Running dare devils. Then there are two
Running head: TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY (TBI) The Silent Killer Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) The Silent Killer A human brain weighs 3-pound (1. 4-kilogram) and consistency is a mass of jelly-like fats and tissues.
There are at least one trillion nerve cells working to coordinate the mental and physical, that which sets humans apart from other species. Thus by far making this one of the most complex anatomy. Photograph by Fred Hossler of Getty Images supplied by National GeographicThrill seeking has become exceedingly popular within the last two decades and, it seems that new ways to achieve that excitement are introduced everyday, a good indication why (TBI) is on the rise. However, we must be fair, just because there are more dare devils on this planet, this is not the only explanation for the escalating numbers in (TBI), many are caused by auto accidents, falls, assaults during muggings or robberies and combat due to war. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) (April 1, 2008) reports that 5.
million Americans, approximately 2% of the United States population, currently have long-term if not lifelong needs in assistance to get through the day. Statistics are staggering when we look at the number of deaths due to (TBI). Approximately 50,000 people in the United States will die annually from the cause of a (TBI), that may have been prevented if treated and diagnosed properly.
Are we prepared as a nation, family or medical community to contend with this ever-growing disease?Again, according to (CDC) Centers for Disease Control, in the United States alone the estimated direct and indirect medical costs in reduced productivity due to (TBI) totaled an estimated $60 billion in 2000 and the dollar amount continues to grow to this day. The CDC has been charged with supplying annual reports to Congress to show these numbers making it imperative to cause public awareness in the prevention of these incidents.The highest risk groups are ages 0-4 certainly for obvious reasons and that is because they are unaware of the dangers around them, we now take a look at the 15-19 age group that think they are infallible and are willing to take risks for the sake of having good times. Any parent of a teen knows the feeling of living with these dare devils. Then there are two other groups that are at a higher risk of receiving a (TBI), one is the military even with the necessary training the numbers continue to climb.
Which leads us to a group in need of our attention and that is the African Americans who have the highest death rate from (TBI).This group sustains more gun shot wounds to the head that mostly result in death, but also result in the need for continuous care for the rest of their lives. The brain is a complex structure with so many cells networking to keep this machinery called our bodies working, when injured, can be the cause of countless problems according to American Health Line (2009) such as; cognitive deficits, speech and language difficulties, sensory, perceptual, vision, hearing, smell, taste, seizures, physical changes, along with social and emotional difficulty.According to Epidural Hematoma from Wikipedia (2009), in a recent notable case, Natasha Richardson an English actress sustained a head injury while learning to ski. Ms Richardson seemed to be fine shortly following the incident and refuse medical treatment. Shortly thereafter, she was taken to a hospital after complaining of a headache seven hours after the fall. Ms.
Richardson was later taken to a Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City where she died the following day. An autopsy disclosed the death was the result of a, epidural hematoma” a type of (TBI) caused by a blunt trauma to the head.This particular type of (TBI) occurs, because formation of blood occurs in the middle of the Dura mater (the tough outer membrane of the central nervous system) and the skull. Due to the trauma, the condition became deadly as in the case of Natasha Richardson. In a case such as this the blood built up and increased the force in the intracranial space compressing delicate brain tissue. This state is evident in one of the three percent of head injuries resulting in 15 to 20% fatalities according to Wikipedia (“Epidural hematoma from Wikipedia “, n.
