Auditing is not liable to disclose his relationship
Auditing Practical Questions/B14__________________________________1 MASTER MINDS – QUALITY EDUCATION BEYOND YOUR IMAGINATION AUDITING PRACTICAL QUESTIONS INTRODUCTION TO AUDITING Q. No. 1. Mr.
Aditya, a practicing chartered accountant is appointed as a “Tax Consultant” of ABC Ltd. , in which his father Mr. Singhvi is the Managing Director. Sol. : A chartered accountant appointed as an auditor of the company, should disclose his interest while making the audit report.If the disclosure is not made, it would amount to “misconduct” under the Chartered Accountants Act, 1949.
In this case, Mr Aditya is a “Tax Consultant” and not a “Statutory Auditor” of ABC Ltd. , hence he is not liable to disclose his relationship with Managing Director of the company except as required by section: 349 of the Companies Act? 1956. Q. No. 2.
Give your comments and observations on the following: The management has obtained a certificate from an actuary regarding provision of gratuity payable to employees. Sol. The Computation of gratuity liability payable to employees is dependent upon several factors such as age of the employee, expected span of service in the organisation? life expectancy of the employee, prevailing economic environment, etc. Thus, it gives rise to uncertainty in the determination of provisions of liabilities.
Under the circumstances, the management is required to make an assessment and estimate the amount of provision. In view of this, the management may engage an expert in the field to assist them in arriving at fair estimation of the liability.Therefore, it is an accepted auditing practice to use the work of an expert. AAS9 on “Using the Work of an Expert” also states that an expert may be engaged /employed by the client. It further requires the auditor to assess skill, competence and objectivity of the expert amongst other factors and evaluate the work of an expert independently to conclude whether or not to rely upon such a certificate obtained by the management from the actuary. Therefore, the auditor must follow the requirements of AAS9 efore relying upon the certificate obtained by the management from the actuary. Q.
No. 3. Auditor is responsible for expressing opinion on financial statements in statutory audit. Comment.
Sol. : The objective of the audit of the financial statements prepared within a Framework of recognized accounting policies and practices and relevant statutory requirements if any, is to enable an author to express an opinion on such financial statements.As per the requirements of section 227 of the Companies Act, 1956, the Auditor is required to express his opinion on (i) whether books of account As required by law have been kept by the company so far as it appears from The examination of the books and proper returns adequate for the purpose of audit have been received from branches not visited by them (ii) Whether the accounts give the information required by the act in the manner so required (iii) whether the accounts give a fair view in case of the balance sheet, the state of the companies affairs and in case of the profit and loss account of the profit and loss for the year.The auditor is responsible for forming and expressing his opinion on the financial statements. However, the responsibility for their preparation is that of the management of the enterprise. Management responsibilities include the maintenance of adequate accounting records and internal controls, the selection and application statements does not relieve the management of its responsibilities.
Auditing Practical Questions/B 14__________________________________2 WWW. GNTMASTERMINDS. COM CONCEPTS OF AUDITING Q. No1.
An assistant of X & Co. Chartered Accountants detected an error of Rs. 5 for interest payment which occurred number of times. The General Manager (Finance) of T Ltd. advised him not to request for passing any adjustment entry as individually the errors were of small amounts. The company had 2,000 deposit Accounts and interest was paid quarterly. Sol.
: The auditor is primarily concerned with items which either individually or as a group are material in relation to the affairs of an enterprise. Therefore, the auditor while carrying out his audit function needs to onsider the possibility of misstatements of relatively small amounts, that, cumulatively could have a material effect on the financial statements. In the instant case, an error of Rs. 5 in the interest computation, even if small individually, will have a material effect due to the number of transactions. Therefore, the request made by the manager is not acceptable and adjustment entry shall be passed. Q. No.
2. “The audit of financial statements relieves management of its responsibilities”. (UNIMPORTANT) Sol. Basically, it is the management of an enterprise which is responsible for preparation of financial statements.
Management’s responsibilities include maintaining an adequate accounting system, proper internal control system, selection and application of accounting policies and safeguarding the assets of the enterprise. Under no circumstances, the audit of financial statements would relieve the management of its responsibilities. It must be understood clearly that the role of auditor is to express an independent opinion on the financial statements prepared by the management of an enterprise.In fact, it is the management which is entrusted with the responsibility by the shareholders to manage the enterprise in the most efficient and effective manner. Therefore, it is the primary responsibility of the management to maintain books of account and prepare financial statements in a manner so that same portray a true and fair picture of the enterprise. Thus the basic responsibilities of the management are much broader which in any case can not be reduced by audit.
AUDIT EVIDENCE Q. No. 1.
Balance confirmations from debtors/creditors can only be obtained for balances standing in their accounts at the yearend.Sol. : Direct confirmation of balances from debtorscreditors is the best method of ascertaining whether the balances are genuine. The confirmation date, method of requesting confirmation, etc. are to be determined by the auditor.
Debtors may be requested to confirm the balance either (a) as at the date of the balances sheet, or (b) as at any other selected date which is reasonably close to the date of the balance sheet. Therefore, it is not necessary that balances of debtors/ creditors should necessarily be verified only at the end of the year only. Q.No.
2. The Company produced photocopies of fixed deposit receipts (FDR) as the original Fixed deposit receipts were kept in the iron safe of the director of finance who was presently out of the country on Company business. Comment. Sol.
: SAP5 ‘Audit Evidence’ requires that an auditor should obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence, evaluate the same and draw reasonable conclusions there from. The auditor is generally required to inspect and physically verify the fixed deposit receipts representing the assets on the last day of the accounting period.Thus the photocopies of the receipts cannot serve the desired purpose. Reliance can be placed by the auditor on such evidence provided photocopies are certified as true copies by the management as also backed by a letter from Director (Finance) may also be asked to Auditing Practical Questions/B14__________________________________3 MASTER MINDS – QUALITY EDUCATION BEYOND YOUR IMAGINATION confirm in writing from abroad in that respect and the same shall be produced to auditors as soon as he returns from business trip. Q.
No. 3. X Ltd holds 4 to 5 board meetings per year.The directors are reimbursed to the extent of actual air fair, and in addition an allowance of Rs. 300 per day is paid for covering hotel bills etc. The auditor of the company seeks the actual bills/vouchers as evidence in respect of stay charges.
The director contention is that the board attendance register containing the signature of director is sufficient evidence. Give your views as a Chartered Accountant. (UNIMPORTANT) Sol.
