability and appeal to target users of the proposed material.
A checklist is used to evaluate the proposed material in terms of its contents, helpfulness, understandability and appeal to target users. The checklist is the main data gathering instrument that is used in this study. The checklist is divided into two main sections: 1) the profile, and 2) the evaluation proper. The profile comprises of the name and the position of the evaluator. The survey proper explores the evaluator’s comments, suggestions and rate for the material. The checklist is constructed by the researcher and is submitted to her research adviser for some comments and suggestions on the lay out and statement structures. Then the researcher seeks the help of experts to improve the checklist.
Data Gathering Procedure
The study was concerned in analyzing the literary criticism used in the popular divergent series and became the basis in proposing a computer assisted material for teaching literary criticism. The researcher first secured a copy of the divergent series and analyzed its content as her basis for creating the material.
1. Development of Instrument
A. Development of the checklist. The checklist is based from the parameter that the researcher presented. It consists of statements which are also based from the parameter of the variables of the researcher.
B. Validation of the checklist. The research adviser is asked to check the content of the checklist in terms of format, grammar and accuracy of the statements in the checklist.
C. Evaluation of the material. The researcher presented the developed material to twenty (20) English teachers for their evaluation and suggestions for the improvement of the proposed material.
The following statistical tool was used to determine the level of acceptability of the output developed, weighted mean was used.
WM = weighted mean
f = frequency
n = total number of respondents
The following summated scale points were signified for interpretation and analysis:
Scale Points Range Descriptive Rating
4 3.50 – 4.00 Highly Acceptable (HA)
3 2.50 – 3.49 Acceptable (A)
2 1.50 – 2.49 Slightly Acceptable (SA)
1 1.00 – 1.49 Not Acceptable (NA)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
This chapter presents the results of the study. The analysis of the given novel and the implications for performing the analysis are given in the discussion. This chapter also presents the aspects of the novel analyzed shown through tabular presentations and the implications were enumerated to answer the objectives stated in the study.
Class conflict is defined as the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes. Marx states that a class “is defined by the ownership of property. Such ownership vests a person with the power to exclude others from the property and to use it for personal purposes.” German theorist Karl Marx saw class conflict as foundation of communism, stating his view in his Manifesto that in every historical period, “the prevailing mode of economic production and exchange, and the social organization necessarily following from it, form the basis upon which it is built up, and from that which alone can be explained the political and intellectual history of that epoch; that consequently the whole history of mankind has been a history of class struggles, contests between exploiting and exploited, ruling and oppressed.”
The oppressed reaches a stage when they want to emancipate themselves and the society as a whole. Dobie (2009) added that “at every stage it had negative consequences due to a flawed system that involved maintaining the power of a few by the repression of many. The result was ongoing class struggle.”
The main class struggle that can be seen in the series is the conflict between the factions and the factionless and how their rules and the government dictate them to live according to what kind of faction they belong.
Table 1.1 Marxist Analysis of Divergent (Book 1) in terms of Class Struggle as to The Feud between abnegation and Erudite
Class Struggle Excerpt/s Cited
The feud between Abnegation and Erudite My cheeks warm. I get up and dust myself off. A few people stopped when I fell, but none of them offered to help me. Their eyes follow me to the edge of the hallway. This sort of thing has been happening to others in my faction for months now – the Erudite have been releasing antagonistic reports about Abnegation, and it has begun to affect the way we relate at school. The gray clothes, the plain hairstyle, and the unassuming demeanor of my faction are supposed to make it easier for me to forget myself, and easier for everyone else to forget me too. But now they make me a target. (p.6)
“Is this about that report Jeanine Matthews released?” my mother says. Jeanine Matthews is Erudite’s sole representative, selected based on her IQ score. My father complains about her often. …. “Yes,” my father says. His eyes narrow. “Those arrogant, self-righteous –”He stops and clears his throat. “Sorry. But she released a report attacking Marcus’s character”… “I shouldn’t be surprised at this point. The Erudite have been attacking us with these reports for months. And this isn’t the end. There will be more, I guarantee it.”
I shouldn’t speak again, but I can’t help myself. I blurt out, “Why are they doing this?”… “You know why,” my father says, “Because we have something they want. Valuing knowledge above all else results in a lust for power, and that leads men into the dark and empty places. We should be thankful that we know better.” (p.34-5)
“What about Caleb?” I say. “Will you visit him later?”
“I wish I could,” she says, “but the Erudite have prohibited Abnegation visitors from entering their compound. If I tried, I would be removed from their premises.”
“What?” I demand. “That’s terrible. Why would they do that?”
“Tensions between our factions are higher than ever,” she says. “I wish it wasn’t that way, but there is little I can do about it.” (p.180)
“I can’t believe that you associate with one of them, Will,” she says.
My mother purses her lips, but of course, doesn’t say anything.
“Cara,” says Will, frowning, “there’s no need to be rude.”
“Oh, certainly not. Do you know what she is?” She points at my mother. “She’s council member’s wife is what she is. She runs the ‘volunteer agency’ that supposedly helps the factionless. You think I don’t know that you’re just hoarding goods to distribute to your own faction while we don’t get fresh food for a month, huh? Food for the factionless, my eye.”
“I’m sorry,” my mother says gently. “I believe you are mistaken.”
“Mistaken. Ha,” Cara snaps. “I’m sure you’re exactly what you seem. A faction of happy – go – lucky do – gooders without a selfish bone in their bodies. Right.”
“Don’t speak to my mother that way,” I say, my face hot. (p.184-5)
The first article accuses Abnegation if withholding luxuries like cars and fresh fruit from the other factions in order to force their belief in self-denial on everyone else. When I read it, I thought of Will’s sister, Cara, accusing my mother of hoarding goods.
The second article discusses the failings of choosing government officials based on their factions, asking why only people who define themselves as selfless should be in government. It promotes a return to the democratically elected political systems of the past. It makes a lot of sense, which makes me suspect it is a call for revolution wrapped in a clothing of rationality. (p.262)
The conflict between the two factions started when Erudite released articles about Abnegation which is said to be just false accusations. Tris stated that right after the articles were released tension between the two factions got worst and even members from other factions got involved in the conflict between the two. The feud started when Erudite accused Abnegation of stealing their city’s supplies for their own luxury by indicting them of pretending to help the factionless people in providing them food, clothes and other basic needs for survival.
The Erudite is planning on overthrowing Abnegation as the leader of their government as they believe that they are not being right and fair in handling the government of their city resulting for every other faction to hate on Abnegation and some believing that the articles were true. The Erudite is said to have a big influence over the citizens of Chicago for they hold the control over the technology and researches in their city. As said by Althusser (1969), there is an interpellation or process where the dominant class manipulates the working class to accept their ideology, as we can see between the conflict of Erudite and Abnegation. Erudite has the influence or dominance and technology to manipulate and convince the public to believe in whatever they say.
As described by Tris, she experienced being bullied at their school by other faction members because of what they’ve heard from Erudite and even on their visiting day after their choosing ceremony the tension between the two factions do not subsides. Abnegation members cannot visit their children inside the premises of Erudite compound that made Tris’s anger towards the Erudite ignite even more.
Table 1.2 Marxist Analysis of Divergent (Book 1) in terms of Class Struggle as to the competition between the initiates
Class Struggle Excerpt/s Cited
The competition between the initiates “For those of you who just came in, I’m explaining how the ranks are determined,” he says, “After the first round of fights, we ranked you according to your skill level. The number of points you earn depends on your skill level and the skill level of the person you beat. You earn more points for improving and more points for beating someone of a high skill level. I don’t reward preying on the weak. That is cowardice.”
I think his eyes linger on Peter at that last line, but they move on quickly enough that I’m not sure.
“If you have a high rank, you lose points for losing to a low-ranked opponent.”
Molly lets out an unpleasant noise, like a snort or a grumble.
“Stage two of training is weighted more heavily than stage one, because it is more closely tied to overcoming cowardice,” he says. “That said, it is extremely difficult to rank high at the end of initiation if you rank low in stage one.” (p.196-7)
“So you’re first,” Will says to Uriah.
Uriah shrugs. “Yeah. And?”
“And you think it’s a little unfair that you’ve spent your entire life getting ready for this, and we’re expected to learn it all in a few weeks?” Will says, his eyes narrowing.
“Not really. Stage one was about skill, sure, but no one can prepare for stage two,” he says. “At least, so I’m told.” (p.228)
“I will not be outranked by a stiff,” he hisses, his face so close to mine I can smell his stale breath. “How did you do it, huh? How the hell did you do it?”
He pulls me forward a few inches and then slams me against the wall again. I clench my teeth to keep from crying out, though pain from the impact went all the way down my spine. Will grabs Peter by his shirt collar and drags him away from me.
“Leave her alone,” he says. “Only a coward bullies a little girl.”
“A little girl?” scoffs Peter, throwing off Will’s hand. “Are you blind, or just stupid? She’s going to edge you out of the rankings and out of Dauntless, and you’re going to get nothing, all because she knows how to manipulate people and you don’t. So when you realize that she’s out to ruin us all, you let me know.”
Peter storms out of the dormitory. Molly and Drew follow him, looks of disgust on their faces.
“Thanks,” I say, nodding to Will.
“Is he right?” Will asks quietly. “Are you trying to manipulate us?”
“How on earth would I do that?” I scowl at him. “I’m just doing the best I can like anyone else.”
“I don’t know.” He shrugs a little. “By acting weak so we pity you? And then acting tough to psyche us out?”
“Psyche you out?” I repeat. “I’m your friend. I wouldn’t do that.” (p.267-8)
After the choosing ceremony the transferees or what they call initiates are up for an initiation that will determine if they will be part of their chosen faction. Each faction has their own way of initiating their transferees. Each transfers of faction are meant to compete against each other in order to be a full member of a faction. As told by Tris her chosen faction, Dauntless, have the most dangerous and hardest initiation in all five factions.
She described the physical training they have to pass in order to proceed to the next stage of initiation, in the first stage they are ranked according to their performance, it is mentioned that the number of points they earn depends on their skill level and the skill level of the person they beat. They will earn more points for improving and even more points for beating someone of a high skill level. The conflict between the initiates got more intense as Tris started to learn and use her skills in beating higher ranked initiates that made her a big threat.
As the stage two of the initiation came, conflict between the initiates intensified more, especially when Tris ranked first on their simulation test as she was the one who has the fastest time to get out of the simulation and even outranked the Dauntless-born initiates.The force transforming latent class membership into a struggle of classes is class interest. Out of similar class situations, individuals come to act similarly. They develop a mutual dependence, a community; a shared interest interrelated with a common income of profit or of wages. From this common interest classes are formed, and for Marx, individuals form classes to the extent that their interests engage them in a struggle with the opposite class.
As seen in Dauntless initiation, their initiates compete with each other because of their same interest as they all want to be a member of Dauntless and the rule says they need to fight each other in any way to be accepted in their chosen faction.
Table 1.3 Marxist Analysis of Insurgent (Book 2) in terms of Class Struggle as to Divergent inside the Amity compounds
Class Struggle Excerpt/s Cited
Divergent inside the Amity compounds “Our Erudite and Dauntless friends are looking for some people,” Johanna says. “Several members of Abnegation, three members of Dauntless, and a former Erudite initiate.” She smiles. “In the interest of full cooperation, I told them that the people they were looking for were, in fact, here, but have since moved on. They would like to search the premises, which means we have to vote. Does anyone object to a search?” (p.79)
After the attack on Abnegation Tris and the other members of the other factions made their way to the Amity compound which they believed is the safest place they can go to. The conflict between Jeanine and the Divergent can be seen as she ordered her soldiers which are the Dauntless traitors to search in Amity compound because she knows that it is the safest place outside the city that Tris and her fellow members might be hiding.
It is shown how the influence of someone in power can dominate the whole city. It is easier for her to find the Divergents because she holds the control over the people, she has the power and resources to find and kill the Divergents.
In relation to class struggle, Jeanine represents the upper class in the society wherein she dominates and manipulates how it works while Tris and the other faction members are the working class which represents the lower class of people in the society.
According to Bennett “the work that an ideology effect is that of transforming individuals into concrete social beings who are the subjects of determinate forms of consciousness.” For Freire, the single greatest problem of mankind is now, and has always been, the power struggle between those who wish to humanize themselves (the oppressed) and those who seek to dehumanize others (the oppressors).
Freire (2011) asserts that this power struggle for humanization is often “thwarted by injustice, exploitation, oppression, and the violence of the oppressors; it is affirmed by the yearning of the oppressed for freedom and justice, and by their struggle to recover their lost humanity” (p.44). Jeanine became violent and manipulative in order to get what she desire and that is have control over all Chicago and find the Divergents.
Table 1.4 Marxist Analysis of Insurgent (Book 2) in terms of Class Struggle as to The Factions and Erudite
Class Struggle Excerpt/s Cited
The Factions and Erudite “Why did everyone leave Dauntless headquarters?” I say. “The traitors aren’t there, are they?”
“No, they’re at Erudite headquarters. We left because Dauntless headquarters has the most surveillance cameras of any area in the city,” Lynn says. “We knew the Erudite could probably access all the footage, and that it would take forever to find all the cameras, so we thought it was best to just leave.”
“We have our moments.” (p172)
“Not sure why we can’t just shoot them all in the head,” one of them says. “If there’s no army, we win.”
“Now, Bob, we can’t just kill everyone,” a cold voice says.
The hair on the back of my neck stands up. I would know that voice anywhere. It belongs to Eric, leader of the Dauntless. (p.178)
Erudite is the coldest of the five
Knowledge is a costly thing …
I wonder when Jeanine realized that Erudite and Dauntless would make a deadly combination. Ruthlessness and cold logic, it seems, can accomplish almost anything, including putting one and a half faction to sleep. (p.182)
“In order to comply with these demands, I ask that everyone make their way to the Gathering Place to report whether you have an implant or not,” he says. “The Erudite have also ordered all Divergent to be turned over to Erudite. I do not know for what purpose.”
He sounds listless. Defeated. Well, he is defeated, I think. Because he was too weak to fight back.
One thing Dauntless knows that Candor does not is how to fight even when fighting seems useless. (p.269)
After hiding in the Amity compound and causing ruckus, Tris and the other members decided to go to the factionless where they met Evelyn, Tobias’s mother whim she believed and everyone else has died years ago and then they decided to go to Candor. In there they met loyal Dauntless who did not side with the ruling faction which is Erudite. While staying in Candor they witnessed the wrath and anger of their fellow Dauntless members and other faction members with the current leader and the whole of Erudite
While staying in Candor, some Dauntless members decided to spy on Erudite to know what they are planning to do and maybe somehow come up with the plan to overthrow the ruling faction. In the amidst of their preparation, Eric and his fellow Dauntless traitors attacked the Candor shooting them with some kind of serum but as a Divergent the serum does not affect Tris and to her surprise same as Uriah, one of her friends in Dauntless.
As Tris stream down the building she heard that Jeanine is looking for Divergents as shown in this scene: “Not sure why we can’t just shoot them all in the head,” one of them says. “If there’s no army, we win.”
“Now, Bob, we can’t just kill everyone,” a cold voice says.
The hair on the back of my neck stands up. I would know that voice anywhere. It belongs to Eric, leader of the Dauntless.
The conflict between Erudite, Jeanine and the people of Chicago can be seen as she tried to kill and use her power to hunt down Divergents. As Marx put it, classes are naturally antagonistic by virtue of their interests, and that can be seen as Jeanine desperately wants to hunt down Divergents by threatening Candor to their demolishment, in other words, through manipulation, marginalization, and violence, oppressors strip oppressed of their liberties to maintain sociopolitical and economic dominance.
This is evident on Jeanine threatening the Candor leader that she will abolish them if he does not agree to her condition on surrendering the Divergents. This usurped power is held with a tight fist by the oppressors and will proceed until those who have been robbed of their humanity take it upon themselves to seek out liberation (Neilly, 2013).
