Addiction is tough condition
Addiction is tough condition, a brain disease which is manifested by compulsive substance use despite harmful results. People with addiction (severe substance use disorder) can have an intense focus on using a certain substance, like alcohol or drugs, that it takes over their life. They keep using alcohol or a drug even when they know it will causes problems. Yet a number of effective treatments are available and people can recover from addiction and lead normal, productive lives.Substance-related disorders are disorders of intoxication, dependence, abuse, and substance withdrawal caused by various substances, both legal and illegal. These substances include: alcohol, amphetamines , caffeine, inhalants, nicotine, prescription medications that may be abused (such as sedatives), opioids (morphine, heroin), marijuana (cannabis), cocaine, hallucinogens, and phencyclidine (PCP).
People with a substance use disorder have distorted thinking, behavior and body functions. Changes in the brain’s wiring are what cause people to have intense cravings for the drug and make it hard to stop using the drug. Brain imaging studies show changes in the areas of the brain that relate to judgment, decision making, learning, memory and behavior control.
Over time people with addiction build up a tolerance, meaning they need larger amounts to feel the effects.
According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, people begin taking drugs for a variety of reasons, including:
o to feel good — feeling of pleasure, “high”
o to feel better — e.g., relieve stress
o to do better — improve performance
o curiosity and peer pressure
According to the mental health clinician’s handbook, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (the DSM ), fourth edition text revised ( DSMIV-TR ), all of the substances listed above, with the exceptions of nicotine and caffeine, have disorders of two types: substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders. Substance use disorders include abuse and dependence. Substance-induced disorders include intoxication, withdrawal, and various mental states ( dementia , psychosis , anxiety, mood disorder, etc.) that the substance induces when it is used.
Substance dependence is characterized by continued use of a substance even after the user has experienced serious substance-related problems. The dependent user desires the substance (“craving”) and needs more of the substance to achieve the effect that a lesser amount of the substance induced in the past. This phenomenon is known as tolerance. The dependent user also experiences withdrawal symptoms when the substance is not used. Withdrawal symptoms vary with the substance, but some symptoms may include increased heart rate, shaking, insomnia , fatigue , and irritability.
Substance abuse is continued use of a substance in spite of school- or work-related or interpersonal problems, but the user has not gotten dependent on the substance. The individual who abuses a substance may experience legal problems and may have problems fulfilling responsibilities, such as caring for a child.
Intoxication is the direct effect of the substance after an individual has used or has been exposed to the substance. Different substances affect individuals in various ways, but some of the effects seen in intoxication might include impaired judgment, emotional instability, increase or decrease in appetite, or changed sleep patterns.
The DSM-IV-TR has been listed disorders in the following class:
• amphetamine-related disorders
• alcohol-related disorders
• cannabis-related disorders
• caffeine-related disorders
• cocaine-related disorders
• hallucinogen-related disorders
• inhalant-related disorders
• nicotine-related disorders
• opioid-related disorders
• phencyclidine-related disorders
• sedative-, hypnotic-, or anxiolytic-related disorders
• polysubstance dependence