: According to AAS 5 the auditor should collect adequate and appropriate evidences in respect of the transaction entered in the books of accounts.In the given case, if the hotel charges are to be reimbursed, then the directors have to provide hotel bills etc. for reimbursement purposes. This is because reimbursement is done on an actual basis. In case the hotel charges are covered by a fixed allowances payable by the co.
, then there is no need for the directors to submit actual bills. Since in this case director’s were given a fixed allowance, supporting evidences are not required. CAPITAL AND REVENUE EXPENDITURE Q. No. 1.
State the treatment of the following transactions: a. Substantial Expenditure incurred for the repair of machinery. .
Expenditure incurred to remove “Overburden” for purposes of facilitating mining activities. c. Training Expenses incurred by the company for technical personnel before commencement of commercial production by a new company. Sol. : a.
Expenses which are essentially of a revenue nature, if incurred for creating an asset or addition to its value or achieving higher productivity are regarded as expenditure of a capital nature. As stated, substantial expenditure was incurred for repair of machinery indicating apparently that it does not amount to normal repair and maintenance expenditure.Therefore if such expenditure has added to its value or achieving higher productivity it needs to be capitalised.
b. The benefit of expenditure incurred to remove the “overburden” for purposes of facilitating mining activities, will be enjoyed so long mineral can be raised. Accordingly, such expenditure amounts to deferred revenue expenditure, the benefit of which is not exhausted within a year. Therefore, expenditure should be charged off on a per ton basis of stock of mineral to be extracted during the entire mining period. . Training expenses of an existing company are, generally, charged off to revenue as these represent expenses incurred for upgrading and updating the existing skills of the employees, the benefit of which is of a shortterm recurring nature. However, training expenses incurred by a new company for technical personnel cannot be treated as a recurring expenditure incurred for purposes of updating and/or upgrading their existing level of skill as it has not yet come into commercial production.
Such training is being organised to introduce a new production process. Accordingly, such expenditure should be treated as Deferred Revenue Expenditure and written over a period of time as the benefits from such training will be enjoyed over a number of years to come. Auditing Practical Questions/B 14__________________________________4 WWW. GNTMASTERMINDS.
COM Q. No. 2. State with reasons, how the following items should be allocated to capital and revenue: a) Repairs to building done shortly after purchase b) Costs of raising a loan. Sol.
: a.If the building was in defective condition at the time of its acquisition and the repairs were done to render it livable, this expenditure may be capitalised as a part of the cost of the building. However, the cost of minor or normal repairs incurred necessary to maintain the building in proper condition should be written off to revenue. b. The costs of raising a loan are capital expenditure similar to public issue expenses (i. e. the cost of issuing shares and debentures).
Since such expenditure is not represented by any available assets, thus it should more normally be written off to revenue.Alternatively, it may be treated as deferred revenue and written off over a short period. Q. No. 3. Cost of structural alterations amounting toRs. 60,000 to self owned factory premises has been charged to building repairs.
Sol. : Any subsequent expenditure on fixed assets which increases the future benefits arising from them beyond their previously assessed standards of performance amounts to capital expenditure. The word structural alteration would generally signify that some significant changes have taken place in the design of building to provide more strength to the building or expansion in the capacity of the building.Therefore, cost of Rs. 60,000 represents the cost of expansion or extension or any increase in the life span of premises, it is a capital expenditure and an adjustment entry debiting buildings account and crediting building repairs account should be made and depreciation should also be provided accordingly. Q.
No. 4. A publishing company undertook repair and overhauling of its machinery at a cost of Rs. 250 lakhs to maintain them in good condition and capitalized the amount as it is more than 25% of the original cost of the machinery Sol. The money spent on the repair and overhaul of the machinery can be treated as capital expenditure, only if it results in increasing the earning capacity or reduction in the cost of production. In this case, neither the earning capacity has increased nor there is any reduction in the cost of production. In the absence of both these criteria, it is to be treated as revenue expenditure.
The fact that maintenance expenditure is more than 25% of the original cost of the machinery would not change its nature, i. e. the amount of the expenditure is highly irrelevant for deciding whether to capitalise or charge to revenue.Q.
No. 5. Rs. 5 lakhs paid by a pharma company to the legal advisor defending the patent of a product treated as Capital Expenditure. Sol. : Generally, payment of legal fees is normally revenue expenditure irrespective of the amount involved unless same is incurred to bring any new asset into existence.
Here, legal expenses of Rs. 5 lakhs incurred to defend the patent of a product of the Pharma Company is revenue expenditure pertaining to the asset since by this expenditure neither any durable benefit can be obtained in future in addition to what is presently available nor the capacity of the asset would be increased.Hence, treating such expenditure as capital expenditure is incorrect. The auditor has to qualify audit report. Q. No.
6. A company pulled down a old portion of factory building. The value of salvage material was Rs. 25000.
The company spent Rs. 3,75,000 on reconstruction of old portion. Sol. : An amount of Rs. 3,75,000 should be capitalized. This is so because the amount has been spent for the reconstruction of the old portion of the factory building. By doing so the efficiency and the effective life of the portion of factory building has been improved.
The amount of Rs. 5,000 should be credited to the factory building account. Auditing Practical Questions/B14__________________________________5 MASTER MINDS – QUALITY EDUCATION BEYOND YOUR IMAGINATION Q. No. 7. Due to fire in the factory the Plant and Machinery got damaged. The estimated cost of repairs was nominal i.
e. Rs. 5,000. However a suggestion was received that if the design of the Plant and Machinery during such repair could be modified, the production would increase substantially. The cost of such repairs together with modification suggested was Rs. 1 Lakhs.
The suggestion was accepted and Rs. lakh spent for the said purpose. The Company charged the entire expenses to Profit & Loss Account. Do you agree with the company’s treatment? If not, please state your views. Sol. : Expenses which are essentially of revenue in nature, if incurred for creating an asset or adding to its value or achieving higher productivity, are also regarded as expenditure of a capital nature. Therefore major repairs which have the effect of adding to the life of the asset and increasing the earning capacity of the asset should be capitalised.
Therefore, the company’s policy of charging entire expenses to P & L A/c is not correct.Under the circumstances, the revenue expenditure and expenditure relating to design modification may be segregated and charged to P&L A/c & capitalised. Q.
No. 8. The value of land and building was not separately disclosed. Also a major repair of the roof amounting to Rs. 1,00,000 was carried out during the year, without which the building would have become usable. Comment.
Sol. : The value of land and building should be separated for purposes of calculation of depreciation. If such segregation is not possible from available documents, the assistance of a valuation expert should be taken to ascertain the same.The amount of Rs. 1,00,000 paid for repair of the roof has added to the life of the building. Therefore, the said amount should be added to the cost of the building and not charged off as revenue expenditure incurred for repairs.