Table 1.5 Marxist Analysis of Insurgent (Book 2) in terms of Class Struggle as to Jeanine Mathews and Beatrice Prior (the conflict of Tris’s divergence)
Class Struggle Excerpt/s Cited
Jeanine Mathews and Beatrice Prior (the conflict of Tris’s divergence) “Come on!” I say. I sprint up to the stairs, the others on my heels. On the lower tier of the bridge, our Dauntless shoot at the Dauntless traitors. Jack is safe, bent over with a Dauntless arm slung across his back. I ruin faster. I run across the bridge and don’t look behind me. I can already hear Tobias’s footsteps. He is the only one who can keep up with me. (p.255-6)
“What it is?” She grabs Peter’s gun out of his hand and stalks across the room, pressing the barrel to my forehead. My body stiffens, goes cold. She won’t shoot me. I am a problem she can’t solve. She won’t shoot me.
“What is it that clues you in? Tell me. Tell me of I will kill you.”
I slowly push myself up from the chair, coming to my feet, pushing my skin harder in the cold barrel.
“You think I’m going to tell you?” I say. “You think I believe that you would kill me without figuring out the answer to this question?”
“You stupid girl,” she says. “You think this is about you, and your abnormal brain? This is not about you. It is not about me. It is about keeping this city safe from the people who intend to plunge it into hell!” (p.372-4)
The search for the Divergent continued as Jeanine ordered her soldiers to hunt them down everywhere in the city. The attack on the Candor compound done by the Dauntless rebels and ordered by Jeanine was not meant to kill them but to determine who are the Divergent, and to inject everyone with a serum that directly transmits data to the Erudite computers.
As Tris and the other members are trying to figure out a plan to fight back at Jeanine they are surprised by an incident which killed three of their members that are being controlled by the Erudite and sending them a message through one of the members who is under the simulation. The message says that if no Divergent will come and surrender his/her self to Jeanine, every two days an incident like that will occur, wherein anyone who is injected with the serum will be controlled by the simulation and take their lives without a fight for Erudite controls their minds.
As put by Marx, Political organization and Power is an instrumentality of class struggle, and reigning ideas are its reflection, and that we can see with how Jeanine uses her advantage to manipulate and control the minds of the people to get the satisfaction she wants. She uses the resources and advantages for her own goals, leaving the weak to their misery and forcing them to do what she wants them to do.
After hearing such news, Tris immediately gone through Erudite and submitted herself to Jeanine, ready to die. After running several tests Jeanine still could not find a serum that can control all the people and most especially the Divergents. The tension between the two characters intensified more as Tris tries to mock Jeanine and her obsession in controlling the people of Chicago with her simulations.
Table 1.6 Marxist Analysis of Allegiant (Book 3) in terms of Class Struggle as to Factionless and the Allegiant
Class Struggle Excerpt/s cited
Factionless and the Allegiant “We should thank you for defying the instructions of your faction leaders? Thank you for trying to prevent one of your faction leaders form killing Jeanine Mathews? You behaved like a traitor.” Evelyn Johnson spits the word like snake. We are in the conference room in Erudite headquarters, where the trials have been taking place. I have now been a prisoner for the at least a week. (p. 11)
She slides off the desk and moves to the window. “I’ve been receiving disturbing reports of a rebel organization among us.” She looks up, raising an eyebrow. “People always organize into groups. That’s a fact of our existence. I just don’t expect to happen this quickly.”
“What kind of organization?”
“The kind that wants to leave the city,” she says. “They released some kind of manifesto this morning. They call themselves the Allegiant.” When she sees my confused look she adds, “Because they’re allied with the original purpose of our city, see? (p.20)
I close my eyes. The faction bowls are printed on my eyelids, tipped on their sides, their contents in a pile on the street. The symbols of our old way of life, destroyed – a man dead, others injured – and for what?
For nothing. For Evelyn’s empty, narrow vision: a city where factions are wrenched away from people against their will.
She wanted us to have more than five choices. Now we have none.
I know for sure then that I can’t be he ally, and I never could have.
“We have to go,” Tris says, and I know she’s not talking about leaving Michigan Avenue or taking Edward to then hospital; she’s talking about the city.
“We have to go,” I repeat. (p.38)
All around me the factionless cheer. I just feel uneasy. I don’t disagree with her, exactly but the same faction members who rose up against Edward yesterday won’t remain quiet after this, either. Evelyn’s hold on this city is not as strong as she might like. … “Hey!” I yell again, and this time the girl turns. She’s much taller than I am – a good six inches, in fact – but I’m only angry, not afraid.
“Back up,’ I say. “Back away from him.”
“He’s in violation of the dress code. I’m well within my rights, and I don’t take orders from faction lovers,” she says, her eyes on the ink over my collarbone. (p.46-7)
Johanna continues, “Some of you are here because we want to ask for your help. All of you are here because you don’t trust Evelyn Johnson to determine the fate of this city.” … “In accordance with the intentions of our city’s founders, we have two goals: to overthrow Evelyn and the factionless so that we can re-establish the factions, and to send some of our number outside the city to see what’s out there.” (p.62)
“No, I don’t know,” I say. “What crisis?”
“The Erudite representative had just begun to kill the Divergent, of course,” he says/ “His name was Nor-Norman?”
“Norton,” says Matthew. “Jeanine’s predecessor. Seems he passed on the idea killing off the Divergent to her, right before his heart attack.” (p.153)
Even before Tris was born the conflict between the Divergent and Erudite is on. Before Jeanie started to hunt and kill the Divergent her predecessor named Norton was the first one to instill this belief to Jeanine.
As Evelyn took over the leadership of the city, she began to give rules that the people must follow under her reign as their leader. As the factionless rise and started controlling the city there are a lots of new problem and conflict that arise. The five factions are now destroyed and no faction or initiation is existing in their city. The conflict between the factionless and the Allegiant began when a group of people decided that they wanted to go outside the city, beyond the fence, they call themselves Allegiant.
They are those who want to have the old norms of their city back. Some of them wanted to go outside the city to know what is in there after having the knowledge of the people outside. Evelyn doesn’t want anyone go outside the fence and that she told them to stay in the city and abide to her new rules and regulations. According also from The Book Smugglers (2013), “Everything is flawed, everything is broken. There is no simple, right solution.” Evelyn used her advantage to stop them as she now holds everything there is in the city especially the weapon and the man power which are the factionless the Allegiant people cannot do anything about it but instead planned their way out of the city and how to restore their old ways and how to overthrow the what they call ‘Dictator leadership’ of Evelyn. Moreover, the perpetual tension, conflict or the antagonism between the owning and the non-owning class is called Class struggle (Priya, 2017), where in their city the advantage and power that Evelyn have over the Allegiant as she now owns all of the resources there is in the city
Table 1.7 Marxist Analysis of Allegiant (Book 3) in terms of Class Struggle as to The Bureau and the Genetically Damaged
Class Struggle Excerpt/s cited
The Bureau and the Genetically Damaged “Humanity has never been perfect, but the genetic alterations made it worse than it had ever been before. This manifested itself in what we call the Purity war. A civil war, waged by those with damaged genes. The Purity War caused a level of destruction formerly unheard of on American soil, eliminating almost half of the country’s population. (p.123)
“What do you mean, expandable?” I say.
“The crimes they have committed against people like us are serious,” Nita says. “And hidden. I can show you evidence, but that will have to come later. For now, what I can tell you is that we’re working against the Bureau, for good reasons, and we want you with us.” (p.235)
“There was this girl,” he says. “She was genetically damaged, and that meant I wasn’t supposed to go out with her, right? We’re supposed to make sure that we match ourselves with ‘optimal’ partners, so we produce genetically superior offspring, or something. … “I knew that they let them off because they thought of her as something less than them. Like if the GPs had beat up an animal.” (p.427-8)
When Tris and others went to see what is outside the city they discovered a group of people who call themselves the Bureau, wherein they are the ones responsible of the experiment in their city. As they stay longer in there they discover more about them.
They discovered that similar to their city the people outside is also divided into groups but unlike them with factions they are labeled as the genetically damaged, those whose genes are not healed inside the city they are the faction members and the Genetically Pure which are the divergent, like her. The conflict between the Bureau and the GDs (genetically damaged) began even before they came out from the city. It began centuries ago where they call it the purity war, when the GDs started rebelling against the government as they say that the power the government holds is unfair to them, the justice and treatment that they get is not what they truly deserve.
As mentioned by Nita, one of the leaders of the GDs their rights and power are all equal when you read it in paper, so basically in legal terms equal opportunities must be
given to both the genetically pure and genetically damaged people, but according to her it is not seen or practiced in real life.
They began to assemble and planned an attack to the Bureau so that the power they have will change and the treatment towards them change too. According to Priya (2017) Marx’s emphasis on class conflict as constituting the dynamics of social change, the GDs wanted to fight back and change the treatment that the government gives them, his awareness that change was not random but the outcome of a conflict of interests, and his view of social relations as based on power were contributions of the first magnitude.
Also another factor that the GDs wanted to change is that they are not allowed to date or have a relationship with a GP (genetically pure), because the Bureau told them that a GP must only have another GP for their genes to preserve as pure and not damaged..
The term Class consciousness is the set of beliefs that a person holds regarding their social class or economic rank in society, the structure of their class, and their class interests. Class consciousness, as described by Georg Lukacs (1923), is opposed to any psychological conception of consciousness, which forms the basis of individual or mass psychology. In The Divergent series it is true that people know what are their roles in their society and that they are meant to do what their faction is supposed to be doing. It is also evident with the way their society puts a norm that enables to become a member of a faction you must first pass their initiation no matter what it is.
According to Marx, class consciousness is an awareness that is key to sparking a revolution that would, “create a dictatorship of the proletariat, transforming it from a wage-earning, property-less mass into the ruling class. In the second book it is evident that the five factions are uniting to overthrow the manipulative and irrational leadership of Jeanine Mathews and her faction the Erudite. They are aware of their class in their society that pushed them to unite and started to fight back.
Under the class consciousness is the “False consciousness” which means that an attitude held by members of a class that does not accurately reflect their objective position. It is seen when the initiates of Dauntless tried to outrank each other to become a member, they fight each other under the rules and circumstances given by the leaders of their chosen faction instead of uniting to demolish such unjust rules.
Table 2.1 Marxist Analysis of Divergent (Book 1) in terms of Class Consciousness as to their destiny after the initiations and the choosing ceremony
Class Consciousness Excerpt/s Cited
Their destiny after the initiations and the choosing ceremony I stare into my own eyes for a moment. Today is the day of the aptitude test that will show me which of the five factions I belong in. And tomorrow, at the Choosing Ceremony, I will decide on a faction; I will decide the rest of my life; I will decide to stay with my family or abandon them. (p.2)
I touch my forehead and stare at the floor as I walk out of the room. I can’t bear to look her in the eye. I can’t bear to think about the Choosing Ceremony tomorrow.
It’s my choice now, no matter what the test says.
Abnegation. Dauntless. Erudite.
The room is arranged in concentrate circles. On the edges stand the sixteen-year-olds of every faction. We are not called members yet; our decisions today will make us initiates, and we will become members if we complete initiation. (p.39)
“Rankings?” asks the mousy-haired Erudite girl to my right. “Why are we ranked?”
Eric smiles, and in the blue light, his smile looks wicked, like it was cut into his face with a knife.
“Your ranking serves two purposes,” he says. “The first is that it determines the order in which you will select a job after initiation. There are only a few desirable positions available.” (p.71)
The Dauntless-born initiates and the transfers were separated during stage one, but we will be training together from now on. That’s what Four told us before he disappeared behind the door.
“So,” says Lynn, scuffing he floor with her shoe.
“Which one of you is ranked first, huh?”
Her question is met with silence at first, and then peter clears his throat. (p.227)
I wanted to be like the Dauntless I saw at school. I wanted to be loud and daring and free like them. But they were not members yet; they were just playing at being Dauntless. And so was I, when I jumped off the roof. I didn’t know what fear was. (p.263)
After the choosing ceremony, all sixteen-year-olds will face an initiation that will determine if they will become a member of the faction that they choose. The initiates of Dauntless are ranked according to their performance and the skill level they will attain. Initiation from other faction is seen little as to how Tris narrated it. In Dauntless initiation they are aware of who they are and what will they become after the initiation, it is either becoming one of the leaders of Dauntless or having a job in security or worst become factionless, which are the lowest class of people, those who are treated like nothing by the other faction except for the Abnegation who provides them with food and their everyday needs.
Dauntless leaders are making their initiates compete with each other in order to determine their faith, therefore, it is only right and natural that those from the highest social class should hold all the positions of power and leadership because they are naturally suited to such roles and are the only ones who can be trusted to perform them properly (Tyson, 2006). Relating to class consciousness initiates are said to do what they are told by the leaders and by the rules of their faction, as believed by Marx, people needs to unit to be able to revolt against the oppression of those higher than them and together they can change their working conditions.
There was one stumbling block to Marx’s hope of a working-class revolution, and that was the fact that the working class did not see themselves as one unit just like how the initiates fight with each other just because the rules of Dauntless and those who are in power ordered them to, but individually, in terms of ‘I’ and ‘me’ which is known as false consciousness which results to being “I” just like how Tris described her fellow initiate, Peter who told her that “I will not be outranked by a stiff,”.
In the rules of Dauntless initiation you fight until one of you cannot stand anymore regardless of gender and faction origin, but rather than uniting to change the rule of those who are in power for the sake of all, the initiates tends to see only their own sake rather than uniting to fight back.
Table 2.2 Marxist Analysis of Divergent (Book 1) in terms of Class Consciousness as to The 5 factions
Class Consciousness Excerpt/s Cited
The 5 factions The Candor man wears a black suit with a white tie – Candor standard uniform. Their faction values honesty and sees the truth as a black and white, so that is what they wear. Candor values honesty, but our faction, Abnegation, values selflessness. (p.3-4)
“Working together, these five factions have lived in peace for many years, each contributing to a different sector of society. Abnegation has fulfilled our need for selfless leaders in government; Candor has provided us with trustworthy and sound leaders in law; Erudite has supplied us with intelligent teachers and researchers; Amity has given us understanding counselors and caretakers; and Dauntless provides us with protection form treats both within and without. But the reach of each faction is limited to these areas. We give one another far more than can be adequately summarized. In our factions, we find meaning, we find purpose, we find life.” (p.43)
The dormitory is dark now – everyone has gone to bed. Probably exhausted from resenting me so much, I think with a wry smile. As if coming from the most hated faction wasn’t enough, now I’m showing them up, too. (p.276)
The destiny of every member of their society is determined to which faction they will choose and if they will be able to pass its initiation to become full members. Each faction has its distinct role in their society and as Tris becomes a member of Dauntless she is exposed to what are the roles of each faction.
Each faction has a duty to be fulfilled because that is what they are meant to do, that is what they are used to be doing even before Tris was born and be a part of Abnegation. Every year when a faction child turns 16 they are meant to find their own destiny by choosing the faction they want to be a part of and face the consequences of not being able to come back to their old factions anymore or become factionless after they choose the new faction they want to be part of.
Every faction has a leader or representative that determines their role and provides them with information coming from the council or their government.
Each faction’s role affects the growth of their city. Amity is concerned in providing the whole city with food and other material necessary for their health and
living. Candor is the faction who is in charge of giving the people the honesty and provides the city with the truth in helping them especially the leaders to have an open mind that will decide for the future of their city. Erudite is the faction who gives them knowledge and technology for the progress of the city through their most prestige invention which is the simulation serum that manipulates the mind of whoever is injected with it.
The faction that provides help and the leaders in the government is the Abnegation. They are the ones who help the factionless in providing them with food, clothes and other basic needs for living. They are also the people who govern the city in managing their resources and making decision for the welfare of all. The last faction is the Dauntless which provides the city with security and protection within and without the city of Chicago.
In their society they are bound to do what their faction is meant to be doing. As mentioned by Tris, she is meant to be selfless even though she is not so that she can fit into her faction as Abnegation. In connection to class consciousness, people in every faction is meant to do what they are told to. Their land, resources, and factories were controlled and owned by the wealthy citizens or in their situation are controlled by those in power so the working class or their members had little choice but to work and act according to the terms dictated by the upper, controlling class for their factions.
