Challenges in Strategic Human Resource Management Human
Challenges in Strategic Human Resource Management Human Resource Management Set of tools to (1) Recruit employees, form and organise their professional careers, and (2) Ensure that employees are assigned to do the adequate tasks and that the overall performance of the administration is aligned well with the general and particular objectives that it seeks to accomplish. Major Factors Affecting HRM (i)Demographics and Diversity (ii)Technological Advancement (iii)Globalization Issues for Integrating New Technologies Impact of Technology on Organizations Requires changes in skills and work habit of employees •Elimination of some lower-level position and layers of management •Less hierarchy, more collaboration Technology Challenges for HR •Telecommuting •Employee surveillance & monitoring •e-HR •Ethical behaviour Telecommuting ?Dramatic growth in number of Americans working from home •3. 4 million in 1990 •19.
6 million by beginning of 2000 ?Issues affecting success of telecommuting programs • Clear performance measurement system is key •Deciding which employees will be offered participation •Equipment expense Some managers uncomfortable having direct reports away from office Employee Surveillance and Monitoring ?More than 80% of large employers utilize monitoring technology, e. g. , ? Internet usage ?E-mails ?Computer files ?Voice-mail ?Telephone usage ?Under Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA), employees have only limited privacy rights E-HR ?Opportunity to deliver transactional types of services online: •Payroll •Employee benefits •Scheduling •Recruiting •Training •Career development Ethical Behavior •Majority of jobs are considered to be “at-will” Movement toward greater protection for employees in regard to off-duty behavior •Ownership of work •Fairness of noncompete clauses ?Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002: •Seeks to eliminate deception in accounting & management practices by increasing government oversight •Holds senior executives more directly responsible for violations •Protects “whistle-blowers” Workforce Demographic Changes: “Graying” of Workforce ?Positive aspects of older workers •As productive or more productive than younger workers •Have more organizational loyalty than younger workers Possess broader industry knowledge and professional networks ?Negative aspects of older workers •Perceived resistance to change by older workers •Increased health-care costs for senior workers •Blocking advancement opportunities for younger workers •Higher wage and salary costs for senior workers Workforce Demographic Changes ?Baby Boomers (1945–1962) •Currently in excess supply in middle management ranks •HR challenge is to manage “plateaued” workers ?Baby Busters (1963–mid-1970s) •Are often career bottlenecked by Boomers Many have skills in high demand; are doing and will do well ?Generation “X”ers (late 1970s–early 1980s) •Have life-long exposure to technology and constant change •Seek self-control, independence, personal growth, creativity •Not focused on job security or long-term employment ?Generation “Y”: “Baby Boom Echo” (after 1979) •High comfort level with technology •Global and tolerant outlook on life •Highly entrepreneurial •Shorter attention span •Opting for more transient and variable project work Workforce Demographic Changes ?Disabilities 54 million Americans with disabilities •Often not included in diversity initiatives •Many supervisors do not understand needs of employees with disabilities •Stereotypes New Employee/Workplace Dynamics ?Emphasis on management of professionals •Establishment of separate career tracks ?Technical/Professional, Managerial /Administrative •Use of project teams ?Less employee loyalty, more loyal to self •Staying with employers for shorter periods; demanding more meaningful work and involvement in organizational decisions ?Increased personal and family dynamic effects More single-parent families, dual-career couples, & domestic partners ?Increased non-traditional work relationships •Part-time, consulting, and temporary employment flexibility •Outsourcing and entrepreneurial opportunities Managing Workplace Diversity ?Understanding and appreciating diversity •Critical to effectively marketing to ethnic and minority groups •Promoted by having diverse workforce at all levels •Helps ensure hiring and promotion decisions are unbiased by personal differences ?Diversity management programs or initiatives Must be integrated with organization’s mission and objectives •Help key decision makers identify diversity’s benefits to organization •Make critical decisions about implementing optimal program/initiative contingent on organization and its people, mission and culture. Individual Dimensions of Diversity Strategic Management of Diversity ?Determine why diversity is important ?Articulate how diversity relates to mission and strategic objectives ? Define diversity and determine how inclusive its efforts will be ? Make a decision as to whether special efforts should be extended to attract diverse workforce ?Assess how existing employees, customers, and other constituencies feel about diversity ? Determine specific types of diversity initiatives that will be undertaken Five Challenges to Virtual Team Success ?Virtual teams: •Groups of people who work interdependently with shared purpose across space, time, and organization boundaries, using technology to communicate and collaborate ? Types of virtual teams •Global virtual teams •Teams assigned to accomplish specific projects •Cross-functional teams ?Challenge: Recognize obstacles confronting teams that are both cross-functional and virtual •Building trust within virtual teams Maximizing process gains and minimizing process losses on virtual teams •Overcoming feelings of isolation and detachment associated with virtual teamwork •Balancing technical and interpersonal skills among virtual team members •Assessment and recognition of virtual team performance Employee Satisfaction ?Potential impact of demographic changes •Aging population increases emphasis on health care benefits, retirement planning, and job security •Women are attaining higher proportion of professional qualifications •Future skills shortages may cause industrialized countries to compete for skilled immigrant labor ?Industrial base shifting to service and health care sectors •Wider political and economic trends affecting job satisfaction •Health care cost •Job security • Pensions ?Two groups of issues: •Those depending on financial position of company ?Benefits ?Wages ?Job security •Those less costly to implement through changing practices, processes, and culture ? Communication with management ?Work/life balance ?Employee’s relationship with immediate supervisor ?Career development