d. Another notable case was when Robert Atkins famous for the Atkins diet, fell on ice while walking to work as he too had bleeding around the brain, cause of death after two weeks was (TBI) with epidural hematoma. Unfortunately, many (TBI) cases go untreated because the injured is either too embarrassed to seek medical attention, or simply feel it is not such a big deal. But many times it is a big deal and the injured should immediately get a CT-scan or a MRI to determine the extent of the injury. Very often permanent disability can be avoided if proper care is received immediately after an injury. picAcquiring a 3-D view of a brain is imperative to provide a detailed view and this is made possible by Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
This technique is critical in determining the extent of the injury from the trauma. Photograph by Ken Glaser of Corbis Because many injuries occur as the result of an accident it must be proven that permanent damage was caused from the accident and not something that is congenital. Many professionals believe that brain aneurysms are either present at birth, caused by high blood pressure or atherosclerosis, and there are those that believe a brain aneurysm can be caused by a head injury.Understanding the cause of brain aneurysms is important so to prevent an unnecessary death or coma. According to Medicine. Net. com it is learned that, “ the brain gets blood supply from arteries known as the Circle of Willis.
The Circle of Willis is located at the base of the brain which is a loop of arteries that join in a circle then send branches out to all parts of the brain. Here the arteries deliver nutrition (glucose and oxygen) to the brain cells. Because where these arteries come together they can form weak spots.These weak spots can balloon out thus filling up with blood creating a pouch of blood vessels known as aneurysms.
When these sac-like areas leak or rupture-spilling blood into surrounding tissues is where the trouble begins. These sac-like areas may leak or rupture spilling blood into surrounding tissues. While the general thought has been that aneurysms are congenital, it is now thought that they are due to microscopic damage to the artery walls caused by abnormal flow at the junction points where the arteries come together. ” These findings may also establish that the old belief that aneurysms are genetic could very well be false.Usually, doctors prefer to think most diseases are genetic rather than searching for the root of the problem within an individual.
Certainly, we would not want to dispel the belief that certain diseases are inherent and passed on from one generation to another but, we must be aware that some diseases may manifest because of an individuals daily activities and environment. The following information was found in an article located in Medical Technology and Devices Week dated March 23, 2009 and retrieved May 1, 2009 showing a study done at Georgetown University (Washington) that akes a connection in treatment between Alzheimer’s and brain injury. These two topics are becoming increasingly better known due to the number of cases that develop each year. Because the population is aging and the fact that motor vehicles are becoming more accessible, researchers are finding and showing that drugs treating one may be beneficial in treating the other. The enzymes noticed in Alzheimer’s disease that process amyloidal precursor protein into toxic A–beta peptides, appear to contribute to the damage after traumatic brain injuries.
Head Injury victims have an increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and according to researchers at Georgetown University (Washington) they discovered in autopsies, amyloidal plaques usually the anatomical trademark of Alzheimer’s – have been found in young people and even children. Due to these findings, it may very well be possible that a brain aneurysm can be caused by (TBI) and plaque can develop as a result of a traumatic brain injury and that legal professionals will have to prove otherwise in making their cases to protect insurance companies.In a case in Los Angeles whereas a 28 year-old woman died after a ride on the Goliath roller-coaster, when an aneurysm burst in her brain. According to an article in Amusement Business, August 13, 2001 the Los Angeles Coroner’s office first reported that, “while the Goliath roller-coaster did not cause the aneurysm to form, it did cause it to rupture due to the stress and the strain of the ride.
The remark later had to be retracted due to much pandemonium raised by the amusement park community and their representatives.More awareness is essential if we want to slow down this escalating problem of (TBI) by letting people recognize that a trauma to the head can result in one requiring constant assistance and care for daily activities or death. What is necessary is to educate people what steps to take if they sustain a (TBI).
The silent killers such as brain aneurysms, epidural hematoma and the potential of acquiring early onset Alzheimer’s surely should have an impact on deciding if an action is worth the risk.Surely there will always be a group that refuses to believe that, (TBI) kills, or they just need to ignore the information so they can continue to thrill seek. In an article written in Consumer Health News (English) (June 14, 2009) Dr. Greg O’Shanick, national medical director for the Brain Injury Association of American offers advice when a person suffers a brain injury.