Table 2.3 Marxist Analysis of Divergent (Book 1) in terms of Class Consciousness as to The factionless people
Class Consciousness Excerpt/s Cited
The factionless people As the moments pass, I get more nervous. I have to wipe off my hands every few seconds as the sweat collects – or maybe I just do it because it helps me feel calmer. What if they tell me that I’m not cut out for any faction? I would have to live on the streets, with the factionless. I can’t do that. To live factionless is not just to live in poverty and discomfort; it is to live divorced from society, separated from the most important thing in life: community. (p.20)
Just pass the Abnegation sector of the city is the stretch of building skeletons and broken sidewalks that I now walk through. There are places where the road has completely collapsed, revealing sewer systems and empty subways that I have to be careful to avoid, and places that stink so powerfully of sewage and trash that I have to plug my nose.
This is where the factionless live. Because they failed to complete initiation into whatever faction they chose, they live in poverty, doing the work no one else wants to do. They are the janitors and construction workers and garbage collectors; they make fabric and operate trains and drive buses. In return for their work they get food and clothing, but, as my mother says, not enough of either. (p.25)
People who are not able to pass the initiation of their chosen faction are put to become members of the Factionless, those who live without faction, and those who live in poverty. Tris described the factionless as people that has been taken away their rights to speak their voice out; they are those who will do whatever it is just make money and a little amount of food for their survival. The ideology, dictated by the dominant class, functions to secure its power.
When such cultural conditioning leads, the people to accept a system that is unfavorable for them without protest or questioning, that is, to accept it as the logical way for things to be, they have developed a false consciousness (Dobie, p. 92).
A person who becomes a member of factionless are meant to do the labor that will benefit those who are above them they are locked in the idea of only doing the jobs a factionless should do even though they can do more, just because they are factionless it means they have no access to anything the city can offer. Materials and other goods are available only to those who have factions and to their leaders. According to Bennett “the work that ideology effects is that of transforming individuals into concrete social beings who are the subjects of determinate forms of consciousness.” For this reason, Marx detested the concept and practice of capitalism; he felt that it only allowed the rich to become richer and the poor to become poorer. In a classless society, ideology is settled to profit all men. In Tris’s society a factionless is supposed to be poorer and be deprived of the basic needs that they could have if they belong in a faction.
Table 2.4 Marxist Analysis of Insurgent (Book 2) in terms of Class Consciousness as to the factions and their role in their city
Class Consciousness Excerpt/s Cited
The factions and their role in their city Standing in the cluster of roots is Johanna Reyes, her hair falling over the scarred half of her face. I learned in Faction History that the Amity recognize no official leader – they vote on everything, and the result is usually close to unanimous. They are like many parts of a single mind, and Johanna is their mouthpiece. (p.18)
“What?” He laughs a little. They each have an equal role in government; they each feel equally responsible. And it makes them care; it makes them kind. I think that’s beautiful.” (p.20)
“What’s going on here? Why are you all together like this?”
“You thought they – we – were all split up,” Edward says over his shoulder. “Well, they were, for a while. Too hungry to do much of anything except look for food. But then the Stiffs started giving them food, clothes, tools, everything. And they got stronger, and waited. They were like that when I found them, and they welcomed me.” (p.95)
“For what purpose are the factionless uniting?” he says. “What do you intend to do?”
“We want to usurp Erudite,” she says. “Once we get rid of them, there’s not much stopping us from controlling the government ourselves.”
“That’s what you expect me to help you with. Over throwing one corrupt government and instating some kind of factionless tyranny.” He snorts. “Not a chance.”
“We don’t want to be tyrants,” she says. “We want to establish a new society. One without factions.” (p.109-10)
WE are the only faction that could divide like this. Amity would not allow a schism; no one in Abnegation would be so selfish; Candor would argue until they found a common solution; and even Erudite would never do something illogical. We really are the cruelest faction. (p.182)
As mentioned on the first book, Divergent, there are certain rules that every faction has to aabide. In terms of class consciousness, Marx saw the exploitation of the working class as a catalyst for change. He felt that the capitalistic system of the time could and should be destroyed, and Marx called for a revolution by the working-class members.
As Jeanine continued to hunt down Divergents and kill more people, little did she know that the factionless are gathering and waiting for their chance to fight against the current government she has established. Turtle (2017), stated that he liked that there were more Divergents and that there are more brave people who attempts to fight against the erudite and the Rebel Dauntless and claim for their freedom and order to their city.
In the way the factionless plans to overthrow the ruling faction or the current leader, it can be seen that the people are now more aware of what they can do, their class consciousness about the current situation of their city pushed them to unite and start to create their group and change the way they are treated and seen in their society, it is evident in this lines: “We want to usurp Erudite,” she says. “Once we get rid of them, there’s not much stopping us from controlling the government ourselves.” Simply put, the workers needed to see themselves as one unit and, together, could revolt and change their working conditions.
Table 2.5 Marxist Analysis of Insurgent (Book 2) in terms of Class Consciousness as to the truth behind the factions and the city they live in
Class Consciousness Excerpt/s Cited
The truth behind the factions and the city they live in “We are not from here, Beatrice. We were all placed here, for a specific purpose. A while ago, the Abnegation were forced to enlist the help of Erudite in order to achieve that purpose, but eventually everything went awry because of Jeanine. Because she doesn’t want to do what we are supposed to do. She would rather resort to murder.”
My brain feels like it is buzzing with information. I clutch the edge of the bench beneath me.
“What are we supposed to do?” I say my voice barely more than a whisper. (p.414)
“In order to keep you safe, we devised a way for you to be separated from us. From our water supply. From our technology. From our societal structure. We have formed your society in a particular way in the hope that you will rediscover the moral sense most of us have lost. Overtime, we hope that you will begin to change as most of us cannot.
“The reason I am leaving this footage for you is so that you will know when it’s time to help us. You will know that it is time when there are many among you whose minds appear to be more flexible than the others. The name you should give those people is Divergent. Once they become abundant among you, your leaders should give the command for Amity to unlock the gate forever, so that you may emerge from your isolation. (p.524)
After many times of asking Marcus what kind of information does Jeanine badly wants from Abnegation and become the reason why their parents sacrificed their lives, she managed to get a bit of that information from Marcus, he told her that they are not meant to live that way. He explained that a specific purpose is the reason why they are placed in that kind of situation and was forced to live the way they know, there is a reason behind all the rules and beliefs they possess their whole life. Marx developed a materialist theory of how human beings were shaped by the society they lived in, but also how they could act to change that society, how people are both world determined and world producing.
Marcus also stated that the reason behind Jeanine’s attack is because she does not want to resort to the plan of the government leaders about the information that they must tell the people.
In Marx’s view, the relationship between people was determined primarily through who controlled the mode of economic production, such as land or factories. Marcus and the other government officials know what information is that, while Jeanine has a different view or perspective as to how that resource or information must be delivered to the public. Thus, the working class or the citizens had little choice but to work according to the terms dictated by the government or the upper class.
Table 2.6 Marxist Analysis of Allegiant (Book 3) in terms of Class Consciousness as to the new Chicago (The Allegiant)
Class consciousness Excerpt/s cited
The new Chicago (The Allegiant) “They’re just like Jeanine!” She makes a fitful gesture, like she wants to hit something but there’s nothing available. “Ready to do anything to stifle the truth, and for what? To be kings of their tiny little world? It’s ridiculous.” (p.7)
“I can see why you didn’t choose Erudite.” She laughs.
My cheeks tingle. I would like to slap her. As I’m sure many of the people in this room would, though they wouldn’t dare to admit it. Evelyn has us all trapped in the city, controlled by armed factionless patrolling the streets. She knows that whoever holds the gun holds the power. And with Jeanine Mathews dead, there was no left to challenge her for it.
Form one tyrant to another. That is the world we know now. (p.13)
A group of factionless has already gathered outside, in the middle of Michigan Avenue. A layer of pale clouds covers the sun, making the daylight hazy and dull. I hear someone shout, “Death to the factions!” and others pick up the phrase, turning into a chant, until it fills my ears, Death to the factions, death to the factions. I see their fists in the air, like excitable Dauntless, but without the Dauntless joy. Their faces are twisted with rage. (p. 34)
“It’s also time to prepare for our new, factionless way of life. Starting today, everyone will begin to learn the jobs the factionless have done for as long as we can remember. We will then all do those jobs on a rotation schedule, in addition to the other duties that have traditionally been performed by the factions.” Evelyn smiles without really smiling. I don’t know how she does it. “We will all contribute equally to our new city, as it should be. The factions have divided us, but now we will be united. Now and forever.” (p.46)
In the city we were divided by faction, by age, by history, but here all those divisions fall away. We are all we have. (p.112)
People of Chicago are now aware of what they can do to be free and preserve their city. As Evelyn took over Jeanine, she made new rules that everyone must obey. Into what they call their new city, there are no more factions and everyone is now equal with one another. A person can and is allowed to do whatever they wish, based from Marx, class consciousness is an awareness that determines a start of a revolution among the upper and the lower class of our society. Allegiant is more concerned with competing ideologies on how to fix the largest problems facing the world and how eugenics create second-class citizens who are deemed impure and broken (McFarland, 2013).
In their case the people of the city does know what they are capable of and their say in their society, so even though Evelyn tried to stop them in getting outside of the city they still managed to create a plan that will enable them to fight back against the current ruling government. According to Marx cited in Munro (2018), workers first become conscious of sharing common grievances against capitalists (thus forming a class “in itself”) and eventually develop an awareness of themselves as forming a social class opposed to the bourgeoisie(thus becoming a class “for itself”), the proletariat.
In the say, the Allegiant was born; they are those who want to restore the old system of their city the one with factions system and choosing ceremony and some their numbers go outside the city to attend to the real purpose of their city, to see what is outside the fence.
Table 2.7 Marxist Analysis of Allegiant (Book 3) in terms of Class Consciousness as to GDs and GPs
Class consciousness Excerpt/s cited
GDs and GPs “Because they are genetically damaged,” Nita says, glancing at me. “Genetically damaged people are technically – legally – equal to genetically pure people, but only on paper, so to speak. In reality they’re poorer, more likely to be convicted of crimes, less likely to be hired for good jobs … you name it, it’s a problem, and has been since the Purity war, over a century ago. For the people who live in the fringe, it seemed more appealing to opt out of society completely rather than to try to correct the problem from within, like I intend to do.” (p.243)
“People are isolated, starving,” Nita says quietly. “They know only what they’re taught, they see only the information that’s made available to them. And who controls all that? The government.” … “That’s the thing,” Nita says. “They’re hurting people.” (p.264-5)
In society outside the city, Tris and the others unveiled more secret surrounding their city. They discovered that the ones who helped Jeanine and her predecessors to hunt and kill the Divergent are the ones outside the city, the Bureau and anger towards them developed. She discovered that the serums that their city used as their number source of destruction from each other came from the bureau, who watched them all their lives inside the city. They discovered that the Bureau is observing them from the very start.
Another thing that she and her friends knew about the life outside the city is that the treatments towards the people are not the same, that there is an ongoing war between the people in the fringe and the Bureau. As told by Nita, one of the people working for the Bureau and is also a GD (genetically damage), people are deprived of their rights in the society she described their situation as: “People are isolated, starving,” Nita says quietly. “They know only what they’re taught, they see only the information that’s made available to them. And who controls all that? The government.” In Marx’s words: “The proletariat carries out the sentence which private property passes upon itself by its creation of a proletariat.” By recognizing its situation it acts. By combating capitalism it discovers its own place in society. (Lukacs, p.40)
As mentioned before the GPs and GDs must have an equal opportubity and treatment in the society, she said that legally it is true but in their reality none of that is observed. Based from Munro (2018), class consciousness, the self-understanding of members of a social class and that it drives them to speak and fight to the oppressing rulers. As Nita, told them their situation she and her fellow GDs are planning a rebellion against the Bureau that will enable them to claim their equal rights in the society, and by that a conflict between the two groups will arise.
Based form Marx as cited in Lowe (2018), the general idea of alienation is simple, it means that something is alienating when what is (or should be) familiar and connected comes to seem foreign or disconnected, to the extent that we are unable to act in accordance with our species-being, we become disconnected from our own nature. In a capitalist economy, workers must compete with each other for jobs and raises. But just as competition between businesses brings down the price of commodities, competition between workers brings down wages. And so it is not the proletariat who benefits from this competition, but capitalists. This is not only materially damaging to workers, it estranges them from each other.
Divergent series portrayed alienation where the factions are made to become an experiment, they are put in their city to be able to grow and develop into something that the real world wants. Those who are beyond the borders act as the capitalist and made the people inside the fence the proletariats that will do the work and progress for them to be able to fight the struggle of the real world. They suppressed the people of Chicago of their rights to grow and learn about the real world and not the world they are programmed into. Because capitalists own the firms that employ workers, it is they, not the workers, who decide what commodities are made, how they are made, and in what working conditions they are made. In the situation of the initiates they are supposed to do what their factions told to because it holds their family and their identity, that is why they just do what they are told.
Table 3.1 Marxist Analysis of Divergent (Book 1) in terms of Alienation as to The 5 factions and their initiations
Alienation Excerpt/s Cited
The 5 factions and their initiations At the abnegation table, we sit quietly and wait. Faction customs dictate even idle behavior and supersede individual preference. I doubt all the Erudite want to study all the time, or that every Candor enjoys a lively debate, but they can’t defy the norms of their factions any more than I can. (p.9)
“I want to give you some advice about today. If by some miracle your families do come to visit you …” He scans our faces and smirks, “… which I doubt, it is best not to seem too attached. That will make it easier for you, and for them. We also take the phrase ‘faction before blood’ very seriously here. Attachment to your family suggests you aren’t entirely pleased with your faction, which would be shameful.l Understand?”
I understand. I hear the threat in Eric’s sharp voice. The only part of that speech that Eric meant was the last part: We are Dauntless, and we need to act accordingly. (p.176)
“If I were you, I would do a better job of pretending that selfless impulse is going away,” he says, “because if the wrong people discover it … well, it won’t be good for you.”
“Why? Why do they care about my intentions?”
“Intentions are the only thing they care about. They try to make you think they care about what you do, but they don’t. They don’t want you to act a certain way. They want you to think a certain way. So you’re easy to understand. So you won’t pose a threat to them.” (p.312)
The faction members are milling around everywhere. Erudite factions norms dictate that a faction member must wear at least one blue article of clothing at a time because blue causes the body to release calming chemicals, and “a calm mind is a clear mind.” the color has also come to signify their faction. It seems impossibly bright to me now. I have grown used to dim lighting and dark clothing. (p.349)
When a member of a faction transfers into another faction they are not able to come back to their origin factions anymore, they have to deal with the consequence of their choice and hold to their motto “Faction before Blood”. The theoretic basis of alienation, within the capitalist mode of production, is that the worker invariably loses the ability to determine life and destiny, when deprived of the right to think (conceive) of themselves as the director of their own actions. Althusser (2006) states that ideology is the element in which the relation between men and their conditions of existence is settled to the profit of the ruling class.
Relating to that, transferees or even the old faction members themselves are noted to be exactly what their faction is, they need to dress, think, act and speak as to what kind of faction they belong to. As shown by Tris, she is not meant to be curious for she is a member of Abnegation and by that she needs to act like one, being selfless, kind, and ready to sacrifice herself for the sake of others.
All her life Tris is trying to uphold the ideals of her parents. Only allowed to look in the mirror once a year, outfitted in the plainest, drab clothing, Tris strives to be as kind as her mother, as calm as her older brother, and as good a civil servant as her father.
She is controlled by her own society, that what her faction is meant to do, she has to deal with it for the benefit of those in charge for the keepsake of their society and their norms.
Table 3.2 Marxist Analysis of Divergent (Book 1) in terms of Alienation as to Jeanine’s control over Dauntless
Alienation Excerpt/s Cited
Jeanine’s control over Dauntless “So far there haven’t been any signs of it.” Eric’s voice. Signs of what?