Q. No. 9.
Z Ltd. wanted to treat the heavy advertisement expenditure incurred by them to launch a new product as Revenue Exp. The product’s sales were negligible. Comment. Sol. : Advertisement expenditure is essentially of revenue nature and it thus written off to the profit and loss account.
However Z Ltd. has incurred “heavy” expenditure to launch a new product.Therefore, heavy expenses for a new product campaign are normally treated as deferred revenue expenditure to be written off over a period of three to five years, if successful. Thus deferral of expenditure is done only with the anticipation that benefit is likely to accrue in future accounting periods. It appears from the given facts that the product did not pick up and the sale were negligible.
The entire expenses incurred should be written off to the profit and loss Account. Accordingly, the writing off of the entire expenditure to revenue is appropriate and correct.Q. No. 10. A newly set up Private Limited Manufacturing company has incurred following expenditure during its construction period: a.
Foreign tour expenses of directors for purchasing plant and machinery. b. Technical Staff’s salary for erection of plant and machinery. c. Nontechnical staff’s salary during the period of installation of plant and machinery.
d. Other Sundry Expenses such as Stationery, Printing, Postage, Telegram and Telephones etc. The company intends to capitalise the above expense. Is the company justified? Sol. : a.The expenditure incurred for acquisition of an asset should be capitalised as a part of cost of that asset.
Therefore, the company is justified in capitalizing the aforesaid expenditure. However, in case, directors have failed to purchase plant and machinery then such expenses have no connection with acquisition and cannot therefore be capitalised. Under such circumstances, it may be treated as deferred revenue expenditure, to be shown in the Balance Sheet under the group heading of “Miscellaneous expenditure” and should be written off over a reasonable period after commencement of commercial production.
Auditing Practical Questions/B 14__________________________________6 WWW. GNTMASTERMINDS. COM b.
Technical staff’s salary for erection of plant an machinery represents and expenditure to bring the plant and machinery in to operational condition. Thus, such expenditure is directly of capital nature and hence should be capitalised. Therefore, the company is justified in capitalising the aforesaid expenditure.
c. Nontechnical staff’s salary during the period of installation of plant and machinery epresents indirect expenditure related to acquisition/construction and is incidental thereto and should be capitalised as a part of the construction. Thus, the company is correct. d.
Sundry expenses such as stationery, printing, postage, telegram and telephone and local conveyance charges etc. also constitute an expenditure which is indirectly related to construction and is incidental thereto. Therefore, it is recommended that the same should be capitalized as a part of the construction cost. Thus, the company is justified in capitalising the above expenditure. Q. No. 11.
Stamp duty for mortgage of machinery to secure loan was charged to the Revenue Account. Comment. Sol. : The purpose for which the loan was obtained is the criteria for recording such transaction. If the loan is raised for acquiring capital asset by mortgaging the existing machinery and stamp duty paid thereon is to be charged to the new asset itself. On the other hand, if the loan is obtained for working capital requirement then the amount paid on stamp duty is to be charged to P& L Account. Q.
No. 12. Cost of trial runs before commencement of production was treated as deferred revenue expenditure.Comment. Sol.
: The expenditure incurred on start up and commencement of the project, including the expenditure incurred on test runs and experimental production, is usually capitalized as an indirect element of the construction cost. However, if the interval between the date of readiness to commence commercial production and the actual date of commercial production is prolonged, the expenditure incurred during this period is noted as deferred revenue expenditure. Q. No. 13. X Ltd. commenced commercial production fifteen days before the close of the year.
The management seeks your opinion as the auditor of the company on the following accounting treatment carried out by them in the financial statements: a. Abnormal loss aggregating to Rs. 24 lakhs has been capitalized as it occurred prior to the date of commercial production. b. Rs. 1 lakh being expenses incurred on training of employees for operating and maintaining imported machinery was added to the cost of machinery. c.
Fixed assets included interest charges incurred during construction period. d. However, interest paid to shareholders under Sec. 208 of the Companies Act, 1956, was not capitalized. Sol. : .
Abnormal loss aggregating to Rs. 24 lakhs should not be capitalized but should be written of over a period of 35 years after commencement of production. (Type 2 deferred revenue expenditure). b. General expenses unrelated to the construction activity should be treated as deferred Revenue Expenditure to be written off within a reasonable period after the commencement of production. Hence Rs.
1 lakh should not be capitalised. c. Borrowing cost incurred during the construction period on loans for financing the construction of the project should be included in the capital cost as indirect construction cost. . The interest paid to shareholders under Sec.
208 of the companies Act, 1956 should be capitalised & shown under the head miscellaneous expenditure to the extent not written off. Auditing Practical Questions/B14__________________________________7 MASTER MINDS – QUALITY EDUCATION BEYOND YOUR IMAGINATION Q. No. 14. Preincorporation profit was credited to the Profit & Loss Account.
Comment. Sol. : Preincorporation profit is of the nature of Capital Profit. It should not be included in Profit & Loss A/c. Preincorporation rofit may be utilised for the following: Writing off good will, Writing off assets to their real value. Capital Profits can be distributed as dividends only if Articles of Association permit such distribution, net surplus remains after proper valuation of the whole assets and liabilities and the surplus is realised.
Q. No. 15. Profit on revaluation of land and building was credited to the P&L Account. Sol.
: Profit on revaluation of land and building should be credited to Revaluation Reserve account and not to the Profit & Loss account, since the profit on revaluation is an unrealised gain.According to the convention of conservatism unrealised gains should not be recognised as revenue. Further, revaluation profit is not available for distribution as dividends. Q. No.
16. Fixed assets have been revalued and the resulting surplus has been adjusted against the brought forward losses. Sol. : AS10 on ‘Accounting for Fixed Assets’ requires that an increase in net book value arising on revaluation of fixed assets is normally credited directly to revaluation reserves and is regarded as not available for distribution.
Thus, creation of revaluation reserves does not result into any cash inflows and represents unrealized gains. However, brought forward losses are in the nature of revenue losses. As a matter of prudence, revenue losses can be adjusted against revenue reserves only and not against the capital reserves.
Therefore the accounting treatment followed by the entity is not correct and the auditor should qualify the audit report by mentioning the above fact. Q. No. 17. The sale proceeds of machinery have been credited to the P&M Account.