He states as follows: “Watch for behavior changes. If a erson becomes suddenly drowsy, irritable or confused, acts in a drunken manner, begins repeating statements, or has trouble walking or speaking, get the person to the emergency room immediately for treatment. ” Even though more precautions are taken to avoid (TBI) now more than ever, the reality is that, there are more dangerous activities developing everyday.
Even still; these are personal choices that are made by individuals that in the past were looking for thrills by wanting to climb mountains, go camping or canoeing.Today, people are exploring new ways to create thrill seeking activities, and some activities as it appears, is that people may have a death wish. Perhaps a way to get people from trying to kill them selves, taxing the government and costing the rest of the taxpayers, would be to impose a tax on those that take risks without realizing the consequences of their actions. Usually when a person is hit in his, or her pocket book, and not on the head occurs when he, or she will wake up and take precaution, not only for him, or her self, but for their loved ones as well.Many times because of strong wish to do something fun, a person may put his, or her entire family in harms way.
Although injuries are not always result of poor judgment on the part of the individual, many times it is due to the negligence of someone else. Therefore, these cases end up in court with the burden of proof left in the hands of the Plaintiff and his, or her attorney. There is where arguments will be made so, that one party wins and the other loses, but we must remain diligent in recognizing the causes and effects of (TBI), so those that wish to undermine the injured are proved to be wrong.A law firm called Weitz and Datz located in Philadelphia has a terrific website that offers a tremendous amount of information regarding (TBI) and how to pursue a case. They explain that when preparing a case it is imperative that as much information as possible s gathered with respect to pre-injury and to compare behavior before and after the injury. Eric Weitz, a civil attorney for the firm has been committed to representing various brain injuries in years past ranging from severe (TBI), cerebral palsy that is secondary to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy to mild (TBI) that can also have lasting affects on the victim.Mr.
Weitz is also an advocate representing many brain injury victims that have been denied by insurance adjustors. Mr. Weitz does this pro bono for the sake of the clients that cannot afford an attorney. The website offers a substantial amount of information to assist victims and their families involved in accidents that result in (TBI). Because of the epidemic proportions of this silent killer it is the duty of every responsible adult young and old to recognize the dangers involved in certain activities and understand the lifelong consequences that may result if not their demise.We know that there are many reasons why death comes prematurely, is it necessary to find more ways to cause premature deaths? References Study probes link between Alzheimer’s, brain injuries. Medical Technology & Devices Week, 7(12), 5-5, 2/3.
Retrieved May 5, 2008. http://web. ebscohost.
com. ezproxy. appollolibrary.
com/ehost/delivery Medicine. net. com (no author) (November 2004) Definition of Circle of Willis http://www. medterms. com/script/main/art.
asp? articlekey=9145 Epidural hematoma from Wikipedia. (n. d. ). In M.A. Monhanty, M.
J. Sanders, K. Mckenna, P. McCaffrey, S. Shepherd, & D. Graham et al. (Eds.
), Wikipedia. Retrieved May 31, 2009, http://en. wikepedia. org/wik/Epidural_hematoma Emmons, Natasha and Tim O’Brien “Goliath Death Termed Accident” Amusement Business 113.
32 August 13, 2001. Retrieved June 20, 2009. http://find. galegroup. com/ips/start. do? prodid=ips For Every Blow to the Head, Quick Action Is Urged; Symptoms may not be noticeable but fatal brain damage can occur (June 14, 2009), Consumer Health News (English), p.NA.
Retrieved June 20, 2009 General One File Via Gale: http://find. galegroup. com/ips/start. do? prodid=ips Traumatic Brain Injury (CDC) Centers for Disease Control (2008) Retrieved May 8, 2009 http://www.
cdc. gov/traumaticbraininjury/tbi_concussion. htm AHL-American Health Line (2009). Retrieved June 17, 2009 http://www. amercanhealthline. com. ezproxy.
apollolibrary. com. /article.
aspx. s=403 Photos supplied by National Geographic, http://science. nationalgeographic. com/science/photos/brain/human-brain. html