“Well, you wouldn’t have seen much of it yet,” someone replies. A female voice; cold and familiar, but familiar like a dream, not a real person. “Combat training shows you nothing. The simulations, however, reveal who the Divergent rebels are, if there are any. So we will have to examine the footage several times to be sure.”
The word “Divergent” makes me go cold. I lean forward, my back pressed to the stone, to see who the familiar voice belongs to.
“Don’t forget the reason I had Max appoint you,” the voice says. “Your first priority is always finding them, Always.” (p.276-7)
“I don’t understand why we’re such a threat to the leaders.”
“Every faction conditions its members to think and act a certain way. And most people do it. For most people, it’s not hard to learn, to find a pattern of thought that works and stay that way.” She touches my uninjured shoulder and smiles. “But our minds move in a dozen different directions. We can’t be confirmed to one way of thinking, and that terrifies our leaders. It means we can’t be controlled. And it means that no matter what they do, we will always cause trouble for them.” (p.442)
The feud between Erudite and Abnegation did not subside, thus it actually lead to a more serious conflict between the two. The Erudite started an attack simulation to kill the members of Abnegation and the government leaders under the leadership of their representative, Jeanine Mathews. She made a simulation serum that transmits her orders to Dauntless members to attack the Abnegation and get the information she wants from them.
Tris described the attack as Jeanine’s way of controlling and starting a revolution amongst the citizens of Chicago, she taught that Jeanine used the ability of the Dauntless soldiers to manipulate or control the situation. Jeanine used the Dauntless members for her own satisfaction and the Dauntless cannot do anything about it for their minds are under a simulation. Moreover, free and conscious a persons’ mind should be, instead it is controlled and directed by the capitalist who in here is represented by Jeanine and the Erudite, who represents in here are the minds of the Dauntless being controlled and manipulated under the power of simulation brought by Jeanine.
“The external character of labor for the worker appears in the fact that it is not his own but someone else’s, that it does not belong to him, that in it he belongs, not to himself, but to another” as said by Marx. This means that the Dauntless soldier cannot process their own decision which means they are under the what we call alienation of the worker from the act of production, because they cannot control their own mind nor make their own decision. They only act by means of controlling under the simulation.
Table 3.3 Marxist Analysis of Insurgent (Book 2) in terms of Alienation as to Candor
Alienation Excerpt/s Cited
Candor “I should inform you that this will not be a negotiation,” Max says. “In order to negotiate, you have to be on equal footing, and you, Jack, are not.”
“What do you mean?”
“I mean that you are the only disposable faction. Candor does not provide us with protection, sustenance or technological innovation. Therefore you are expandable to us. And you have not done much to win the favour of your Dauntless guests,” says Max, “so you are completely vulnerable and completely useless. I recommend, therefore, that you do exactly as I say.”
“You piece of scum,” says Jack through gritted teeth. “How dare –”
“Now let’s not get testy,” Max says. (p.252-3)
Jeanine threatened the Candor as to saying that they are the only disposable faction, in which she described them as no use because they do not provide them with protection, food and other necessary things that will benefit their society. As Marx stated societal existence is conditioned by their relationships with the people and things that facilitate survival, which is fundamentally dependent upon cooperation with others, thus, a person’s consciousness is determined collectively, not individually, because humans are a social animal. In the course of history, to ensure individual survival, societies have organized themselves into groups who have different, basic relationships to the means of production.
One societal group or a class owned and controlled the means of production, while another societal class worked the means of production; in the relations of production of that status quo, the goal of the owner-class was to economically benefit as much as possible from the labor of the working class; thus, Jeanine took away the status quo of Candor when she told them that they do not have any use for the growth and development of their society. Candor was of course displeased by how Jeanine described them as a faction and then agreed to her terms to surrender the Divergents and give the name of those who does not have a serum injected to them.
Table 3.4 Marxist Analysis of Insurgent (Book 2) in terms of Alienation as to the odd rules of Dauntless
Alienation Excerpt/s Cited
The odd rules of Dauntless “Well, yeah. You’ve got one of the worst initiations, and there’s that whole old-age thing.”
“Old-age thing?” I say. I glance at Tobias. He is listening now, and he looks almost normal again, his eyes thoughtful and dark in the firelight.
“Once the Dauntless reach a certain level of physical deterioration,” he says, “they are ask to leave. In one way or another.”
“What’s the other way?” My heart pounds, like it already knows an answer I can’t face without prompting.
“Let’s just say,” says Tobias, “that for some, death is preferable to factionlessness.” (104)
“How is she?”
“Dunno. She’s gonna survive it, but the nurse thinks she might be paralyzed from the waist down. And that wouldn’t bother me, but …” He lifts a shoulder, “How can she be Dauntless if she can’t walk?” (p.280)
All of the citizens of Chicago know how hard the initiation of dauntless is before becoming a member, from the physical training to the mental and emotional through the use of simulation where you have to face your fears. After passing the initiation and become a member, it is also a hard time being a members of dauntless, when it comes to being a member you should be physically fit and has a lot of energy to be able to stay in their compound and still be called a Dauntless member. There is a rule in Dauntless compound wherein when you reach a certain age you should leave the compound and become a factionless. No matter how you prove that you can still fight and serve the city they will force you to leave in one way or another whoch is death, moreover in connection to alienation the workers is alienated from the means of production via two forms; wage compulsion and the imposed production content. The worker is bound to do unwanted labor as a means of survival, that can be seen wherein the old Dauntless members are forced to leave their compound and do the work they do not want just to survive, labor is not voluntary but coerced or what do we call forced labor. The worker is only able to reject wage compulsion at the expense of their life and that of their family.
Table 3.5 Marxist Analysis of Insurgent (Book 2) in terms of Alienation as to being a Divergent
Alienation Excerpt/s Cited
Being a Divergent “Divergent.” he says. “Well done. Bring her to the elevator bank. We’ll decide which ones to kill and which ones to bring back later.”
The Dauntless soldier grabs the woman by the ponytail and starts toward the elevator bank, dragging her behind him, She shrieks, and scrambles to her feet, bent over. I try to swallow but it feels like I have a was of cotton balls in my throat. (p.183)
“Shauna –” Zeke starts.
“Don’t Shauna me!” she says, focusing her scowl on him instead. “Don’t you think someone with the aptitude for multiple factions might have a loyalty problem? If she’s got aptitude for Erudite, how can we be sure she’s not working with for Erudite?”
“Don’t; be ridiculous,” says Tobias, his voice low.
“I am not being ridiculous.” She smacks the table. “I know I belong to Dauntless because everything I did in that aptitude test told me so. I’m loyal to my faction for that reason – because there’s nowhere else I could possibly be. But her? And you?” She shakes her head. “I have no idea who you’re loyal to. And I’m not going to pretend like everything’s okay.” (p.235)
Eric and the other Dauntless traitors tried to determine who are the Divergents and put all of them in the elevator to determine who to kill and who to bring back to Erudite compound for the test they wish to undergo to find out what makes a Divergent unique among the others, what factors makes them immune to the simulations. The day after the attack Shauna, one of Tris’s friends can be seen acting strange whenever Divergent surrounds her, specially Tris and their friend Uriah who is also a Divergent. As mentioned before, Marx understood alienation as something rooted in the material world. Alienation meant loss of control, specifically the loss of control over labor. Being a divergent in Tris’s world you are alienated in many ways such as, people define you as different among them. In their society when someone found out that you are a Divergent they tend to label you as a threat to them, you don’t have a faction where you belong and that you can manipulate them by just using your mind. It is evident also when Jeanine started to hunt them and tried to kill them for they believe that divergent people are a threat to their security and order of peace in their society. Moreover, Divergent cannot truly express what they want or even what they are capable of doing which, as said by Marx, alienation from the self is a consequence of being a mechanistic part of a social class, the condition of which estranges a person from their humanity. Based from Cox (1998) we are alienated from our fellow human beings. This alienation arises in part because of the antagonisms which inevitably arise from the class structure of society. We are alienated from those who exploit our labor and control the things we produce
Table 3.6 Marxist Analysis of Allegiant (Book 3) in terms of Alienation as to Life outside the city
Alienation Excerpt/s cited
Life outside the city “They called for genetically damaged individuals to come forward so that the Bureau could alter their genes. The Bureau then placed then in a secure environment to settle in for the long haul, equipped with basic versions of the serums to help them control their society. They would wait for the passage of time – for the generations to pass, for each one to produce more genetically healed humans. Or, as you currently know them … the Divergent.” … “Your city is one of the experiments for genetic healing, and by far the most successful one, because of the behavioural modification portion. The factions, that is.” David smiles at us, like it’s something we should be proud of, but I am not proud. They created us, they shaped our world, they told us what to believe.
If they told us what to believe, and we didn’t come out to it on our own, is it still true? I press my hand harder against my chest. Steady. (p.124-5)
I am about to ask why the division is so strict, but I can figure it out for myself. The so-called “GPs” grew up in this community, their worlds saturated by experiments and observation and learning. The “GDs” grew up in the experiments, where they only had to learn enough to survive until the next generation. The division is based on knowledge, based on qualifications – but as I learned from the factionless, a system that relies on a group of uneducated people to do its dirty work without giving them away to rise is hardly fair. (p.196)
The distance the Bureau has kept from the rest of the world is an evil separate from the war they intend to wage against our memories – more subtle, but, in its way, just as sinister. They had the capacity to help us, languishing in our factions, but instead they let us fall apart. Let us die. Let us kill one another. Only now that we are about to destroy more than an acceptable level of genetic material are they deciding to intervene. (p. 436)
The creation of commodities need not lead to alienation and can, indeed, be highly satisfying: one pours one’s subjectivity into an object and one can even gain enjoyment from the fact that another in turn gains enjoyment from the others’ craft. As Tris discovers the truth outside the city, she learned that the Bureau used their city as an experiment for the sake of preserving the Healed genes or the genetically pure genes which are the Divergent, like her.
They realized that the worth of their city to the bureau and the government is simply to provide them with information to alter the weaknesses of their discovery of the healed genes. They felt like they worked for the government for the sake of others, according to Marx, the process whereby the worker is made to feel foreign to the products of his/her own labor is called Alienation where in here is seen as the government used the life made by the people inside the city to supply information to their experiment.
They also discovered that they are not the only ones that the government used to become an experiment, there are also a lot of cities and groups that they already used and still using aside from them. According to Horowitz (2011), Marx also believed that alienation is the objective structure of experience and activity in capitalist society. Capitalist society cannot exist without it. The government as the capitalist used the cities or groups to become their experiment and gain something for the life they all worked for. There may be people who knew and volunteered for the experiment but the younger generations like Tris and Tobias and the others taken away the rights to choose their life and the work they made benefited the government.
This transfer of benefits from poor to rich is no different from the premise of capitalism (Wolff, 1997). In his critique, he stated that although the proletariat should be entitled to the product of their labor, it is instead diverted to the upper class (107) As a result there are the haves and have nots, which according to Tyson (2006) is the battle lines drawn between the classes.
In how Tris discovered the truth about the system of the government, she then realized they are taken away from the chance of choosing their life. She described the situation as the government getting the benefit while they work and fight against each other not knowing anything about it, she also saw the unfair treatment of each as seen in this lines: The “GDs” grew up in the experiments, where they only had to learn enough to survive until the next generation. The division is based on knowledge, based on qualifications – but as I learned from the factionless, a system that relies on a group of uneducated people to do its dirty work without giving them away to rise is hardly fair.
Table 3.7 Marxist Analysis of Allegiant (Book 3) in terms of Alienation as to Factions
Alienation Excerpt/s Cited
Factions Even if the Bureau thinks the factions don’t mean anything , that they’re just a kind of behavioural modification that will help with the damage, those people believe they do, and it feels wrong to play with their system. (p.206)
Reading on her mother’s journal Tris discovered a lot more things that shocked her, in her journals she described how the government sees the factions and what is their worth in the society. It makes Tris’s belief that the government used the factions and the people in their experiments as a tool to benefit their own interests, even though they always say that it was for the factions benefit as well. Based from Horowitz (2011), alienation from the activity of labor, means that in laboring an individual lose control over his or her life-activity. Not only do they lose control over the things they produce, they lose control over the activity of producing it. The government sees their people in the experiment as described by Tris’s mother is only a behavioural modification that will help with the damage, those people believe they do, and it feels wrong to play with their system.
Table 3.8 Marxist Analysis of Allegiant (Book 3) in terms of Alienation as to Abnegation serum (Memory serum)
Alienation Excerpt/s Cited
Abnegation serum (Memory serum) “Reset them?” I say.
“With the abnegation memory serum,” Reggie says. “Well, really, it’s the Bureau’s memory serum. Every man, woman and child will have to begin again.”
Nita says tersely, “Their entire lives erased, against their will, for the sake of solving a genetic damage ‘problem’ that doesn’t actually exist. These people have their power to do that. And no one should have that power.” (p.269-0)
That strikes me as naïve, for someone who once lived in my city and saw, at least on the screens, how many secrets we keep from one another. Evelyn tried to control people by controlling weapons, but Jeanine was more ambitious – she knew that when you control information, or manipulate it, you don’t need force to keep people under you thumb. They stay there willingly.
That is what the Bureau – and the entire government, probably – is doing: conditioning people to be happy under its thump. (p.345-6)
Controlling people is one of the things the city and even the outside of the city want. Their government wants the control over the people to easily manipulate them and by that no wars rebellion will occur. Tris became a member of the council that governs the people outside the city and even the experiments, she learned that the leaders are planning to reset the experiments by erasing the people’s memories by using the abnegation serum. The revelations that Tris, Tobias, and their friends uncover beyond Chicago’s walls are shocking and explain this didactic, reductionist city in a way that mostly makes sense (The Book Smugglers, 2013), the government tried to control the people by dictating them what to think, act and believe in order for their experiment to be a success leaving the people deprived of their rights to choose the lives they will live. In the Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 (1932), Marx stated that, the worker “Does not feel content but unhappy, does not develop freely his physical and mental energy but mortifies his body and ruins his mind. The worker therefore only feels himself outside his work and in his work feels outside himself”. “Labor is external to the worker” (pg. 74), it is not a part of their essential being.
Biological model refers to how the text mirrors the body, this can reduce women merely to bodies (Showalter, 2007). This model focuses on the physical features of a certain female character. It is obviously seen that women in their society exhibits change as the story goes on. Tris can be seen slowly transforming into the woman she always wants to be, a woman that is free and tough, a woman who can fight battles and even receive punches on her face. Girls from other factions also made their appearances changed. They tend to look weak; those who do not experienced violence in their life because their faction told them that they should just do what their faction functions to do. Based form Showalter (2007), the ways in which women conceptualize their bodies and their sexual and reproductive functions are intricately linked to their cultural environments.
Moreover, female psyche can be studied as the product or construction of cultural forces. In the setting of the Divergent series women act according to what they are told not to what they want to do and to what they actually believe.
Table 4.1 Feminist Analysis of Divergent (Book 1) in terms of Biological model as to Women of every faction
Biological Model Excerpt/s Cited
Women of every faction In my reflection, I see a narrow face, wide, round eyes, and a long, thin nose – I still look like a little girl, though sometime in the last few months I turned sixteen. (p.2)
The mousy – haired girl clamps her hand over her mouth and stifles a sob. I remember the factionless man with the gray teeth, snatching the bag of apples from my hands. His dull, staring eyes. But instead of crying, like the Erudite girl, I feel colder. Harder.
I will be a member. I will. (p.72)
My eyes were blue before, but dull, grayish blue – the eyeliner makes them piercing. With my hair framing my face, my features look softer and fuller. I am not pretty my eyes are too big and my nose is too long – but I can see that Christina is right. My face is noticeable.
Looking at myself now isn’t like seeing myself for the first time; it’s like seeing someone else for the first time. Beatrice was a girl I saw in stolen moments in the mirror, who kept quiet at the dinner table. This is someone whose eyes claim mine and don’t release me; this is Tris.
“See?” she says. “You’re … striking.”
