Understand | | |sitting, head will fall forward.
Understand Child and Young Person Development Outcome 1Understand the expected pattern of development for children and young people from birth – 19 years. |AGE |PHYSICAL |INTELLECTUAL COGNITIVE |COMMUNICATION |SOCIAL, EMOTIONAL, BEHAVIOURAL & MORAL | |At |Born with swallow and suckle reflex and will ‘root’, |Will recognise the sound of their primary |Will cry to make their needs known, whether this|Bond begins to form between baby and their primary| |Birth |to find nipple to feed.Will grasp any object |carer’s (usually mother) voice and will also be|be hunger or feeling uncomfortable (e. g. soiled |carers.
This is especially so during feeding. | | |touching the palm of their hands and sudden noises or|familiar with the primary carer’s scent. |nappy, too hot/cold) or distressed in anyway. | | | |bright lights will startle.When held upright on hard|Becomes more and more aware of physical | | | | |surface will often make “stepping” movements. |sensations, such as hunger.
| | | |1 |Startle reflex is gradually lessoning and they will |Stops crying when picked up, and/or hears a |Eyes will follow a dangling toy held above/in |Will look intently at Primary care giver’s face | |Month |begin looking less stiff and inflexible.Held |familiar voice. Care givers may be able to |front of them. From around the 5 or 6 weeks |when spoken to or during feeding. Fleeting or | | |sitting, head will fall forward.
|differentiate between different sounding cries |stage babies will show contentment by “cooing”. |brief smiles whilst asleep and around the 5 or 6 | | | |(whether baby is hungry/distressed etc. |Will make eye contact as well as crying to make |weeks stage will also begin to smile to show | | | | |needs known. |contentment. | |3 |Pelvis is flat when lying flat and lower back is |Watches movements of their arms/hands and |Smiles at the sound of a familiar voice and will|Becoming more aware of their environment and | |Months |still weak. Held sitting, babies will hold their head|clasps/unclasps hands.
Will hold an object |return a smile. Will vocalise pleasure when |routines, reacting to the preparation of food or | | |steady for several seconds. Can also lift and turn |(e. g. rattle) for a few moments. Understands |spoken to or pleased about something and will |running of a bath with smiles, “coos” and excited | | |move head to look around. |“cause and effect” (e.
g. if a mobile is within |turn head and eyes in the direction from which a|movements.Respond pleasurably to soothing words | | | |reach they can cause it to move. |sound came from. |and nursery rhymes. | |6 |Will turn head to see what is happening around them |Will be exploring the world around them by |Babies will “sing” and “chat” to themselves and |Laughs, giggles and squeals with delight during | |Months |and can sit with support. Can roll over |picking up objects and passing from hand to |will scream when not happy about something.
play. Actively interacts/engages with age | | |independently and hold up chest and head or limbs |hand. Most objects will also end up in their |Will also be able to recognise and respond to |appropriate toys.
| | |when lying on their front. |mouth. Can shake rattles and will also begin |different emotional tones of care givers. | | | | |trying to feed themselves.
| | |9 |Can sit independently and will be finding ways to be |Baby realises that when something or someone |Will understand no, bye-bye and other key words,|Can find partially hidden object/toys and will | |Months |mobile (rolling, squirming or crawling). When |disappears they still exist, so baby will look |such as dinner or bath. Babbling sounds more |play “peek-a-boo”.
Prefer and will actively try | | |standing will hold their own weight. Will pass |for an object that’s fallen off a highchair for|melodic, consisting of longer syllables. Baby |to be with main care givers. | | |objects from hand to hand and hold out objects to |instance, or cry when care giver leaves the |may imitate sounds made by adult during play.
| | | |care givers. |room. | | | AGE |PHYSICAL |INTELLECTUAL COGNITIVE |COMMUNICATION |SOCIAL, EMOTIONAL, BEHAVIOURAL & MORAL | |12 Months |Baby’s eyesight is as developed as an adult and they |Are much more aware of their routines and |Will know and respond to their name and begin to|Will begin to be wary of strangers and prefer to | | |are able to handle and manipulate smaller objects. |environment. At around 15 months will begin to|point and gesture to show what they want/need. be with primary care givers.
Will also show | | |Can hold a spoon and drink from a baby cup with help. |understand and obey simple commands such as |It becomes apparent by baby’s behaviour that |affection for care givers and familiar people. | | |Can sit for an indefinite period and may be pulling |“fetch me your ball”. Enjoy playing with |they understand several commands, such as “clap |Around 18 months may start to show signs of | | |themselves to standing and “cruising” using furniture|stacking cups and will play the same “game” |hands” etc. frustrations and may get more easily upset.
| | |for support. |over and over. | | | |18 Months |Will usually begin walking and will revel in their |Will begin to show a preference for one hand |May understand around 20 words and understand |More aware of actions of those around them, both | | |new-found freedom. Can carry objects from one place |over the other (e.
g. ill scribble with crayon |many more. Enjoys “jabbering” to themselves and|other children and adults.
Will happily play | | |to another and start to be able to use ride-on toys. |using preferred hand). Enjoys playing with |will try and join in with the words of a |alone but likes to have an adult near. Still very| | |Can pick up much smaller objects. |toys they can interact with (pop up toys etc.