Comment. Sol. As per the generally accepted accounting principles, it is not proper to credit sale proceeds of machinery to the plant and machinery account because the plant and machinery account of a company must show the original cost of plant and machinery while the depreciation provided in respect thereof must be recorded in a separate account called “Provision for Depreciation Account”. If the sale proceeds of machinery sold are credited to the plant and machinery account without any further adjustment, that account will not show the original cost of the remaining plant and machinery. Therefore, the following adjusting entries must be made: a.The depreciation provide in respect of machinery sold must be transferred from the provision for Depreciation account to the credit of Plant and Machinery Disposal Account.
b. The original cost must also be transferred to Plant & Machinery disposal account. c. The profit or loss must be transferred from the plant and machinery disposal account to the profit and loss account of the company.
After making these adjustments the balance of the plant and machinery account will correctly reflect the cost of machinery. Auditing Practical Questions/B 14__________________________________8 WWW. GNTMASTERMINDS.
COM Q. No. 18.State with reasons whether the following items are Reserves or Provisions? a. The surplus arising on a professional revaluation of the company’s fixed assets.
b. The estimated cost of warranties (maintaining), for the remaining period of warrantee, machines sold during the year by the seller. c.
A sum set aside from profits towards a special publicity campaign, which the directors are considering to start in the following year. Sol. : a. The surplus arising on a professional revaluation of the company’s fixed assets is a Capital Reserve, as it would not be free for distribution through the Profit and Loss Account. . The estimated cost of maintenance, for the remaining period of warrantee, of machines sold during the year is a provision, as it is a sum retained by way of providing for a known liability the exact amount of which cannot be determined with substantial accuracy.
c. A sum, set aside from profits, towards a special publicity campaign, which the directors are considering to start in the following year, is a Specific Reserve, since no liability in respect of the publicity campaign has not yet arised. Q.
No. 19. X Ltd. purchased certain plant and machinery in the year 1999.Part payment was made to the suppliers and the balance amount of Rs. 6 lakhs has been lying in the suppliers account since then. The company? during 2008 wants to credit this amount to profit and loss account as they have become time barred.
Can it do so? Sol: The correct treatment in the given case would be to credit the amount of Rs. 6 lakhs to the concerned fixed assets account, if it is existing. In such case, depreciation will have to be reworked and adjusted.
Alternatively, the amount may be transferred to profit and loss account provided the following conditions are satisfied. a.The Articles should contain a provision in this regard. b. The profit should have been realized in cash.
c. The other assets and liabilities should be revalued and any loss on such revaluation should be first be set off against the profits thus arrive at. Q. No. 20. Dunlop India Ltd.
has been making substantial losses during the last few years. Such losses have set off against the available revenue reserves which are now exhausted. The balance of the excess of the debit balance of the profit and loss account is now sought by the company to be set off against the capital reserve which still stands in the books.Capital Reserve has resulted out of excess of sale price received by the company on the sale of its fixed assets over their original cost. Do you, as auditor of the company, agree with the proposed treatment? Sol. : The proposed treatment of settingoff of the accumulated losses in the form of debit balances in profit and loss account is not in accordance with Schedule VI requirements, because only the general/uncommitted reserves can be used for setting off debit balance in the profit and loss account.
In this connection the company should also comply with the requirements of the conditions proposed in the decided cases FosterVs New Trinidad Asphalte Company & Lubbock Vs British Bank of South America. The conditions are: a. The Articles of Association should contain a provision in this regard. b. The profit should have been realised in cash. The other assets and liabilities should be revalued and any loss on such revaluation should be setoff against the profits thus arrived at and the balance, if any, shall be available for dividend purposes Auditing Practical Questions/B14__________________________________9 MASTER MINDS – QUALITY EDUCATION BEYOND YOUR IMAGINATIONQ.
No. 21. As an auditor, comment on the following situation / statement: The Finance Manager of Belt Ltd. is of the opinion that before declaration of dividends it would not be necessary to set off the carried forward amount of debit balance in the Profit and Loss Account against current revenue profit but the same could be setoff against existing revaluation reserve. Do you agree? Sol: The accumulated losses should not be adjusted against such revaluation reserve, since this would amount to setting of actual losses against unrealised gains.
Debit balance in the Profit and Loss Account is a fictitious asset. There is neither mandatory rule in accounting nor any legal requirement that fictitious assets must be written off before declaration of dividend. However, in arriving at divisible profits, the provisions of section 205(2) (b) of the Companies Act, 1956 should be kept in view. The amount of loss or depreciation (contained in the debit balance of Profit and Loss Account) whichever is less should be set off against current revenue profit before declaration of dividends.Therefore, if the debit balance in Profit and Loss Account is set off against revaluation reserve and then dividend is declared from cut of revenue profits, it would amount to payment of dividend out of capital without making good the amount of loss or depreciation whichever is less. Such a declaration will be violation of the provisions of section 205 of the Companies Act, 1956.
Hence, the opinion of the finance Manager of Belt Ltd is not correct. Q. No.
22. Provision for depreciation has not been made for the following reasons: a. The present market value of the machinery is more than the original purchase price. b.The machinery has been maintained in excellent way.
The repairs and maintenance charges had been charged to revenue. The machinery is as good as new. c. By charging the depreciation, the company may not be able to maintain the same rate of dividend as declared in earlier years.
Give your comments as an auditor on each of the above. Sol. : a. The argument of the management of the company not to provide for depreciation on its assets on account of big appreciation in the market value of its assets is not acceptable as fixed assets are acquired for carrying on the business to earn profit and not to sell them at a profit.The utility of assets decreases on account of wear and tear, use and other factors. If no depreciation is provided it will not be possible to ascertain the correct cost of production and correct amount of net profit.
Further, accounting standard 6 on depreciation accounting states that “the depreciable amount of a depreciable asset should be allocated on a systematic basis to each accounting period during the useful life of the asset”.Further as per companies Act to declare dividend providing depreciation is must. b. As per the definition of depreciation as given in AS 6 “depreciation is a measure of the loss of value of a depreciable asset arising from use, fluxion of time or obsolescence through technology and market changes”. Thus, depreciation arises due to efflux of time and therefore, depreciation should be provided irrespective of whether the assets were maintained very well during the year.
c.The mere fact that the company has not provided for depreciation in the accounts so as to maintain same rate of dividend as declared in earlier years is not accepted under law. Section 205 of the Companies Act provides that a company is not permitted to declare dividend in any year except (a) Out of profits for that year arrived at after providing for depreciation or (b) Out of the undistributed profits of the company for any previous year or years arrived at after providing for depreciation or (c) Out of the balances of profit mentioned in (a) and (b) above.To the rule ‘no depreciation no dividend’ an exception has been provided in Section 205(1)(c) of the Act, where the Central Government, if its thinks necessary to do so in the public interest, allows any company to declare or pay dividend for any financial year out of the Profits of the company for that year or any previous financial year or years without providing for depreciation. Auditing Practical Questions/B 14__________________________________10 WWW.