Under the circumstances, Its’ the best compliment she could have given me. I smile at her in the mirror. (p.87)
I step so I stand in front of the mirror. I see muscles that I couldn’t see before in my arms, legs, and stomach. I pinch my side, where a layer of fat used to hint at curves to come. Nothing. Dauntless initiation has stolen whatever softness my body had. Is that good or bad? (p.167-8)
I stare at the board and try to predict the outcome of each match. It doesn’t take long. Then I bite my fingernails and think about Molly. Christina lost to her, which means she’s good. She has a powerful punch, but she doesn’t move her feet. If she can’t hit me, she can’t hurt me. (p.171)
“Do I look like I’ve been crying?” I say.
“Hmm.” He leans in close, narrowing his eyes like mouth. Even closer, so we would be breathing the same air – If I could remember to breathe.
“No, Tris,” he says. A more serious look replaces his smile as he adds, “You look tough as nails.” (p.241)
Each faction has different characteristics and role in their society and each faction’s member is determined as to what they represent and to where they belong. When Tris was still a member of Abnegation she described herself as no nobody who is small and is not capable of doing anything not unless her faction told her to do so. As described by Tris, her fellow Abnegation members wear the same clothes and same hair as hers, they are not meant to be different from each other in terms of their looks because they believe, when someone looks different from the other jealousy develops and jealousy is the root for being greedy and selfish that will later on develop to a conflict between people. In Erudite, women represent knowledge and power especially because of Jeanine Mathews as their representative. Erudite women as told by Tris will always wear their faction, the way they talk, full of knowledge and curiosity to understand even the simplest things, down to how they wear their glasses and their tight dresses. Women inside Candor, was described as always wearing white in their clothing. The most honest faction that’s why it can be seen by the way they carry themselves.
As cited by Guerin, (2005) , biological model is the most problematic; if the text can be said in some way to mirror the body, then does this reduce women writers merely to bodies? Yet, this model criticizes the specific text especially the internal structures of the characters in it. Women from Amity wears the look of those who are used to the broad daylight, they carry the role of their faction as the farmers and food providers for the city. Dauntless women tend to dress in black and will have tattoos in their body. It symbolizes their faction as the protectors of the city. As Tris becomes a member of Dauntless she is describe to be transforming into a tough, independent woman leaving her Abnegation traits behind. Tris now describes herself as a different person from a different and new faction.
Table 4.2 Feminist Analysis of Divergent (Book 1) in terms of Biological model as to Women amidst the rebellion
Biological model Excerpt/s Cited
Women amidst the rebellion Marcus stops before an open room, where Johanna Reyes, representative of Amity, sits, staring out the window. I recognize her because it is hard to forget Johanna’s face, whether you’ve seen her once or a thousand times. A scar stretches in a thick line from above her right eyebrow to her lip, rendering her blind in one eye and giving her lisp when she talks. I have only heard her speak once, but I remember. She would have been a beautiful woman if not for that scar. (p.5)
Lynn jabs her finger into the button for the first floor, I stare at our reflections in the doors. She’s taller than I am by just a few inches, and though her baggy shirt and pants try to obscure it, I can tell her body bends and curves like it’s supposed to. (p.172)
I glance up at my reflection. My jaw is swollen, and fingernails marks are still on my arms. Disgusting. (p.200)
I don’t bother to climb anymore. I drop into the mud, closely followed by Tobias, Lynn, and Shauna. My legs sink into the mire, and my feet make sucking noises as I pull them free. My shoes slip off but I keep going until I reach the concrete. Guns fire and bullets stick in the mud next to me. I throw myself against the wall under the bridge so they can’t aim at me. (p.255)
The door opens, and at last I stand face-to-face with my enemy and her Dauntless guards.
“Hello, Beatrice,” Jeanine says. She wears Erudite blue and Erudite spectacles and an Erudite look of superiority that I was taught by my father to hate. “I thought you might be the one who came.” (p. 325)
As the war between the factions continues, women can be seen constantly changing from time to time. When Tris and her friends went in hiding in the Amity compound there they met Johanna who was the leader of the faction. She is described by Tris as a woman who has a scar in her face which hides her beauty but even after having the scar her beauty still radiates and she is still beautiful. As they transfer to Candor and spent more time with the other survivors she describes one of her friend Lynn who is also a dauntless, where she stated that she is taller than she is by just a few inches, and though her baggy shirt and pants try to obscure it, Tris can tell her body bends and curves like it is supposed to.When Tris decided to surrender herself to the Erudite headquarters she is described as losing her hope to live and letting anyone do whatever they wish to do to her. Tris also described Jeanine as a woman who always wears her pride as an Erudite and as the ruler of their city. Women amidst the war all showed metamorphosis in their appearances representing women who are ready to fight battles. Feminist criticism totally rejects the attribution of biological inferiority preconceived by the Victorian physicians and anthropologists (Calleja, 2016).
Table 4.3 Feminist Analysis of Insurgent (Book 2) in terms of Biological model as to Beatrice “Tris” Prior
Biological model Excerpt/s cited
Beatrice “Tris” Prior My Tris should look pale and small – she is pale and small, after all – but instead the room is full of her.
Her round eyes find mine and she is on her feet, her arms wound tightly around my waist and her face against my chest.
I squeeze her shoulder with one hand and run my other hand over her hair, still surprised when her hair stops above her neck instead of below it. I was happy when she cut it, because it was hair of a warrior and not a girl, and I knew that was what she would need. (p.5)
Just like that, it is too much for me to bear, and I have to backup and sit on one of the benches. I cradle my head in my hands, keeping my eyes shut so I can’t take any new information. I feel Tris’s strong arm across my back, pulling me sideways into her narrow frame. My hands are numb. (p.110)
I shield my eyes from the sun to see her cold look – the expression I saw in my mind even before I looked at her. She looks older to me than she ever has, stern and tough and worn by time. I feel that way too. (p.383)
Revealing the truth to the public did not do good for Tris and her friends, they are held captive by Evelyn and underwent on a trial with the truth serum. As the interrogation goes on, Tobias noticed that a lot has changed on Tris’s appearance she is now more tough but at the same he described her as his ‘little Tris’ as he still see in her the small sixteen year old girl that he loves. In the first two books, it can be seen that slowly, Tris is transforming into a more mature and steadier kind of woman who doesn’t let anyone or anything come in her way. Tris is shown in the novel as a woman that is not depending herself on the male character despite the fact that she is in love with Tobias she still is capable of standing on her feet and she also is able to defend herself. Based from The Guardian Book Review (2014) Tris becomes stronger as a character, making decisions that really show how far she has come from the girl who left Abnegation in Divergent.
Table 4.4 Feminist Analysis of Allegiant (Book 3) in terms of Biological model as to Evelyn Johnson as a mother and as a leader
Biological Model Excerpt/s Cited
Evelyn Johnson as a mother and as a leader Evelyn’s mocking smile twist like she has just tasted something unpleasant. She leans in close to my face, and I see for the first time how old she is; I see the lines that her frame her eyes and mouth, and the unhealthy pallor she wears from years of eating far too little. Still, she is handsome like her son. Near-starvation could not take that. (p13-4)
I force myself to look at her. Her eyes are close above her nose, which is hooked at the end, like my own. Her skin is middling color, darker than mine. For a moment I see her in Abnegation gray, her thick hair bound back with dozen pins, sitting across the dinner table from me. I see her crouched in me, fixing my mismatched shirt buttons before I go to school, and standing at the window watching the uniform street for my father’s car, her hands clasped – no, clenched, her tan knuckles white with tension. We were united in fear then, and now that she isn’t afraid anymore, part of me wants to see what it would be like to unite with her in strength. (p. 22)
She doesn’t look at me. Her thick hair is tied in a knot, and she wears a gray short with a factionless armband over it. She looks exhausted. … I hesitate, my hand on the vial of my pocket. I look at her and I see the way time has worn though her like an old piece of cloth, the fibers exposed and fraying. And I can see the woman I knew as a child, too, the mouth that’s stretched into a smile, the eyes that sparkled with joy. But the longer I look at her, the more convinced I am that happy woman never existed. That woman is just a pale version of my real mother, viewed through the self-centered eyes of a child. (p.462-3)
As the waging rebellion of the allegiant comes, women are seen tired and worn out by all the different issues and problems faced by the city. Their leader Evelyn Johnson, just like Tris is a woman who never surrenders and will never leave a battle without a fight. As Tobias got more close to her he noticed the similarities they have in their appearances, is mother has also the good looks that will never fade even in times of starvation her beauty still shines.
Evelyn is seen as a tough leader that can defend her city and her people but for Tobias, he sees his mother as a woman that never actually existed, a woman who hides her beauty to meet the abnegation rules and norms and by now a woman who is not afraid to express herself and fight.
Linguistic Model posits women speaking men’s language as a foreign tongue; purging language of “sexism” is not going far enough (Showalter, 2007). The speech or dialogue of a woman character is observed in this model. The series represents women as strong and tough individuals that can stand along with men, it is evident especially that women are ones who are actually leading their society from Jeanine Mathews who manipulates the whole city, Johanna who is the spokesperson and acting leader of Amity and the last is Tris being the protagonist or the center of the story. Many scenes in the series showed women are deprived to speak like men do especially on the first book before the attack on Abnegation began.
Linguistic and textual theories of women’s writing ask whether men and women use language differently; whether sex differences in language use can be theorized in terms of biology, socialization, or culture; whether woman can create new languages of their own; and whether speaking, reading and writing are all gender marked.
As Nelly Furman explains, “It is through the medium of language that we define and categorize areas of difference and similarity, which in turn allow us to comprehend the world around us (Furman, The Study of Women and Language: Comment on Vol. 3., 2008).
Table 5.1 Feminist Analysis of Divergent (Book 1) in terms of Linguistic model as to Rules of Abnegation
Linguistic Model Excerpt/s Cited
Rules of Abnegation I look up. “A report?”
Caleb gives me a warning look. We aren’t supposed to speak at the dinner table unless our parents ask us a direct question, and they usually don’t. Our listening ears are a gift to them, my father says. They give us their listening ears after dinner, in the family room. (p.34)
If my entire life is like this, loud laughter and bold action and the kind of exhaustion you feel after a hard but satisfying day, I will be content. As Uriah scrapes his tongue with his fingertips, I realize that all I have to do is get through initiation, and that life will be mine. (p.156)
My mother, I see wears the same smile I do. She isn’t reacting the way some of the other transfers’ parents are – her neck bent, looking around at the Pit walls, at the Pit ceiling, at the chasm. Of course she isn’t curious – she’s Abnegation. Curiosity is foreign to her. (p.184)
Inside Abnegation as told by Tris we can see that women speaks with calmness and cannot be seen talking the same amount of language as men do. Linguistic model, Furman (2005) explained, it is through the medium of language that we define and categorize areas of difference and similarity, which in turn allow us to comprehend the whole world around us. It is evident that in Abnegation, women even though somehow has a same amount of work in their society still tends to be alienated when they speak and voice out their opinions. Elaine Showalter (2007) of Anglo-American school believes that “the appropriate task of feminist criticism is to concentrate on women’s access to language” for, as she maintains, ” the problem is not that language is insufficient to express women’s unconsciousness but that women have been denied the full resources of language and have been forced into silence, euphemism, or circumlocution”(Showalter 2005,Feminist Criticism in the Wilderness p.255).
As Tris tried to conceal her curiosity and tried her best not to interfere in every conversation that her family has she cannot hide the fact that women like men are curious too and like them, women wants to be involved in things that matters, especially if it concerns the family. The rules in their faction suggest that they are not supposed to be involved in matters concerning their faction. Her mother only has the role of leading the social welfare institute that helps the factionless and the governance is up for mostly men.
Table 5.2 Feminist Analysis of Divergent (Book 1) in terms of Linguistic model as to when people speak their minds
Linguistic Model Excerpt/s Cited
When people speak their minds My lips pursed, I walk away from Rita and the roof’s edge.
My elbows stings. I pull my sleeve up to examine it, my hand shaking. Some of the skin is peeling off, but it isn’t bleeding.
“Ooh. Scandalous! A Stiff’s flashing some skin!”
I lift my head. “Stiff” is a slang for Abnegation, and I’m the only one here. Peter points at me, smirking. I heard the laughter. My cheeks heat up, and I let my sleeve fall. (p.56)
“Good. We’re about to go into the Pit, which you will someday learn to love. It—”
Christina snickers. “The Pit? Clever name.”
Four walks up to Christina and leans his face close to hers. His eyes narrow, and for a second he just stares at her.
“What’s your name?” he asks quietly.
“Christina,” she squeaks.
“Well, Christina, If I wanted to put up with Candor smart-mouths, I would have joined their faction,” he hisses. “The first lesson you will learn from me is to keep your mouth shut. Got that?”
She nods. (p.62-3)
“Ooh, a Stiff,” says Eric, smirking at me. His smile pulls at the piercings in his lips, making the holes they occupy wider, and I wince. “Well let’s see how long you last.”
I mean to say something – to assure him that I will last, maybe – but words fail me. I don’t understand why, but I don’t want Eric to look at me any longer than he already has. I don’t want him to look at me ever again. (p.67)
I don’t want to ruin the moment, but I have to know about his aptitude test. I have to know if he’s Divergent.
“You were going to tell me about your aptitude test results,” I say.
“Ah.” He scratches the back of his neck with his hand. “Does it matter?”
“Yes. I want to know.”
“How demanding you are.” He smiles. (p.334)
The concept of linguistic models analyzes if men and women use language differently while creating texts. Language is sufficient enough to give expression to women’s consciousness only if she is not denied access to all the resources of language (Woolfe, 2002). As the initiates go through their initiation their language is observed.
As for Tris, the way she speaks and carries herself in her new faction can still see the Abnegation inside of her. She tends to talk with politeness until her fellow initiate Christina and the other initiate portrayed a woman who speaks equal as men.
Most of the scenes are in the Dauntless compound where Tris is an initiate, and in there as told by Tris, women are not completely free to speak their thoughts but then she said that compared to her old faction women can voice their thoughts more freely and can use the language like men do. She develops her language and can now express her curiosity and be able to become a leader to them as well.
When it comes to language use it is still evident that in Dauntless men are still superior, there are times when Tris and the other women initiates are being overpowered by men especially by Peter, one of the initiates who have been constantly trying to break her as the initiations go on.
Furman (2005), the advocacy of a women’s language is thus a political gesture that also carries tremendous emotional force. The appropriate task for feminist criticism she believes, is to concentrate on women’s access to language on the available lexical range from which words can be selected on the ideological and cultural determinants of expression. Based from Furman’s statement, in their society women are still alienated when they tried to speak like men do it is evident with this scene: “Good. We’re about to go into the Pit, which you will someday learn to love. It—”
Christina snickers. “The Pit? Clever name.”
Four walks up to Christina and leans his face close to hers. His eyes narrow, and for a second he just stares at her.
“What’s your name?” he asks quietly.
“Christina,” she squeaks. “Well, Christina, If I wanted to put up with Candor smart-mouths, I would have joined their faction,” he hisses. “The first lesson you will learn from me is to keep your mouth shut. Got that? She nods.
As observed in the scene when Cristina tried to mock the name of a place in Dauntless she was immediately stopped by Four, their instructor saying that she should shut her mouth and just do what she is supposed to do. While in this scene: “Ooh, a Stiff,” says Eric, smirking at me. His smile pulls at the piercings in his lips, making the holes they occupy wider, and I wince. “Well let’s see how long you last.” I mean to say something – to assure him that I will last, maybe – but words fail me. I don’t understand why, but I don’t want Eric to look at me any longer than he already has. I don’t want him to look at me ever again. It is evident that when speak a particular language they are not much suppress but when women do they are immediately alienated.
Table 5.3 Feminist Analysis of Insurgent (Book 2) in terms of Linguistic model as to Faction culture and ways
Linguistic model Excerpt/s Cited
Faction culture and ways Someone knocks on the door. “Beatrice?” The soft voice is Susan’s.
I open the door for her. She carries a tray of food, which she sets down on the bed. I search her face for a sign of what she has lost – her father, an Abnegation leader, didn’t survive the attack – but I see only the placid determination characteristics of my old faction.