). |favourite nursery rhyme. Enjoys picture books. |emotionally dependant on care givers.
|2 |Is now able to run and climb (will take delight in |Can now do simple jigsaw and puzzle games and |A toddler may now have a vocabulary in excess of|Begin to show signs of independence, wanting to do| |Years |climbing up and down chairs, sofas etc. ) Can climb |will build a small tower of bricks, just to |200 words and will be asking the names of |things themselves and showing signs of frustration| | |stairs, 2 feet to a step, while holding rail. Can |knock them over, only to repeat again and |various objects/toys etc.Will refer to |when not able to or allowed. Will play | | |throw a small ball.
|again. Recognise familiar people in photos. |themselves by name. Continue to enjoy books |along-side, but not with other children. | |2 ? |Can kick a ball and if not pedal, use feet to |The first signs of make-believe play, and will |Will begin to put two words together, soon |Will begin to interact with and play more with | |Years |manoeuvre a tricycle. Can jump with 2 feet together. enjoy playing with toys such as a doll’s house |followed by sentences.
Will know their full |other children, often mimicking what they see. | | |Now able to climb to get to objects (so good |or farm. Will be using spoon to feed and will |name and will be constantly asking questions, |Throw tantrums when frustrated.
Understands “no”,| | |supervision is important to ensure they don’t come to|recognise themselves when shown a photo. |frequently “what is” and where is”. |but not the meaning of right or wrong.
| | |harm). | | | |3 |Can walk on tip-toes and stand on one foot |Have an understanding when separated from key |Communicate well as speech is now much more |Co-operative play with other children and | |Years |momentarily. Can walk upstairs one foot at a time. |people that they will return.
Can eat well with|easily understood. Can carry out simple |understands the concept of taking turns.Can | | |Able to pedal a tricycle and climb more easily. |fork and spoon. Paint “pictures” with large |conversations. Listens eagerly to stories, |follow simple rules, still no real understanding | | | |brush and use scissors.
|having favourites. |of right and wrong. | |4 |Children can generally dress themselves as well as |Able to organise play and will be learning |Speech is now much more articulate and although |Enjoys playing with other children, begin forming | |Years |feeding without assistance.Can run easily now, |through play. Have favourite games and can |not always grammatically perfect, they are |friendships. Praise and encouragement is | | |turning sharp corners. Ball games skill increases.
|concentrate well when something particularly |easily understood by strangers. |important and their actions will be to please. | | | |takes their interest. | | | AGE |PHYSICAL |INTELLECTUAL COGNITIVE |COMMUNICATION |SOCIAL, EMOTIONAL, BEHAVIOURAL & MORAL | |5 – 6 Years |Fine motor functions increase and handwriting becomes|Writes own name. Is developing reading and |Fluent speech (with less and less infantile |Begins to choose own friends and show caring | | |much more legible. Skips on both feet and can hop.
counting skills and an understanding of easy |substitutions) and can talk about past, present |attitude to others, but can also be quarrelsome. | | |Can build steps with blocks. |sums. From 6 yrs may begin to write |and future. Into the sixth year is pronouncing |Enjoys games with rules to follow. Still | | | |independently. Able to give age.
|the majority of words clearly. |dependant on care givers support. | |7 – 9 Years |Fine motor function is good.Writing is neater and |Can read to self. Can tell the time and is |Will enjoy conversing with both adults and other|Friendships become more important and may not want| | |around 8 years of age will begin to learn cursive |able to organise a group of objects in various |children. Will bargain or reason to get |to attend something if friend not going. Prefers | | |writing.
Can use scissors more easily and with much |ways. Have an understanding of death being |something they want. 0 percent of children will|to play with same gender and have more gender | | |more precision. Continue growing and physical |permanent (may worry about the death of |be diagnosed with a learning disability (e. g. |specific toys/games. Keen to make up rules and | | |co-ordination is much improved (this builds |parents).
Can copy complicated patterns. |dyslexia or ADD) during these years. |point out when broken. | | |confidence in their own abilities). | | | |9 – 11 Years |Girls start to experience signs of impending puberty |Much more self aware. Can now use logic, often|Become more interested in the various forms of |Can demonstrate empathy and thoughtfulness for | | |with breasts budding around 10 or 11 years. By age |using this logic to reason and argue with |media and communication.
Is able to use own |others, can see things from another’s point of | | |10 most girls will have begun a growth spurt and will|parents and other adults. Can play board games|imagination in story-writing. Will now |view and will try helping those in distress. Is | | |soon be taller than most of the boys in their class.
|with complex rules. |recognise the 3,000 most commonly used words. |aware of the consequences of their actions. | |11 – 13 Years |Puberty proper begins in girls around the age of 11. Deductive reasoning advances and can establish |Communication with adults becomes difficult with|Friendships are now of the highest importance with| | |By 13 years boys may begin to change physically too. |and modify rules to suit the situation or |youths coming across as “rude”. May converse |girls starting to form “cliques”.
Most boys and | | |As these changes vary from child to child, it is |preferred outcome. Are able to stand back and |in monosyllables and grunts. Increased use of |girls will seek to belong.Need the recognition | | |often a cause of stress/upset (happening |see things from another’s perspective, able to |technology to communicate/learn. |from adults and peers.
| | |earlier/later than their peers). |see both sides of an argument. | | | |13 – 19 Years |Hormone driven changes are accompanied by growth |High levels of skills in various areas and may |Social networking and mobile phones etc. ill be|Are searching for and finding their own identity | | |spurts that transform children into adults. Girls |be as competent as adults when it comes to |a big part of their lives and a key way to |and becoming more independent. Friends are still | | |will reach their final adult height by 15 years of |computers and other technology.
More ability |communicate wi th friends. Are well able to |highly important and may be more interested | | |age and boys by aged 16 (although muscles will |for complex thought. debate and put across their point of view. |in/influenced by peers than parents.
Low | | |continue to develop after this time). | | |self-esteem may lead to self-destructive behaviour| | | | | |(drugs etc. ).