GNTMASTERMINDS. COM Q. No. 23.The managing director of a company is of the opinion that, since the company is not going to declare any dividend for the financial year, provision for depreciation is not required. Sol: According to Sec.
205 of the Companies Act, No dividend shall be declared except after providing for depreciation out of the profits of the current year. However, it is wrong to interpret that if the company is not going to declare any dividend, depreciation need not be provided because according to AS6, depreciation is a cost to be absorbed in production and is require to keep capital in tact.Further, if provision for depreciation is not made, the profit and Loss Account and Balance Sheet will not give a true and fair view. Therefore, the opinion of the MD is wrong. Q. No. 24.
A company has scrapped a semi automatic part of a machine (not entirely written off) and replaced with a more expensive fully automatic part, which has doubled the output of the machine. At the same time the machine was moved to a more suitable place in the factory, which involved the building of a new foundation in addition to the cost of dismantling and reerection.The company wants to charge the expenditure to revenue. Sol. : The written down value of the semi automatic part is required to be written off to the revenue. The whole expenditure incurred in purchasing the fully automatic part and in repositioning the machine is required to be treated as capital expenditure since the amount incurred has increased the earning capacity of the machine. In the instant case, it is clear that such expenditure cannot be treated revenue at any cost because of the enhanced earning capacity of the machine in the future.
Therefore, the company’s contention to charge whole expenditure to revenue is not justifiable. Q. No. 25. No depreciation has been charged for the year ended 31 st March, 2001, in respect of a spare Bus purchased during the year and kept ready by the company for use as a standby on the ground that it was not used during the year.
Sol. : As per AS6 on Depreciation Accounting, depreciation is a measure of the loss of value of a depreciable asset arising from use, effluxion of time or obsolescence through technology and market changes.Thus, depreciation has to be charged even in case of these assets which are not used at all during the year but by mere effluxion of time provided such assets qualify as depreciable assets. When the spare bus was kept ready for use as standby, it means it was intended to be used for the purpose of business. Depreciation in respect of this bus ought to have been provided in the accounts for the year ended 31 st March, 2001.
If there is an intention to use an asset, though it may not have actually been used, it is a passive use and eligible for claim of depreciation (i. . for providing depreciation active usage is not needed).
Q. No. 26. Bharat Machines Ltd. purchased two power capacitors for Rs. 1,00,000 in the month January 1998.
No depreciation was provided in the accounts since both the machines were not drawn from the store, for installation purposes. These items where thus not used. As auditor of the company, what would be your reaction? Will your view be different if the capacitors were drawn from the stores and installed but not used due to strike/lockout of the factory? Comment. Sol. There is no need for providing depreciation in respect of the items kept in the stores as standby. As such, there is no requirement for providing for depreciation in respect of the 2 power capacitors. This is on the principle that the assets have not yet been installed.
However the depreciation must be provided in case the capacitors have been installed but not used due to strike or lockout because the capacitors are made available for usage. But as per AS 6 since depreciation also results from efflux of time, depreciation shall be provided though the asset is not installed. Q. No. 27.
The method of depreciation on plant and machinery is to be changed from SLM basis to WDV basis from the current year. Sol. Change in Depreciation Method: Change in method = Change in accounting policy, therefore AS 5 comes into picture. Change can be made only if the following conditions are satisfied: Auditing Practical Questions/B14__________________________________11 MASTER MINDS – QUALITY EDUCATION BEYOND YOUR IMAGINATION a. For compliance of statute.
b. For compliance of accounting standards. c. For better presentation of the F. S. (Financial Statement).
Q. No. 28. The management of XYZ Ltd. rovided depreciation on plant and Machinery @ 15% on straight line basis, but in auditor’s opinion and as per the Companies Act, 1956, the depreciation is required to be provided @ 10% under the same method. The directors of the company arguing that the rates provided in the companies Act are minimum but not maximum.
Comment. Sol. The rates specified in companies Act (Schedule XIV) are minimum rates only.
The management can charge higher rate of depreciation and it shall be disclosed in the accounts. Further, as per schedule VI, if a provision has been made in excess of the amount necessary, the excess shall be treated as reserve.Q.
No. 29. The Company has charged depreciation on straight line method while computing net profit for the determination of managerial remuneration for the year ended 31. 3. 2002. Sol.
: Before the Companies (Amendment) Act, 2000 came into effect for the purpose of calculating the net profit for computation of managerial remuneration depreciation is to be charged only on WDV basis. But after the amendment deprecation for this purpose can be charged either on WDV or SLM basis. Therefore what the company has done is correct. Q.
No. 30. Capital Reserve and Reserve Capital are same. Comment.Sol.
: No. , CAPITAL RESERVE RESERVE CAPITAL It is created out of Capital Profits It is created out of uncalled up Capital It Can be used to write off intangible assets, For declaring dividend in certain cases. It Can’t be used to write off intangible assets, For declaring dividend in certain cases.
To create this no resolution is required to be passed To create this special resolution is required to be passed It can be used at any time during the life time of Company. It can be called up only in the event of its winding up. Q. No. 31. The debit balance in the profit & loss a/c is shown as a eduction from investment allowance reserve on the liabilities side of the Balance Sheet.
Comment. Sol. : Schedule VI to the Companies Act 1956 clearly stipulates that the Debit Balance in the Profit and Loss Account should be disclosed under the head called “Miscellaneous expenditure to the extent not written off” or shown as a deduction from the general reserve. Since investment allowance reserve is a specific reserve the treatment given by the company in the accounts is not correct. Q.
No. 32. As anauditor, comment on the following situation/statement: Z Ltd. ad the following items under the head ‘Reserves and Surplus” in the Balance Sheet as on 31st March, 2004: Securities Premium Account Rs. 80 lacs Capital Reserve Rs. 60 lacs General Reserve Rs. 90 lacs.
The company had an accumulated loss of Rs. 40 lacs on the same date. which it has disclosed under the head “Profit and loss account, on the assets side of the Balance Sheet. Sol.
: Part I of Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956 requires that the debit balance of Profit and Loss Account shall be shown as deduction from the uncommitted reserves, if any.Hence, the accumulated loss of Rs. 40 lakhs should be deducted from the General Reserve of Rs.