“I’m sorry the clothes don’t fit,” she says. “I’m sure we can find some better ones for you if the Amity allows us to stay.”
“They’re fine,” I say. “Thank you.”
“I heard you were shot. Do you need my help with your hair? Or your shoes?”
I am about to refuse, but I really do need help.
“Yes, thank you.” (p.13-4)
If I were Johanna, I would snap at him for a comment like that, but she says kindly, “My faction depends on me to advise them, and if you know information this crucial, it is important that I know it also so that I can share it with them. I’m sure you can understand that, Marcus.” (p.25)
“I’m sure my Dauntless companions are disappointed,” she says, “that you have not tried to claw my eyes out yet.”
“That would be stupid.”
“True. But in keeping with your ‘act first, think second’ behavioural trend.”
“I’m sixteen, “I purse my lips. “I change.”
“How refreshing.” She has a way of flattening even those phrases that should have inflection into them. “Let’s go on a little tour shall we?” (p.326)
Faction rules and traditions are still evident to women even though they are transfers from other factions. As to Tris it is still evident to her that she is a former member of Abnegation through these lines: “I heard you were shot. Do you need my help with your hair? Or your shoes? “I am about to refuse, but I really do need help. “Yes, thank you.
Susan, Tris’s friend can also be seen showing the culture and ways of an Abnegation trait. She speaks with politeness and poise and always considers others’ feeling before speaking her mind. But then Tris can also be seen talking with toughness and bravery when it comes to those who try to trick and control them which is a trait of a Dauntless member. Jeanine also reflects an Erudite trait through by the way she speaks, and the dialogue given to her. She possesses a woman who speaks with authority and power, a woman who tends to speak based form the knowledge she has.
Table 5.4 Feminist Analysis of Insurgent (Book 2) in terms of Linguistic model as to Arguments between Tobias and Tris
Linguistic model Excerpt/s Cited
Arguments between Tobias and Tris “You didn’t tell me,” he says, “Why not?
“Because I didn’t …” I shake my head. “I didn’t know how to.”
He scowls. “It’s pretty easy, Tris –”
“Oh yeah,” I say, nodding. “It’s so easy. All I have to do is go up to you and say, ‘By the way, I shot Will, and now guilt is ripping me to shreds, but what’s for breakfast?’ Right? Right?” Suddenly it is too much, too much to contain. Tears fill in my eyes, and I yell, “Why don’t you try killing one of your best friends and then dealing with the consequences?” (p.159)
“Why are you so insistent on me staying home?” My voice gets louder!”
“As long as you are someone who doesn’t seem to value her own life … someone who can’t even pick up and fire a gun …” He leans towards me. “You should sit back and let other people take risks.”
His quiet voice pulses around me like a second heartbeat. I hear the words “doesn’t seem to value her life” again and again.
“What are you going to do?” I say. “Lock me in the bathroom? Because that’s the only way you’ll be able to keep me from going.”
He touches his forehead and let’s his hand drag down the side of his face. I have never seen his face sag that way before.
“I don’t want to stop you. I want you to stop yourself,” he says. “But if you’re going to be reckless, you can’t prevent me from coming along.” (p.249)
“Why did you bring me again?” I say, mirroring him by folding my arms. “Oh yeah – so that I could read the situation for you. Well, I read it, and just because you don’t like what I decided doesn’t mean –”
“I forgot about how your biases cloud your judgment. I had remembered, I might not have brought you.”
“My biases. What about your biases? What about thinking everyone who hates your father as much as you do is an ally?”
“This is not about him!”
“Of course it is! He knows things, Tobias. And we should be trying to find out what they are.”
“This again? I thought we resolved this. He is a liar, Tris.”
“Yeah?” I raised my eyebrows. “Well, so is your mother. You think the Abnegation would really exile someone? Because I don’t.”
“Don’t talk about my mother that way.”
I see light up ahead. It belongs to the Pire.
“Fine.” I walk to the edge of the car door. “I won’t”
“I jump out, running a few steps to keep my balance. Tobias jumps out after me, but I don’t give him a chance to catch up – I walk straight into the building, down the stairs, and back into the Pit to find a place to sleep. (p 294-5)
When Tris and Four first came to Candor they both went through under the truth serum where they will expose their secrets and after that they will be accepted by the faction. Under the truth a person cannot lie or hide even their deepest secrets. As Tris went under the truth serum she found out that it has no effect on her and that she can manipulate it either, just like how she did in the simulations but she decided to tell everyone the truth that she was the one who killed Will in the attack, one of her friends and a fellow initiate in Dauntless whose also Christina’s boyfriend.
After undergoing on truth serum Four and Tris had a confrontation about the issue on Will, wherein Four demanded why she didn’t tell her first about the issue and then their arguments starts where we can see Tris speaking in a way Four does which bring us to the statement of Furman (2005) that explained, it is through the medium of language that difference and similarity are categorize, which allow us to comprehend the whole world around us. The advocacy of a women’s language is such a political gesture that also carries tremendous emotional force.
Many more arguments between Tris and Four were shown, and in every conversation they had, it is evident that women uses language to express their emotions and they speak equal as men do.
Table 5.5 Feminist Analysis of Allegiant (Book 3) in terms of Linguistic model as to Women as leaders
Linguistic model Excerpt/s cited
Women as leaders “What are you going to do about them?” I say.
“I am going to get them under control, what else?”
The word “control” makes me sit up straight, as rigid as the chair beneath me. In this city, “control” means needles and serums and seeing without seeing; it means simulations, like the one that almost made me kill Tris, or the one that made the Dauntless into an army.
“With simulations?” I say slowly.
She scowls. “Of course not! I am not Jeanine Mathews!”
Her flare of anger sets me off. I say, “Don’t forget that I barely know you, Evelyn.”
She winces at the remainder. “Then let me tell you that I will never resort to simulations to get my way. Death would be better.” (p.21)
“Think we should trust them?” Tobias says to me in a low voice. … “We came out here because we wanted to find these people,” I say. “We have to trust someone, don’t we? Or else we’re just walking around in a wasteland, possibly starving to death.” … “Wherever we go, we have to be free to leave at any time,” Christina says. “Okay?” (p.106-7)
“It’s happening. And I don’t know when, but I think it will be soon.”
“Shit.” Matthew puts his hands on his face. “Nothing good can come of this.”
“If you don’t stop saying cryptic things. I’m going to slap you,” I say, getting to my feet. (p.281)
“What would you like me to do?” she says.
“Let me join in leading the Allegiant,” he says. “I was an Abnegation leader. I was practically the leader of this entire city. People will rally behind me.”
“People have rallied already,” Johanna points out. “And not behind a person, but behind the desire to reinstate the factions. Who says I need you?” (p.314-5)
“Excuse me,” Johanna says loudly. “Marcus, what she is offering is too good to be true – we get everything we want without all the violence! How can you possible say no?”
“Because I am the rightful leader of these people!” Marcus says, “I am the leader of allegiant! I –”
“No, you are not,” Johanna says calmly. “I am the leader of the Allegiant. And you are going to agree to this treaty, or I am going to tell them that you had a chance to end this conflict without bloodshed if you sacrificed your pride and said no.” (p.483)
From the first up to the last book, women are seen as superior and often become the leader of their faction, group and now the city. Roth represents women in her books as somewhat in terms are equal to men, she tried to portray women’s language as free and expressive that they are able to voice their opinions and idea and gave them equal opportunities as men.
Women’s opinion also matters to them, as Tobias asked Tris her say about a certain issue in their city. Showalter says that the advocacy of a woman’s language is a political gesture that also carries tremendous emotional force (Sree Kumar, 2016).
In the third book woman, like Johanna portrayed a powerful character as she speak her opinion especially when Evelyn set an agreement that if they let her go outside the city she will give up her position as the leader and leave forever, but then she told her that Marcus cannot be and will never be a leader to them. Marcus tried to protest against this rules but Johanna stood up and say what is her opinion about it. She stood strong as seen in this lines: “Excuse me,” Johanna says loudly. “Marcus, what she is offering is too good to be true – we get everything we want without all the violence! How can you possible say no?”
“Because I am the rightful leader of these people!” Marcus says, “I am the leader of allegiant! I –”
“No, you are not,” Johanna says calmly. “I am the leader of the Allegiant. And you are going to agree to this treaty, or I am going to tell them that you had a chance to end this conflict without bloodshed if you sacrificed your pride and said no.”
Table 5.6 Feminist Analysis of Allegiant (Book 3) in terms of Linguistic model as to Christina of Candor
Linguistic Model Excerpt/s Cited
Christina of Candor “He’s right,” says Uriah. “Four’s fast. Not as fast as me, but definitely faster than a Nose like you.”
Christina laughs. “A what?”
“Nose.” Uriah touches the side of his nose. “It’s a play on words. ‘Knows’ with a ‘K’, knowledge, Erudite … get it? It’s like Stiff.”
“The Dauntless have the weirdest slang. Pansycake, Nose … is there a term for the Candor?”
“Of course,” Uriah grins. “Jerks.” (p.90)
“If the Dauntless knew about this, everyone would be getting in line to learn how to drive it,” he says.
“No, they would be strapping themselves to the wings.” Christina pokes his arm. “Don’t you know your own faction?”
Uriah pokes her cheek in response, then turns back to the window again. (p.183)
Christina coming from Candor is expected to be an honest person who will say whatever it is that will pop into her mind. Throughout the whole series she is presented like that. As mentioned by Gauthier ‘As long as women remain silent, they will be outside the historical process. But if they begin to speak and write as men do, they will enter history subdued and alienated; it is a history that logically speaking, their speech should disrupt” (Sree Kumar, 2016).
According to Shoshanna Felman as cited in Sree Kumar (2016) ‘the challenge facing the woman today is nothing less than to ‘reinvent’ language,… to speak not only against, but outside of the specular phallogocentric structure, to establish the status of which would no longer be defined by the phallacy of masculine meaning”. Roth presented her women characters that uses language in a way that they are free to speak and state their opinions. Even though in the first book women are opted to limited ways of expressing their language because of faction rules.
Table 5.7 Feminist Analysis of Allegiant (Book 3) in terms of Linguistic model as to Women speaks
Linguistic Model Excerpt/s Cited
Women speaks “I wonder when you’re going to freak out,” he says. “After finding out all this stuff at once.”
“I’m not going to freak out,” I say, feeling defensive. I already did, I think, but I’m not going to admit to that.
Matthew shrugs. “I would. But fair enough.” (p.156)
“Yeah, I do!”Tris exclaims. “You’re the same person you were five minutes age and four months ago and eighteen years ago! This doesn’t change anything about you.”
I hear something in her words that’s right, but it’s hard to believe her right now.
“So you’re telling me this affects nothing,” I say. “The truth affects nothing.”
‘What truth?” she says. “These people tell you there something wrong with your genes, and you just believe it?”
“It was right there.” I gesture on the screen. “You saw it.”
“I also see you,” she says fiercely, her hand closing around my arm. “And I know who you are.” (p.177)
I can tell she’s getting older in the entries, her language becoming more refined as time separates her form the fringe where she once lived, her reactions becoming more moderate. She’s growing up.
I check the date on the next entry. It’s a few months later, but it’s not addressed to David the way some of the others have been. The tone is different too – not as familiar, more straightforward. (p.210-1)
“I can’t believe you,” she said. “She’s lying. Why can’t you see that?”
“Because it’s not there,” I say, “I can tell when someone’s lying just as well as you can. And in this situation. I think your judgment might be clouded by something. Something like jealousy.”
“I am not jealous!” she says, scowling at me. “I am being smart. She has something bigger planned, and if I were you, I would run far away from anyone who lies to me about what they want me to participate in.” … “I am not damaged,” I say quietly. “I can’t believe you have so little faith in me that you would tell me not to trust myself.” I shake my head. “And I don’t need your permission.’
I start toward the door, and as my hand closes around the handle, she says, “Just leaving so that you can have the last word, that’s really mature!”
“So is being suspicious of someone’s motives just because she’s pretty,” I say, I guess we’re even.” I leave the room. (p.274-5)
The same as the first two books of the series in here Tris and Tobias often times have arguments that is showing how women’s language is used equal as to men. In every argument presented by Roth, Tris was seen speaking out her thoughts and expressions. She does not let Tobias and even the other male characters to just shove their opinion and believe in it, instead she lets them know what she think is right and to what she believe in. As Furman (2005) puts it she explained, it is through the medium of language that difference and similarity are categorize, which allow us to comprehend the whole world around us.
Shown also is women develop their language as time pass which is observed when Tris read her mother’s journal she noticed how the entries changed in time: I can tell she’s getting older in the entries, her language becoming more refined as time separates her form the fringe where she once lived, her reactions becoming more moderate. She’s growing up. She described her mother’s language becoming more mature and more straightforward as she became an adult.
Psychoanalytic Model identifies gender difference as the basis of the psyche, focusing on the relation of gender to the artistic process. It stresses feminine difference as the free play of meaning outside the need for closure (Showalter, 2007). This model analyzed the women characters through their own psychological desire.
Women even in the earlier centuries have had personal desires to themselves. As seen on the series psychological model is evident on the way Tris cares for her family, how she will do anything to save them and the people that is important to her to the point that she is willing to sacrifice her own life to let them live. Psychological model can also be seen when Tris once thought of giving up and just be with Tobias far away from the place where they can be together with no rebellions and factions that determines their fate.
In psychoanalytic model women are believed to have desires that push them to do things and take actions to achieve them. Although psychoanalysis still needs to be creatively transformed for feminist purposes, the facts remains that feminism needs a non-essentialist theory of human sexuality and desire in order to understand the power relations between the sexes (Calleja, 2016)
Table 6.1 Feminist Analysis of Divergent (Book 1) in terms of Psychoanalytical model as to Ways of thinking done by Female characters in the story
Psychoanalytic Model Excerpt/s Cited
Ways of thinking done by Female characters in the story Don’t panic. It’s no use – my heart pounds and my thoughts scatter. I trash in the water, smacking the walls. I kick the glass as hard as I can, but the water slows down my foot. The simulation is all I your head. (p.254)
I set my hands on his waist. I can’t remember deciding to do that. But I also can’t move away. I pull myself against his chest, wrapping my arms around him. My fingers skim the muscles of his back.
After a moment he touches the small of my back, pressing me closer, and smoothes his other hand over my hair. I feel small again, but this time, it doesn’t scare me. I squeeze my eyes shut. He doesn’t scare me anymore. (p.314)
I slide my hands through my hair. The impulse to cry is gone. I braid my hair and tie it with the rubber band around my wrist. I feel more like myself. That is all I need: to remember who I am. And I am someone who does not let inconsequential things like boys and near death experiences stop her. (p.346)
The train car wobbles, throwing off my balance, and I put my hand down to steady myself. A split second later I realize that my hand is on his hip. The bone presses into my palm. I should move it, but I don’t want to. He told me once to be brave, and though I have stood still while knives spun toward my face and jumped off a roof, I never thought I would need bravery in the small moments of my life. I do. (p.373)
“No one’s perfect,” I whisper. It doesn’t work that way. One bad thing goes away, and another bad thing replaces it.”
I traded cowardice for cruelty; I traded weakness for ferocity. (p.405)
I can’t wage war against Abnegation, against my family. I would rather die. My fear landscape proved that. My list of options narrows, and I see the path I must take. I pretend long enough to get to Abnegation sector of the city. I will save my family. And whatever happens after that doesn’t matter. A blanket of calm settles over me. (p.418-9)
As the war wage Between Abnegation and the Erudite, Tris can be seen trying to do anything she can to save her family, her faction. She can be seen independently trying to become a strong woman so that she can think and act according to what she wants to do to stop the attack on Abnegation.
Women are still women even amidst of the waging war between Abnegation and Erudite, Tris still wishes she could be with Four and have their time alone together. It is evident that every time they are together she couldn’t erase the thought of being with Four, it can be seen in this lines: I set my hands on his waist. I can’t remember deciding to do that. But I also can’t move away. I pull myself against his chest, wrapping my arms around him.
