1. Palisade cell

Palisade cells are closely arranged and formed to absorb maximum light for photosynthesis to occur in a palisade. It contains chloroplasts and the cell is found in the leaf right below the epidermis and cuticle. It has surface area of cytoplasmic stream for photosynthesis to take place.

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Palisade cells can absorb light for photosynthesis and to take in carbon dioxide in the air to make carbohydrates’ for the plant.

Mesophyll cells- it can be found at the middle of the leaf and have thinner cells walls which contain cellulose.

2. Sperm and Ova cells

The sperm is known as the male sex cells that function to combine with female sex cell to create a completely new organism.

Structure of a sperm –
Head- It consists of Acrosome of 40% to 70% head. The nucleus contains 23 chromosomes of the sperm cell with a neck, middle piece and tail. The middle piece contains mitochondria responsible for energy needed for movement of sperms.


Sperm duct- Release sperm cells to pass through the sperm ducts.

Testes- Produce millions of cells sperm and to make a reproductive hormone.
Urethra- Carry semen and urine to the part of the sperm duct.
Penis- Can pass urine out of man body and also passing of semen into the female organ during mating.

Oval- It is large and use for the storage of nutrients materials. Able to join with the sperms during the fertilization and for a diploid cell to form. It is made up of nucleus, cytoplasm and cellular membrane.


Have chromosome that contribute to enable fertilization by the sperm.

3. Root hair cells

The root hair cells are dermal cells found on the roots of many vascular plants that provide surface area for absorption of water. Transpiration occurs to pull water to leaves.

Structure of root hair cell

Has a long thin extension supported by the central layer with a thick cell wall and it is been separated from other root cells by a thin layer of cytoplasm.
The root hair consists of elongated structure, large vacuole and cell sap.

Root hairs can absorb water and mineral salts for the plants from soil through osmosis and active transport.

4. White blood cells

The white blood cell is produce by the bone marrow within bone and some mature in the lymph nodes, spleen or thymus gland. They are also known as leukocytes. There are five different types of white blood cells known as monocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils. There is one white blood cell for every 600 red blood cells. White blood cell makes up one percent of our blood. White blood cells are able to identify proteins that indicate which cells you are and which are invaders.
It function is to protect against disease and it is a major part of the immune system.

5. Red blood cells

Red blood cells are small biconcave, disk shaped cell without nuclei. The haemoglobin makes the cells red and the blood. The Iron forms associated with oxygen, and the red blood cell transport oxygen to body cells and deliver carbon dioxide to the lungs. The carry oxygen bound reversibly to ferrous Fe2+ atom of the four haem groups of haemoglobin (Hb) tetramer. There are about 20 to 30 trillion of red blood cells and 44% of the volume of the blood with a life span of 120 days.

Red blood cell shape makes it possible to manoeuvre through tiny blood vessels to deliver oxygen to organs and tissues. It makes it important to determine human blood type. To able to identify its own red blood cell type antigens.


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