90 lakhs, and the net amount of Rs. 50 lakhs should be shown as General Reserve on the Liabilities side Auditing Practical Questions/B 14__________________________________12 WWW. GNTMASTERMINDS. COM of the Balance Sheet. Securities Premium Account and Capital Reserves are not uncommitted reserves and, thus, these shall also be shown on the liabilities side of the balance sheet under the heading of “Reserves and Surplus”.In the present case, the disclosure requirements of Schedule VI to the Act have not been followed and, accordingly, the auditor should modify his report. Q.
No. 33. State how the following investments of a limited company should be valued and disclosed in its balance sheet: a. I nve stments of Reserve Fund b. Investments in Subsidiary company for trade purpose. c. Temporary investments of idle working capital.
d. Investments pledged with banks as securities for loan. Sol.
: a. Investment of Reserve Fund.Valuation: The investment of reserve fund, generally, represents an investment of long term nature made by the company. Therefore, such investments should be valued at cost, however, when there is a decline, other than temporary? in value of such investment its value may be reduced to recognise the decline. Any reduction in the value of longterm investment may be charged either to profit and loss account or investment revaluation reserve, if any. Disclosure: Investment, of reserve fund shall be shown under the heading “investments” on assets side of the balance sheet.
However, a note maybe given at the end stating that such investments are held against the specific reserve. b. Investment in subsidiary company for trade purpose: Valuation: The investments made by the company in its subsidiary company for trade Purposes also represent long term investment and hence, the same should be valued at cost: The temporary fluctuations, if any, may be ignored but permanent decline in the value of investments may be recognised and charged to profit and loss account during the year or investment revaluation reserve? f any. Disclosure: These investments should be shown on the asset side of the Balance Sheet. As per Schedule VI under the heading ‘investments’ distinguishing the partly paid shares from the fully paid shares.
The shares of each individual subsidiary company must be shown separately along with the mode of valuation of these investments. c. Temporary investments of idle working capital: Valuation: Such investments being of the category of temporary investments should be valued at cost or market value whichever is lower.
This method of determining valuation provides a prudent balance sheet amount and does not result in recognising unrealised gains in profit and loss account. Disclosure: As per schedule Vl to the companies Act such investment may also be shown under. The heading “investments” on assets side of its Balance Sheet. Any profit or loss on disposal of such investments should also be disclosed separately.
d. Investments pledged with bank as securities for loan Valuation: Normally speaking, investments which have been given as securities for raising loan are of long term nature and hence, should be valued at cost.The permanent fall in value may be taken note of and charged to profit and loss account or investment revaluation reserve, if any.
Disclosure: Such investments should also be shown under the heading “Investments” on assets side of the Balance Sheet with clear cut note on the face of the Balance Sheet that the same have been pledged with the bank to raise loan. COMPANY AUDIT0R Auditing Practical Questions/B14__________________________________13 MASTER MINDS – QUALITY EDUCATION BEYOND YOUR IMAGINATION Q. No. 1. The first auditor of ‘AB’ Ltd. as appointed by the directors 2 months after registration of the Company? Sol. : Sec.
224 states that the first auditor of the company shall be appointed by the Board of Directors within one month from the date of Registration of the Company. In case the Board fails to make the appointment within the time allowed the company in general meeting shall appoint the first auditor. In view of the above legal requirement, the appointment of the first auditor of AB Ltd.
by the Board of Directors after the expiry of period prescribed is not valid. Q. No. 2.X Ltd. was incorporated on 1. 2.
1998 and Mr. P who is related to the chairman of the company was appointed as auditor by the Board of Directors on 3. 3. 1998. Comment. Sol. : There are two issues arising out of this problem viz.
, first one relates to appointment of auditor by the Board of Directors & second would pertain to relation of such an auditor with the chairman of the company. As per Sec. 224 of the Act, the first auditor of a company shall be appointed by the Board of Directors within 1 month of the date of registration of the company.As per the facts given in the case, the board has failed to appoint the first auditor within one month of the registration of company. Therefore the appointment shall be made by shareholder’s in general meeting. Thus, the appointment of Mr. P is not valid.
Relation with the chairman is not a matter to be considered. Q. No. 3. After the incorporation of a private limited company, its Board of Directors, primarily busy in proper functioning of the company, suddenly discovered after the lapse of about 6 months that the company requires to appoint an auditor.
What should Board do? Sol. : The Board should arrange to convene a general meeting and appoint the first auditor in that meeting since the Board has failed to appoint the auditor within 1 month of incorporation. Q. No. 4.
Some of your friends are forming a new company. They wish to include the following clause in the Articles of Association of the company. “The first auditors of the company will be M/s XY & Co, Chartered Accountants who will hold office for five years”. They seek your advice in the matter. Sol. : It is obvious that the above clause will not be valid.
The first auditors can be appointed only by a resolution of the board of directors, or by the shareholders in a general Meeting if the board fails to appoint the first auditors. Moreover, the first auditors can hold office only until the conclusion of the first annual general meeting (provided they are not removed by the shareholders earlier at a G. M). Q.
No. 5. Can the shareholders delegate authority to the Directors to appoint Auditors? Sol. : Sec. 224 of the Companies Act, 1956 deals with the appointment of auditors. Sec.
224(1) requires that every company shall appoint auditors of the company at each annual general meeting.Under no circumstances, the company can delegate its authority to the Board of Directors because it is a matter of supreme importance. He should, therefore, be independent of the management. To ensure his independence, the Board of Directors must not have any authority to appoint him. Therefore, the company cannot delegate its authority to the Board of Directors to appoint auditors.
Q. No. 6. The first auditor did not give notice to the ROC for accepting the audit. Sol.
: The requirement of giving notice to the ROC has been prescribed only in respect of appointment in an AGM under Sec. 24(1) and therefore is not applicable to appointment of First auditor being appointed by the Board of director’s in board meeting. Q.
No. 7. The statutory auditor of a government company was appointed by the C. G. Auditing Practical Questions/B 14__________________________________14 WWW. GNTMASTERMINDS. COM Sol.
: The appointment is to be made by the C & AG and not by the Central Government. Q. No. 8. Paras is appointed as the auditor of a government company at its AGM. Is it correct? Sol. : The appointment of paras as the auditor of a Government company at it’s A.
G.M is not valid. As per Sec. 619, the auditor of a Government company shall be appointed and reappointed by the Comptroller and Auditor General of India.
Q. No. 9. The first auditors of Health and Wealth Ltd, a Government company was appointed by the Board of directors.
Comment. Sol. : Sec. 224 (5) of the companies Act 1956(the Act) lays down that “the first auditor or auditors of a company shall be appointed by the Board of directors within one month of the date of registration of the company.