Even though Tris wanted to be with Four so badly she still puts her family as her first priority as she is seen trying to do everything she can to stop the war and seek help from Four and her other Divergent friends to fight the Dauntless soldier under the simulation controlled by Jeanine. It is clearly described that Tris will do everything for the sake of her loved ones.
Table 6.2 Feminist Analysis of Divergent (Book 1) in terms of Psychoanalytical model as to Love, relationships and factions
Psychoanalytic Model Excerpt/s Cited
Love, relationships and factions My gaze drifts from Susan to the Dauntless tables across the room. They are laughing and shouting and playing cards. At another set of tables, the Erudite chatter over books and newspapers, in constant pursuit of knowledge.
A group of Amity girls in yellow and red sit in a circle on the cafeteria floor, playing some kind of hand – slapping game involving a rhyming song. Every few minutes I hear a chorus of laughter from them as someone is eliminated and has to sit in the center of the circle. At the table next to them, Candor boys make wide gestures with their hands. They appear to be arguing about something, but it must not be serious, because some of them are still smiling. (p.9)
I have tried to explain to him that my instincts are not the same as his – it didn’t even enter my mind to give my stand. “Just do what you’re supposed to,” he always says. It is that easy for him. It should be that easy for me. (p.10)
To some the sight might be gloomy, but to me their simplicity is comforting. (p.27)
My father’s eyes burn into mine with a look of accusation. At first, when I feel the heat behind my eyes, I think he’s found a way to set me on fire, to punish me for what I’ve done, but no – I’m about to cry.
Beside him, my mother is smiling. (p.48-9)
“No, I won’t! I’d rather be factionless that dead!” The Amity boy shakes his head. He sounds panicky. He keeps shaking his head and staring at the rooftop, which is getting closer by the second.
I don’t agree with him. I would rather be dead than empty. Like the factionless. (p.54)
Robert gives me sad look. “They don’t seem like nice people.”
“Some of them aren’t.”
“You could go home, you know. I’m sure Abnegation would make an exception for you.”
“What makes you think I want to go home?” I ask, my cheeks hot. “You think I can’t handle this or something?”
“It’s not that.” He shakes his head. “It’s not that you can’t, it’s that you shouldn’t have to. You should be happy.”
“This is what I chose. This is it.” I look over Robert’s shoulder. The Dauntless guards seem to have finished examining the ruck. The bearded man gets back into the driver’s seat and closes the door behind him. “Besides, Robert. The goal of my life isn’t just … to be happy.”
“Wouldn’t it be easier if it was though?” he says. (p.128)
Starting from her old faction, Tris has always been a woman who has a lot in her mind. Tris, wanted to be free from the rules of Abnegation which were not being curious and not being able to express how you really feel. As said by Tris it has been years that she wanted to tell her Brother Caleb how she feels about giving her seat to a person in the bus in there we can see that women have inner desires that there are times they cannot express it. Wistfully observing the daredevil chaos of the Dauntless-born kids as they crow and leap from running trains on the way to school, Tris struggles with her emotions as she wants to join and be a part of that free group of people that can express their true emotions.
In psychoanalytic model, Freud (2000) maintained that the unsatisfied dreams and desires of women are chiefly motivating; these are the desires that shape the plots of women’s fiction.
Another is that Tris’s mother, Natalie has a different perception about Tris leaving Abnegation. While her father might seem not pleased about her, leaving their faction her mother is looking at her smiling letting her daughter know that she is proud of what she chose and will become of her after the decision she made. In psychoanalytic approach women have hidden desires and feelings that motivates them to become better and sometimes motivate them to do things to be able make someone they treasure feel better.
Tris can also be seen having a different way of thinking when she entered Dauntless, as a conversation with Robert, her old faction member in abnegation it can be observed that they have a different perspective in transferring factions. Robert seems to have the motive of being happy but Tris believe that being happy is not the only reason why a person should transfer in a faction, these are evident in these lines: Robert gives me sad look. “They don’t seem like nice people.”
“Some of them aren’t.”
“You could go home, you know. I’m sure Abnegation would make an exception for you.”
“What makes you think I want to go home?” I ask, my cheeks hot. “You think I can’t handle this or something?”
“It’s not that.” He shakes his head. “It’s not that you can’t, it’s that you shouldn’t have to. You should be happy.”
“This is what I chose. This is it.” I look over Robert’s shoulder. The Dauntless guards seem to have finished examining the ruck. The bearded man gets back into the driver’s seat and closes the door behind him. “Besides, Robert. The goal of my life isn’t just … to be happy.”
“Wouldn’t it be easier if it was though?” he says
Table 6.3 Feminist Analysis of Insurgent (Book 2) in terms of Psychoanalytical model as to Tris and her strong, independent character
Psychoanalytic model Excerpt/s Cited
Tris and her strong, independent character But it is difficult to persuade Tobias to do something he doesn’t want to do, and even more difficult to justify my feelings with no evidence except my intuition.So I agree. But I do not change my mind. (p.32)
Suddenly I think maybe I’ll let someone else take all the risks, maybe I’ll start acting selfishly so that I can stay close to Tobias without hurting him. All I want is to bury my face in his neck and forget anything else exists. (p.204)
Tobias’s expression does not change. I think I understand: Eric doesn’t really care about me. But he knows exactly where to hit Tobias, and how hard. And one of the places to hit Tobias the hardest is to hit me.
This is what I wanted most to avoid: for my rises and falls to become Tobias’s rises and falls. That’s why I can’t let him step in to defend me now. (p.271)
I have message for the Divergent.
I am a Divergent.
This is not a negotiation.
No, it’s not.
It is a warning.
Every two days until one of you delivers yourself to Erudite headquarters …
… this will happen again.
It will never happen again. (p.301)
“Don’t be an idiot,” he says.
“You were lying. You said you wouldn’t go to Erudite, and you were lying, and going to Erudite would make you an idiot. So don’t.”
I set the blanket down and get up.
“Don’t try to make this simple,” I say. “It’s not. You know as well as I do that this is the right thing to do.”
“You choose this moment to act like the Abnegation?” His voice fills the room and makes fear prickle in my chest. His anger seems too sudden. Too strange. “All that time you spent insisting that you were too selfish for them, and now, when your life is on the line, you’ve got to be a hero? What’s wrong with you?”
“What’s wrong with you? People died. They walked right off the edge of a building! And I can stop it from happening again!” (p.310)
Two weeks. Will I be able to make it through two weeks of this? I am already tired I’m finding it difficult to stand on my own. Even the rescue that Tobias is proposing barely appeals to me. I don’t want freedom. I want sleep. I want this to end. (p. 364)
And then rising from within me is a single thought:
I don’t want to die.
All those times Tobias scolded me for risking my life, I never took him seriously. I believed that I wanted to be with my parents and for all of this to be over. I was sure I wanted to emulate their self-sacrifice. But no. No, no.
Burning and boiling inside of me as the desire to live.
I don’t want to die I don’t want to die I don’t want to! (p.383-4)
Surrendering herself to Erudite is a tough decision made by Tris after the incident where three of their members were controlled by Jeanine and one of them died. It is evident that Tris will do anything to save her friends and loved ones from any harm even if the consequence is for her to suffer.
Even though she is in love with Four and he told her not to go to Erudite and submit herself, she still did it out of love for her faction members and it is shown also that she has debated in her mind whether she’ll let herself be selfish and let other people solve the things she has to solve and be with Four and be happy or face the problems of their society in front of her for the sake of those who depends on her for their survival.
It was evident in these lines: Suddenly I think maybe I’ll let someone else take all the risks, maybe I’ll start acting selfishly so that I can stay close to Tobias without hurting him. All I want is to bury my face in his neck and forget anything else exists.
When Erudite announced that Tris is to be executed she then realized that she do not want to die, she has the desire to live. After all her wishes to die she has the desire to live again and fight for their freedom which can be seen through these lines:
I was sure I wanted to emulate their self-sacrifice. But no. No, no.
Burning and boiling inside of me as the desire to live.
I don’t want to die I don’t want to die I don’t want to!
As said by Freud (2000), maintained that the unsatisfied dreams and desires of women are chiefly motivating. The unsatisfied dreams and fantasies of Tris made her stronger and capable of doing the things she knew will benefit all of them considering both sides of the story.
Table 6.4 Feminist Analysis of Insurgent (Book 2) in terms of Psychoanalytical model as to Tris’s memories of her parents and the Abnegation
Psychoanalytical model Excerpt/s Cited
Tris’s memories of her parents and the Abnegation Years from now, when my memories begin to fade, what will I have to remind me of what they looked like? Their faces will change in my mind. I will never see them again.
Don’t be stupid. It’s not important.
I squeeze the hard drive so tightly it hurts.
Then why does it feel so important? (p.73)
When Tris and her friends are hiding in the Amity compound she brought with her the hard drive of the simulation attack wherein she can still see her parents, that is the last memory she has of them but when the Dauntless traitors and Erudite people came and tried to search for them in the Amity compound she is again having thoughts of whether to destroy it so that the Erudite and Dauntless traitors will believe Johanna that they left or will she kept it for her own sake that she can still see her parents.
However, she did the thing she thought is the most righteous thing to do, she did destroyed the disk and saved the people, even though she badly wants to save the disk of her keepsake. Culturally, women seen to have put their family on their first priority and never let anyone harm them no matter what, when Tris could not decide whether to destroy the disk, the only memory she has of her parents the more evident it is.
Table 6.5 Feminist Analysis of Allegiant (Book 3) in terms of Psychoanalytical model as to Anticipation
Psychoanalytical model Excerpt/s cited
Anticipation I smile a little. I shouldn’t, but it’s harder to suppress gestures and expressions than words, with this weight in my veins. She believes that Tobias belongs to her now. She doesn’t know the truth that he belongs to himself. … I feel like everything inside me is vibrating with energy in anticipation of what is to come. I am free. We’re going to find a way out of the city. No more waiting, pacing a cell, demanding answers that won’t get from the guards. (p. 14-5)
It’s stupid I miss the thing when there are so many people to miss instead, but I miss the train already, and all the others that carried me through the city, my city, after I was brave enough to ride them. (p.89)
The faces of all the people I’ve lost flash into my mind. Lynn. Marlene. Will. Al.
My father. My mother.
What if they’re still alive, like Amar? What if the curtain that separates us is not death but a chain – link fence and some land? I can’t stop myself from hoping, foolish as it is. (p.105)
Life outside the city began rough for Tris and her friends, they discovered a lot of things that was hidden from them long for a time. As she stayed longer at the Bureau the more she misses her home inside the city, Chicago, even though she learned that their city was just an experiment done by the government she still desired to go back and live her life the same as before. Knowing that some people from the Bureau where in fact the people they believe were already dead, she then had a fantasy that maybe her friends and family whom she thought are dead can still be there like the others.
Her desire to see her parents again gave her hope that maybe the Bureau is where they are, that maybe they are not really dead at all. Also her desire to see her friends and family again pushed her to go outside of the city and discover what is in there, her anticipation of what is to come and what will the people outside the fence can give them. She wanted to escape the tragedy that their city has.
Table 6.6 Feminist Analysis of Allegiant (Book 3) in terms of Psychoanalytical model as to Women in love
Psychoanalytical model Excerpt/s cited
Women in love I nod, without conviction. Tobias can take care of himself, but in an attack, surviving is an accident. It doesn’t take skill to stand in a place where no bullets find you, or to fire into the dark and hit a man you didn’t see. It is all luck, or providence, depending on what you believe. And I don’t know – have never known – exactly what I believe.
He’s alright he’s all right he’s all right.
Tobias is alright. (p.95)
“Why is it,” I say “that we always find ourselves surrounded by people?”
“I don’t know,” he says. “Maybe because we’re stupid.”
I laugh, and it’s laughter, not light, that casts out the darkness building within me. That reminds me I am still alive, even in this strange place where everything I’ve ever known is coming apart. I know some things – I know that I’m not alone, that I have friends, that I’m in love. I know where I came from. I know that I don’t want to die, and for me that’s something – more than I could have said a few weeks ago. (p.137),
“It certainly is.” I start toward – well, I don’t know where I’m going, but it’s away from Nita, the pretty girl who talks to my boyfriend when I’m not there. Then again, it’s not like it was a long conversation. (p.180)
I didn’t tell him it was the end of our relationship. I meant to, but when I was looking at him, the words were impossible to say. I feel tears welling up again, as they have every hour so since yesterday, and I push them away, swallow them down. (p.306)
I feel in love with him. But I don’t just stay with him by default as if there’s no one else available to me. I stay with him because I choose to, every day that I wake up, every day that we fight or lie to each other or disappoint each other. I choose him over and over again, and he chooses me. (p.372)
The love story between Tris and Four is obvious whole throughout the series, it is evident that Roth represents women in her novel who are capable of being in love and how they react when they are indeed in love. As the relationship of the two characters is shown it is particular that Tris often think about Four and consider his feelings in making some of her decisions. Even though she is seen as a strong, independent woman, at the end of the day she still longs for the love of her life, the desires to see him and be with him is one of the character traits that can be seen in Tris. Though she does not depend too much on him she still portrayed a woman who is capable of loving someone and be able to do anything just to make the both of them happy. Lastly, her desire to be happy with Four pushed her to be stronger and fight for what she knew will make them happy and peaceful.
Table 6.7 Feminist Analysis of Allegiant (Book 3) in terms of Psychoanalytical model as to the council as their enemy
Psychoanalytical model Excerpt/s cited
The council as their enemy “Of course,” I say, and smile “I would be honoured.”
If someone offers you an opportunity to get closer to your enemy, you always take it. I know that without having learned it from anyone.
He must believe my smile, because he grins. (p.323-4)
As they discovered the real agenda of the council, Tris accepted the offer from David, leader of the bureau. He offered him a position in the council, hesitant at first Tris still accepted the offer because she believed that keeping her enemies closer she will know what are their plans and taking that advantage she can come up with ideas that can destroy them. They discovered a lot about the Bureau, how they are the ones who helped Jeanine in attacking the Abnegation and killing the Divergent.
Moreover, based from Freud (2000), the unsatisfied dreams and desires of women are chiefly motivating that is why the anger that lingers inside Tris and the desire to avenge her parents’ death pushed her more to be involved in the Bureau’s plans about the city and the other experiments so that she can attack them after knowing all that.
Cultural Model places feminist concerns in social contexts, acknowledging class, racial, national and historical differences and determinants among women, but offering a collective experience that unites women over time (Showalter, 2007). The culture that the series wants to show is how women is equal to men when it comes to being brave, in the story it is evident that that leadership among the faction is mostly given to women especially when Jeanine wage the war.
It is also shown in the Amity compound where Johanna is their acting leader and mainly as Tris portrayed a brave protagonist whole throughout the series. Feminist theory has long studied the effect of culture or society on women’s bodies and personalities (de Beauvoir, 2004; Coleman, 2008). Kennedy and Gioia (2003) defines feminism as a collective term of beliefs and theories that pays special attention to women’s rights and positions in culture and society.
When Showalter come up with the study of the four models, she mentioned that cultural model shows how feminists concerns with the hidden desire that leads a woman to do her plans. Freud (1915) found that some events and desires were often too frightening or painful for his patients to acknowledge, and believed such information was locked away in the unconscious mind.
Table 7.1 Feminist Analysis of Divergent (Book 1) in terms of Cultural model as to the transferees and their origin factions
Cultural Model Excerpt/s Cited
The transferees and their origin factions I still smell like wind when I walk into the cafeteria that evening. For the second after I walk in, I stand among a crowd of Dauntless, and I feel like one of them. Then Shauna waves to me and the crowd breaks apart, and I walk toward the table where Christina, Al, and Will sit, gaping at me. (p.224)
I walk past the drinking fountain and through the tunnels that seemed endless the day I got here but now barely register in my mind. This is not the first time I have failed my family since I got here, but for some reason, it feels that way. Every other time I failed, I knew what to do. Have I lost the ability to see what people need? Have I lost part of myself?
