out Wilson designed to establish the basis

out Wilson designed to establish the basis

out the Sacco-VanzetFourteen Points was a name given to the proposals of President Woodrow Wilson designed to establish the basis for a just and lasting peace following the victory of the Allies in World War 1.

The 14 proposals were contained in Wilsons address to a joint session of the US Congress on January 8, 1918. In summary, the 14 points were as follows :1.abolition of secret diplomacy by open covenants2.

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freedom of the seas in peace and war, except as the seas may be closed in whole or part by international action for enforcement of international covenants;3.removal of international trade barriers wherever possible and establishment of an equality of trade conditions among the nations consenting to the peace4.reduction of armaments consistent with public safety5.

adjustment of colonial disputes consistent with the interests of both the controlling government and colonial population6.evacuation of Russian territory, with the proviso of self-determination7.evacuation and restoration of Belgium8.

evacuation and restoration of French territory, including Alsace-Lorraine9.readjustment of Italian frontiers along clearly recognizable lines of nationality10.autonomy for the peoples of Austria-Hungary11.evacuation and restoration of territory to Serbia, Montenegro, and Romania, granting of seaports to Serbia, and readjustment and international guarantee of the national ambitions of the Balkan nations12.self-determination for non-Turkish peoples under Turkish control and internationalization of the Dardanelles13.an independent Poland, with access to the sea14.

creation of a general association of nations under specific covenants to give mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity.Sacco-Vanzetti Case, controversial murder case in Massachusetts that lasted from 1920 to 1927. Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, Italian immigrants who had arrived in the US in 1908, were charged by the state with the murders of a paymaster and a guard and the theft of more than $15,000 from a shoe factory in south Braintree, Massachusetts, on April 15, 1920.

The execution of Sacco, a shoe worker, and Vanzetti, a fish peddler, in 1927 caused a world-wide protest. The trial took place in Dedham between May 31 and July 14, 1921. The states case was based primarily upon two facts: Sacco possessed a pistol of the type used in the murders. and the accused when arrested were at a garage attempting to claim an automobile that had been seen in connection with the South Braintree crimes. What many regarded as inadequate evidence played a large part in the trial. Also, there was contradictory testimony from witnesses. The judge, Webster Thayer, and the jurors were accused of bias.

When the jury returned a verdict of guilty, an outcry arose from socialists, radicals, and many prominent intellectuals throughout the world, who claimed that the two men had been condemned because they were guilty of being immigrants and outspoken anarchists. During the next six years, motions to submit new evidence and appeals for a new trial were frequently made and denied. In 1925, Celestine Madeiros, a man condemned to death for another murder, confessed to having been a member of the gang that committed the South Braintree crimes.

In April 1927, however, the death of sentence was pronounced to Sacco and Vanzettia. Appeals to the governor of Massachusetts, Alvan Tufts Fuller, induced him to appoint a committee composed of the president of Harvard University, Abbott Lowell, the president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Samuel Wesley Stratton, and a former judge, Robert Grant, to investigate the trial and its aftermath. On August 3, the governor announced that, in accordance with the recommendation of the committee, he would sustain the death sentences.

Several stays of execution followed, but on August 23, 1927, Sacco and Vanzetti were electrocuted. In August, 1977, Governor Michael Dukakis of Massachusetts signed a proclamation that recognized the faults of the trial and cleared the names of Sacco and Venzetti.Words/ Pages : 615 / 24

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