However, in the case of a government Company, the appointment or reappointment f auditor is governed by the provisions of Section 619 of the Companies Act, 1956. Hence in the case of Health and Wealth Ltd. , being a government company, the first auditors shall be appointed by the Comptroller and Auditor General of India. Thus the appointment of first auditors made by the Board of Directors of M/s Health and Wealth Ltd. , is null and void. Q. No.
10. NM & Co. , chartered accountants were appointed as the auditors of a public limited company in their Annual General Meeting. Various cooperative and term lending institutions held 51% of the paidup share capital of the company.Sol.
: As per Sec. 224A, a company in which not less than 25% of the subscribed capital is held by: a. A public financial institution or a Government co. or the C. G. or any state government? or b. Any financial or other institution established by any Provincial or State Act in which a State Government holds not less than 51% of subscribed share capital? or c.
A nationalised bank or an insurance company carrying on general insurance business. The appointment in the Annual General Meeting shall be made only by passing a special resolution. In this case, NM & Co was appointed as auditors of the ublic limited company where 51% of the paidup share capital was held by cooperatives and term lending institutions. Presuming that such institutions are covered by the aforesaid criteria, passing a special resolution was necessary. Hence, the appointment of NM & Co.
, chartered accountants, was null and void provided such institutions are covered by section 224A. Q. No. 11. At the Annual General Meeting of a company in which a nationalised bank held 20% of the subscribed capital, X and Co. , Chartered accountants were appointed as auditors by passing an ordinary resolution. Sol.
: Sec. 24A of the Act provides that in case of a company in which not less than 25% of subscribed share capital is held, whether singly or in any combination, amongst others, by a nationalised bank or an insurance company carrying on general insurance business, the appointment or reappointment at each AGM of an auditor or auditors shall be made by a special resolution. In the given case, the nationalised bank held only 20 per cent of the subscribed share capital which in fact is less than 25 per cent.
Thus the appointment of M/s. X & Co. , Chartered Accountants, by an ordinary resolution at the Annual General Meeting is valid.
The Board of Directors of Z Ltd. , whose 25% subscribed share capital is held by State Government, proposes to appoint Mr. K, a Chartered Accountant, as its statutory auditor in the next Annual General Meeting. Advice it.
Auditing Practical Questions/B14__________________________________15 MASTER MINDS – QUALITY EDUCATION BEYOND YOUR IMAGINATION Sol. : Sec. 224A provides that a company in which not less than 25% of the subscribed share capital is held by any state government shall appoint an auditor in the annual general meeting (AGM) only by passing a special resolution.
Q. No. 13. The Board of Directors of X Ltd. whose 20% of subscribed capital is held by A.
P. Government, proposes to appoint Mr. Hari, a C.
A. , as its statutory auditor in the next AGM. a. What type of resolution is necessary for his appointment? b. Will it make any difference if the shareholding of A. P. Government is 28%? Sol. : a. As per Sec. 224A, a company in which not less than 25% of the subscribed capital is held by: O A public financial institution or a Government co. or the C. G. or any state government? or O Any financial or other institution established by any Provincial or State Act in which a State Government holds not less than 51% of subscribed share capital? r O A nationalised bank or an insurance company carrying on general insurance business. The appointment in the Annual General Meeting shall be made only by passing a special resolution Since in the present case the shareholding is less than 25%, an ordinary resolution is sufficient for the appointment. b. A special resolution will be necessary for the appointment of Mr. Hari as the statutory auditor in the next AGM as the shareholding by the State Government is 28%. Q. No. 14. The shareholding of LIC and UTI increased from 23% to 27% of the subscribed share capital of the company after issue of notice of the annual general meeting.Explain how the appointment of auditors will be made. Sol. : The material date for determining whether section 224A is attracted is the date of AGM and not the date of issuing notice. Therefore, if the required percentage is held on the date of the AGM, the provisions of section 224A will apply. In such a case, the company has two options: a. The company may adjourn the AGM and later issue the required notice in accordance with the provisions of the Act. The S. R. appointing the auditors shall be passed in the adjourned AGM. b. The company may omit the item in the agenda regarding the appointment of auditors.The auditors shall be appointed by the Central Government in such a case. Q. No. 15. MNC Ltd in which 24% of the subscribed capital is held by a public financial institution at the time of issuing the notice for the AGM, appoints RK & Co. as auditors by an ordinary resolution at the AGM when the Public Financial Institution increased its stake in MNC Ltd to 25 % of its subscribed capital after issue of such notice. Sol. : Write the previous answer with necessary modifications. Q. No. 16. Core Ltd. is a Public Ltd. Company with 25% of Subscribed Share Capital (both equity and preference) being held by a Nationalised Bank.The auditor was appointed by the Company in General Meeting by an ordinary resolution. Sol. : Normally the auditor is appointed by an ordinary resolution. However, as per Sec. 224 A of Companies Act, 1956, special resolution is required to be passed if not less then 25% of the subscribed share capital (both equity and preference) is held either jointly or individually by the following institutions: Auditing Practical Questions/B 14__________________________________16 WWW. GNTMASTERMINDS. COM a. Any public financial institution, Central or State Government companies. b.State financial institutions created by special Acts in which at least 51% of the share capital is held by the State Government. c. Nationalised Bank or Insurance Companies doing General insurance business. If the appointment of the auditor in such cases is by ordinary resolution instead of by special resolution, it is deemed that no auditor had been appointed and the Central Government shall have the power to fill the vacancy of auditor. Hence, the appointment by ordinary resolution is invalid. Q. No. 17. A Ltd. holds 40% of the shares of B Ltd. , which were pledged by A Ltd. o a nationalized bank for a term loan. The auditor of B Ltd. was reappointed in the AGM by ordinary resolution. Sol. : As per the DCA notification, if a nationalized bank holds shares of a company (whether by way of investment or as a security for a loan or advance) and if the name of the bank is entered on the Register of Members of the company as a beneficial holder, then holding of shares by the nationalized bank will attract section 224A i. e. appointment of auditor by special resolution. Therefore, appointment, of auditor of B Ltd by ordinary esolution in the AGM is void and it is deemed that no auditor has been appointed and Sec. 224 (3) is attracted i. e. Power of the Central Government to appoint auditor of the company. Q. No. 18 The Government of Assam holds 27,000 shares out of the total 1,00,000 subscribed shares of Forest Products Ltd. At the 37th AGM of the company, 41,000 votes are cast in favour of a resolution reappointing Mr. A as the auditor and 27,000 votes are cast against the resolution. There are no absentations. Is Mr. A reappointed as auditor of the company? Sol. : It is evident that the company is covered by Sec. 24A since the Assam Government holds more than 25% of its subscribed share capital. Therefore the auditor of such company shall be appointed by passing a special resolution. A is not reappointed as auditor of the company since the resolution of his appointment did not receive the requisite threefourths of the votes. Q. No. 19. At the AGM of ICCI Ltd. Mr. X was appointed as the statutory auditor. He, however, resigned after 3 months since he wants to shift from practice to job. State how the new auditor will be appointed by ICCI Ltd. Sol. : 1. Meaning: No definition is given in the Act.In the opinion of the DCA, it means a vacancy in the position/office of the auditor after he was validly appointed and the appointment was accepted. 