I keep walking. (p. 270)
In cultural model, incorporates ideas about women’s body, language and psyche but interprets them in relation to the social contexts in which they occur. In the characters women portrayed in the story it can be observed that women can be as tough as men can be, they can transfer faction and pass the simulations and physical trainings just like how a man can do it.
Tris and the other women transferees of Dauntless portrayed a character that cannot be easily bullied or torn by men. They fight with all their might and despite the fact that most of them are form faction that is that tolerating violence, especially Tris they proved that they can fight and even defeat men in some cases. Christina, one of the initiates of Dauntless can be seen talking back to Peter and other fellow initiates that are men and even those initiates from Erudite that are raised without fighting and violence can be seen as tough and independent women who also, like men strives to survive the initiation and pass as a full pledge member of Dauntless.
Table 7.2 Feminist Analysis of Divergent (Book 1) in terms of Cultural model as to Women before, during and after initiations
Cultural Model Excerpt/s Cited
Women before, during and after initiations I stopped tugging, and stand up straighter. I know I look young. I don’t need to be reminded. “I’m older than I look,” I retort. “I’m sixteen.”
“Let go of me,” I say, I hear ringing in my ears. My voice sounds clear and stern – not what I expected to hear. I feel like it doesn’t belong to me.
I am ready. I know what to do. I picture myself bringing my elbow back and hitting him. I see the bag of apples flying away from me. I hear my running steps. I am prepared to act. (p.26)
At home I used to spend calm, pleasant nights with my family. My mother knit scarves for the neighborhood kids. My father helped Caleb with his homework. There was a fire in the fireplace and peace in my heart, as I was doing exactly what I was supposed to be doing, and everything was quiet.
I have never been carried around by a large boy, or laughed until my stomach hurt at the dinner table, or listened to the clamor of a hundred people all talking at once. Peace is restrained; this is free. (p.250)
“He’s in bad shape?”
“He’ll live,” he replies. He adds bitterly, “In what condition, I can’t say.”
It isn’t right to wish pain on other people just because they hurt me first. But white-hot triumph races through me at the thought of Drew in the infirmary, and I squeeze Four’s arm. (p.284)
Tori was the only one in the tattoo place so I felt safe getting the symbol of Abnegation – a pair of hands, palms up as if to help someone stand, bounded by a circle – on my right shoulder. I know it was a risk, especially after all that’s happened. But that symbol is a part of my identity, and it felt important to me that I wear it on my skin. (p.316)
Amidst the initiations and everything, Tris and the girls from other factions represents women who are tough and can face challenges just like how a man can do it, but then at the end of the day we can still see that women have the tendency of caring and worrying about others’ sake too.
When the stage two of initiation came and Tris suddenly ranked high on the rankings, Peter, Drew and Al, who is one of her friends, tried to kill her by kidnapping her and putting her on to the chasm where she can die by drowning and even beat her up but then then Four came and rescued her by beating the guys who tried to take her life.
Four beats Drew badly that he needed to be confined in their infirmary and Tris still asked him if Drew was okay and still worry about the two other guys that tried to kill, specially Al. That can be seen in these lines: It isn’t right to wish pain on other people just because they hurt me first.
In centuries women has always had the nature and tendency of being caring and understanding upon people who even did them wrong and gave them pain. At the end of the day we can conclude that women are soft and delicate but at same time women are tough and brave to face the challenges up against them. Tris and the other transfers proved that they can also fight as men do.
Table 7.3 Feminist Analysis of Insurgent (Book 2) in terms of Cultural model as to Faction traits
Cultural model Excerpt/s Cited
Faction traits Caleb wipes his cheeks every few seconds, and I know he’s crying but I don’t know how to comfort him, or why I am not crying myself.
Instead I take the lead, Tobias silent at my side, and though he does not touch me, he steadies me. (p.4)
Johanna places her hand on his arm and turns towards him. I stiffen, afraid for a moment that she will see me, but she looks only at Marcus. I sink into a crouch and crawl toward one of the trees so that the trunk will hide me. The bark itches my spine, but I don’t move.
“But you do know,” she says. “You know why she attacked when she did. I may not be Candor anymore, but I can still tell when someone is keeping the truth from me.” (p.24)
I strip quickly and grab the bar of soap next to the sink.
“How are you?” she says.
“I’m fine,” know she’s only asking because faction rules dictate that she does. I wish she would just speak to me freely. “How are you, Susan?”
“Better. Therese told me there is a large group of Abnegation refugees in one of the factionless safe houses,” says Susan as I lather soap into my hair.
“Oh?” I say. I shove my head under the faucet again, this time massaging my scalp with my left hand to get the soap out. “Are you going?”
“Yes,” says Susan. “Unless you need my help.”
“Thanks for the offer, but I think your faction needs you more,” I say, turning off the faucet. I wish I didn’t have to get dressed. It’s too hot for denim pants. But I grab the other towel from the floor and dry myself in a hurry.
I put on the red shirt I was wearing before. I don’t want to put on something that dirty again, but I have no other choice.
“I suspect some of the factionless women have spare clothes,” says Susan. “You’re probably right. Okay, your turn.”
I stand with the towel as Susan washes up. My arms start to ache after a while, but she ignored the pain for me, so I’ll do the same for her. Water splashes on my ankles when she washes her hair. (p113-4)
“Soon,” he says. “I don’t want anyone to worry.”
“I didn’t realize. Susan had changed her name to ‘Anyone,'” I say, raising my eyebrow.
“Ha – ha,” he says, making a face at me.
Teasing between siblings should feel familiar, but it doesn’t for us. Abnegation discouraged anything that might make someone feel uncomfortable, and teasing was included. (p.213)
I am better doing as an Abnegation taught me: turning away from myself, projecting always outward, and hoping that in whatever is next, I will be better than I am now.
I smile a little. I wish I could tell my parents that I will die like the Abnegation. They would be proud, I think. (p.379)
Hiding in the factionless compound is where Tris and the other faction members especially Susan represent a woman. In there both of them can be seen protecting and serving other people sacrificing their comfort just like a woman in real life will do, which is portrayed in these lines: I stand with the towel as Susan washes up. My arms start to ache after a while, but she ignored the pain for me, so I’ll do the same for her. Water splashes on my ankles when she washes her hair.
It is also shown there how siblings act with each other, but then Tris suddenly mentioned that when they were still in Abnegation they aren’t allowed to tease each other which in fact it was a normal thing done by siblings. Woman are pictured as feminine as seen by Susan and how a woman can also be brave and ready to fight to just like how man can do it. Both of them portrayed two opposite traits of a woman that a woman in real life also has. As Showalter (2007) would say it women has different concerns in social contexts, acknowledging class, racial, national and historical differences.
Table 7.4 Feminist Analysis of Allegiant (Book 3) in terms of Cultural model as to Tris as a daughter and a sister
Cultural model Excerpt/s cited
Tris as a daughter and a sister “My parents would want me to save him, though.” Her eyes open and lift to the sky. “They would say it’s selfish to let someone die just because they wronged you. Forgive, forgive, forgive.”
“This isn’t about what they want, Tris.”
“Yes, it is!” She presses away from the wall. “It’s always about what they want. Because he belongs to them more than he belongs to me. And I want to make them proud of me. It’s all I want.” (p.66-7)
Sometimes when I look at him (Caleb) I feel the ache of sympathy towards him, and sometimes I feel like I want to wrap my hands around his throat. But right now I just want escape, and pretend this never happened. (p.228)
He is a part of me, always will be, and I am a part of him, too. I don’t belong to Abnegation, or Dauntless, or even the Divergent. I don’t belong to the Bureau or the experiment or the fringe. I belong to the people I love, and they belong to me – they, and the love and loyalty I give them, form my identity far more than any word or group ever could.
I love my brother. I love him, and he is quaking with terror at the thought of death. I love him and all I can think, all I can hear in my mind, are the words I say to him, a few days ago: I would never deliver you to your own execution. … I take it and swing it over my shoulder. I keep my gun pointed at him and shift so he’s blocking my view of the soldiers at the end of the hallway.
“Caleb,” I say, “I love you.”
His eyes gleam with tears as he says, “I love you too, Beatrice.” (p.455-6)
Even though Tris was betrayed by her brother Caleb, as he let Jeanine experiment on her divergence, it still shown that Tris still loves her brother. Sometimes when I look at him (Caleb) I feel the ache of sympathy towards him, and sometimes I feel like I want to wrap my hands around his throat. But right now I just want escape, and pretend this never happened.
As seen in those lines she managed to forgive her brother despite the fact the he betrayed her. At the end she even sacrificed herself for her brother instead of him going to the labs and deactivating the launched of the death serum to the city she sacrificed her life knowing that her brother is afraid to die and her love for him pushed her to do that.
In here Roth portrayed women that are sympathetic especially when it comes to her family. It is seen that woman really sets her family as her top priority. One cultural trait that Tris also showed is that how a woman or a person carry on the beliefs and lessons her family instill to them, Tris can be seen showing that trait by always consulting or always remembering her parents’ saying about their virtue in life. In connection to that as stated by Freud (2000) psychoanalytical model is the desires that shape the plots of women’s fiction.
Table 7.5 Feminist Analysis of Allegiant (Book 3) in terms of Cultural model as to Women are strong
Cultural Model Excerpt/s Cited
Women are strong Christina says something to Tris, and they both grin. Everything I hear is muffled and distorted. (p.115)
“Mary and Rafi lead the Midwest branch of a GD rebel group,” Nita says. (p.246)
I brush her hair away from her face, gently, so I don’t wake her.
She doesn’t need my protection. She’s strong enough on her own. (p.253)
Roth really portrayed her woman characters as strong, independent and capable of leading. In here, as Nita tried to explain her plans to both Tobias and Tris she introduced them to Mary and Rafi which are both the leaders of the GDs. Shown in there that our culture now recognizes women as capable also of leading that in our society now women have equal opportunities as men have when it comes to politics.
Women are also culturally meant to share secrets to each other, especially now in our times that in our society women shares secrets to each other that only them or their group of friends know, that is shown though this lines: Christina says something to Tris, and they both grin. Everything I hear is muffled and distorted.
Table 7.6 Feminist Analysis of Allegiant (Book 3) in terms of Cultural model as to As mothers
Cultural Model Excerpt/s Cited
As mothers On the screen Evelyn balances her chin on her hand and stares at the sculpture for a moment. Then she gets up and shakes her hands and leaves the room.
No, I don’t think the sculpture is a sign of rebellion. I think it’s just a remainder of Tobias. Somehow I never realized that when Tobias charged out of the city with me, he wasn’t a rebel defying his leader – he was a son abandoning his mother. And she is grieving over it. (p.213)
“It’s not fair for me to me to give you this choice,” I say. “But I have to. You can lead the factionless, you can fight the Allegiant, but you’ll have to do it without me, forever. Or you can let this crusade go, and … and you’ll have your son back.” … The she reaches across the table and pulls me fiercely into her arms, which form a wire cage around me, surprisingly strong.
“Let them have the city and everything in it,” she says into my hair.
I can’t move, can’t speak. She chose me. She chose me. (p.465-6)
One cultural account that the last book showed is the mother side of a woman. When Tobias went outside the city, it is seen that Evelyn really felt side and lonely knowing her son is far away from her. Even before the attack on Erudite it is seen that a woman as a mother will do everything for their children. The last part where Tobias asked her mother if she what will she pick him or the city she is leading, no doubt Evelyn is ready to give up her position in the government for her son. That situation that Roth presented in her work is that woman can do literally everything and can sacrifice everything they possess for their children, that cultural trait is presented in these lines: “Let them have the city and everything in it,” she says into my hair. I can’t move, can’t speak. She chose me. She chose me. As centuries passed, it is evident that women as mothers can do impossible things for their family especially when it comes to their children. Women, may it be as a mother, as a daughter, a sister and a wife all leads to one cultural aspect, that they can and will do everything for their family they can also sacrifice anything for the safety and happiness of their loved ones.
Althusser, L. (1969). For Marx (English Translation). London: The Penguin Press.
Bennett, B. (1979). Formalism and Marxism. London: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group.
Dobie, A. (2009) Theory into Practice: An Introduction to Literary Criticism. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Eagleton, T. (1976). Marxism and Literary Criticism. London: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.
Eagleton, Terry (2000). “Introduction: What is Literature,” Literary Theory: An Introduction. London: Basil Blackwel
Guerin, W.L. et.al. (2005). A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature: Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press, INC.
Habib, M.A.R, (2011) Literary Criticism from Plato to the Present: An Introduction, West Sussex, UK: Blackwell Publishing
Showalter, Elaine (2000). “Feminist Criticism in the Wilderness”. Contemporary Literary Criticism
Journals and Essays
Kress, G. (1989). Linguistic Processes in Sociocultural Practices. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lukacs, G. (1968). History and Class Consciousness. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Plain, G. et.al. (2007). A History of Feminist Literary Criticism. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press
Balmeo, T, (2013). Literary Criticism Approaches used by Pre-service teachers: Basis for Instructional Guide in Literary Theories. Unpublished Undergraduate Thesishesis, Lucban, Quezon: SLSU
Calleja, M.G (2016). Presentation of Women in Literature: A Comparative Analysis of Female Characters Used in Grade 10 English K to 12 Learning Material. Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis, Lucban, Quezon: SLSU
Rodanilla, M. B (2016). A Marxist Reading of Suzanne Collins’ “The Hunger games” Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis, Lucban, Quezon: SLSU
Luyas, M. J. (2012). A Marxist-Stylistic Analysis of John Steinbeck’s ‘The Grapes of Wrath’ to. Present Filipino Setting. Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis. Lucban, Quezon: Southern Luzon State University.
Babista, J.M. (2012) Literary Criticism from College of Teacher Education. Unpublished Manual, Lucban, Quezon
Asuncion, J. (2014) Literary Criticism: The Paradigms and the possibilities. Retrieved 07 Oct 2017 from http://www.slideshare.net/imjhengasuncion/literary-criticism-39268248
Bulusan, F. (2012), Marxist Literary Criticism. Retrieved 07 Oct 2017 from http://www.slideshare.net/ferdinandbulusan/marxist-criticism-presentation
Dominus, S. (2011) Divergent Series Book Review. Retrieved 07 Oct 2017 from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/15/books/review/young-adult-books-divergent-by-veronica-roth.html
Dowdle, N. (2009). Computer assisted instruction. Retrieved 07 Oct 2017 from https://www.slideshare.net/nancyd0703/computer-assisted-instruction-2470994
Grewal, H. (2012). Literary Criticism. Retrieved 07 Oct 2017 from http://www.slideshare.net/jagmohanharman/literary-criticism-15058264
James, T. (2013). Divergent Series Book Review. Retrieved 07 Oct 2017 from http://thebooksmugglers.com/2013/11/book-review-allegiant-by-veronica-roth.html
Jia, B. (2012). Divergent Series Book Review. Retrieved 07 Oct 2017 from http://dearauthor.com/book-reviews/overall-b-reviews/b-reviews/review-insurgent-by-veronica-roth/
Marx, K. (2010). The Manifesto of the Communist Party. Marxists Internet Archives. Retrieved 12 October 2017 from http://www.marxists.org.
Marx, K. (2015). Das Kapital. Marxists Internet Archive. Retrieved 12 October 2017 from http://www.marxists.org.
McFarland, K. (2014). Retrieved 08 Oct 2017 from https://film.avclub.com/while-it-improves-on-the-book-divergent-remains-in-the-1798179882
Michelle. (2015). Divergent Trilogy book review. Retrieved 08 Oct 2017 from http://www.thatswhatsheread.net/2015/07/series-review-the-divergent-trilogy-by-veronica-roth/
Teachers Web (2015). Retrieved 08 Oct 2017 from http://www.teacherweb.com/GA/BenjaminEMaysHighSchool/…/MarciaMarxistTheory.ppt
Turtle, S. (2017). Divergent Series Book Review. Retrieved 07 Oct 2017 from https://www.amazon.com/Divergent-Veronica-Roth/product-reviews/0062024027
WordPress Weblog (2010), Marxist literary Criticism. Retrieved 07 Oct 2017 form http://marxismcriticismwordpress.com/category/definition-of-marxist-literary-criticism/