2. Reasons: This may arise due to death, disqualification, dissolution of the firm of auditors or resignation, etc. 3. Who has to fill this? a. If it was due to resignation only by shareholders. b. If it was due to other reasons By board of directors. 4. Thus, in this case ICCI Ltd will have to call an extraordinary general meeting (EGM) and appoint another auditor. The new auditor so appointed shall hold office only till the conclusion of the next annual general meeting.Q. No. 20. The auditor of Y Ltd. resigned after valid and accepted appointment whereupon the Board of Directors appointed another auditor treating it as a casual vacancy. Sol. : Sec. 224 states that the Board may fill any casual vacancy, provided such vacancy has not been caused by the resignation of the auditor. In the instant case, a casual vacancy has arisen on Auditing Practical Questions/B14__________________________________17 MASTER MINDS – QUALITY EDUCATION BEYOND YOUR IMAGINATION account of resignation since the auditor of Y Ltd resigned after accepting the appointment.Under these circumstances, the shareholders can only fill the vacancy in the general meeting. Q. No. 21. Mr. A and Mr. B have been carrying on the profession of chartered accountants under the name of M/s Master Minds & Co. , since 1996 under a deed of partnership dated 1. 5. 1996. C was introduced as a partner in M/s Master Minds & Co. , on 09. 09. 03 and the name was changed to M/s New Master Minds & Co. Due to change in name, it is contended by a Company “X Ltd” (For which Master minds is the auditor) that the old firm ceases to be the auditors of the Company & new auditors shall be appointed at an EGM.State your opinions whether such contention is correct. Sol. : Admission of a partner amounts to Reconstitution of the Firm. After reconstitution, it continues to carry on its profession and the firm is not dissolved as such. The audit Firm should communicate the change in its name to the Company under audit. The question of appointment of new auditors in an EGM does not arise. Q. No. 22. The auditor appointed by a company accepted the audit on the basis of a certificate issued by the directors that company has complied with the requirements of the companies Act, 1956 relating to his appointment.Subsequently it was found that the company had failed to pass the special resolution required for his appointment. Sol. : An auditor cannot merely rely on the certificate of the directors. The company has failed to comply with Sec. 224A, and therefore the appointment is invalid. Sec. 224(3) is attracted (i. e. appointment by C. G. ). Further as per C. A. Act, 1949, if a member accepts audit of a company without checking that the company has complied with the requirements of Sec. 224 and 225, he is guilty of professional misconduct. Q. No. 23. At the AGM of Navkar Ltd. Om is appointed as the auditor. Om refuses to accept the audit. The company holds another general meeting and appoints a new auditor. Sol. : The appointment of a new auditor in place of Om by the company in general meeting convened for the purpose is not because refusal of Om to accept the appointment does not result in a casual vacancy. The appointment of an auditor is complete and effective only when the auditor has accepted the office of an auditor. In such a case it can be deemed that no auditor has been appointed by the company at its annual general meeting. Sec. 224(3) comes into picture (i. . C. G. gets the power to appoint auditor). Q. No. 24. In case the existing auditors appointed at the Annual General Meeting refused to accept the appointment, whether the Board of Directors could fill up the vacancy? Sol. : Since the appointment of an auditor is complete only on the acceptance of the office by the auditor, it can be deemed in such a case that no auditor has been appointed and the C. G. may appoint a person to fill the vacancy as provided in Sec. 224 (3). Therefore, the Board is not empowered to fill such a vacancy. Q. No. 25. At an Annual General Meeting, Mr.R a retiring auditor claims that he has been reappointed automatically, as the intended resolution of which a notice had been given to appoint Mr. P in place of him could not be proceeded with, due to Mr. P’s death. Sol. : According to Sec. 224(2) an auditor cannot be reappointed “If a notice of the intended resolution has been served on him by the company proposing to remove him and appoint somebody else in his place and such notice could not be proceeded with in the AGM due to death of the latter. Q. No. 26. The Board of Directors of X Ltd. are desirous of appointing CD & Co. s their auditors, what qualifications are necessary for the auditor to be so appointed? Auditing Practical Questions/B 14__________________________________18 WWW. GNTMASTERMINDS. COM Sol. : These are contained in Sec. 226 and are applicable for all types of appointments Qualifications: 1. C. A. : a. The person proposed to be appointed as an auditor should be a qualified Chartered accountant as per the Chartered Accountants Act, 1949. b. If a partnership firm is proposed to be appointed as an auditor then all the partners practicing in India shall be qualified chartered accountants as per the chartered accountant’s act, 1949. c.In case a partnership firm is appointed any partner may act in the name of the firm. 2. Restricted state auditor’s: The holder of a certificate in previous PartB states entitling him to act as an auditor of companies. Q. No. 27. Mr. ‘A’ is a parttime practicing Chartered Accountant and is the financial controller of X Ltd. The company wants to appoint him as its auditor in the next annual general meeting. Offer your comments in the matter. Sol. : In the present case Mr. A is the financial controller and thus an officer of the company. As per Sec. 226, an officer or an employee of the company is disqualified to be appointed as auditor’s.Q. No. 28. Can a director of the company be appointed as an auditor? Sol. : There is no express prohibition that a director can not be appointed as an auditor. But the below given two provisions of the companies Act prohibits a director to be appointed as an auditor: a. Sec. 226 enumerates that an officer of the company cannot be appointed as an auditor. b. Sec. 2(30) of companies Act, which defines the officer to include the director. Q. No. 29. Ram & Hanuman Associates, Chartered Accountants, in practice have been appointed as Statutory Auditor of Krishna Ltd. for the accounting year 0203. Mr. Hanuman holds 100 equity hares of Shiva Ltd. , a subsidiary company of Krishna Ltd. Sol. : a. As per Sec. 22