The conscious ofand how they operate unconsciously. Consciously
The way we work with children and current practice is affected by theories of development which are written by many physcologists who have studied children and ways in which they develop. They have many varied ideas about how children learn. The physcologists have proposed different theories that they claim to explain children’s learning and how important the nature versus nurture argument is. Some of the physcologists and their theories are outlined in this essay.
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Jean Piaget’s theory was that children learn through experience and how they change their perception of things based on what they have learned or experienced.They learn things at different ages and stages of their lives. As children experience new things they adjust their thinking and beliefs. Piaget believed that children’s thinking is different to the way of adults but their intelligence is the same. Piaget’s theory influences current practice by helping us understand how children learn through experience using role play and real scenarios. In the school i work in role play areas are set up for the children to explore and use in the setting. They in turn can learn to socilaise with others and how they react to the role play that is themed.
Children are encouraged to work together and play together and it learns them how to share and take turns and when observed the teacher can see what areas the children are developing in socially and emotionally and academically. PSYCHOANALYTIC DEVELOPMENT Sigmund Freud believed that a child’s development is based on their personality and he sectioned it into three parts. The first was id (identity) which children are born with and what their instincts tell them to do to get what they want and to fulfil their needs and aren’t able to be considerate of anyone else’s needs. The second part is the ego.A child’s ego becomes apparent as it starts to develop when they begin to notice that how they behave will mean that they will get what they need.
They begin to realise that they don’t need to cry to get fed or changed as they will get it anyway. The third factor is called the super ego which happen’s later in a child’s life through what they think or what they are conscious ofand how they operate unconsciously. Consciously children can think in a rational way. The unconscious mind is where children will overthink things which may make them think irrationally and it will influence the way they behave without knowing.
Freud’s theory influences current practice by changing the way in how we educate children and think of how they are individuals and how they develop their minds. Giving praise and give them a positive emotional well being. In the school i work in teachers give children assessments to work out what each individual child’s level is.
Using this information the teacher can then see the child’s weaknesses and strengths and can assist the child in the learning that they need. The children are encouraged to talk to a member of staff about their worries or problems and are taught how to deal with things that are new to them.Praise is given through verbal and written communication and told to parents. The children also make up their own class rules alongside the teacher that outlines things that acceptable and aren’t in the school and class that they are expected to follow. OPERANT CONDITIONING B.
F Skinner’s theory was that behaviour is learned through punishment and rewards. He believed that if positive behaviour is rewarded then it will be continuous in a chid’s life. He called this “Positive Reinforcement” (quote).
Children are motivated more if they are praised.If they are punished for negative behaviour then they will re-think about doing it again. Skinner’s theory is used in current practice by giving constant praise to good behaviour and rewards for completing work set. In the school that i work in they use the house point and stamp system. Each child is put into a house and there are five houses, secret garden, narnia, faraway tree, hogwarts and neverending. if the child does good work or has positive behaviour then they are awarded a house point which they accumulate and goes towards their house.
At the end of the year the children that are in the house that gets the most points get a reward. Children are also rewarded with a star stamp on their hand that shows them that they have done well and also they can show their parents that they have done well. BEHAVIOURIST THEORY John B Watson’s theory was that children learn behaviour through watching others.
He believed children could be trained into behaving in a positive manner. He used Pavlov’s theory of how to train dogs and believed we could condition children to behave appropriately.His theory influences current practice through how to inflict positive behaviour in children and to change their behaviour so children can learn new skills and basic behavioural principles. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY Albert Bandura’s theory was that children learned behaviour through watching their parents, peers or other adults through social interaction. He didn’t believe that children’s behaviour could be trained but by observing their behaviour.
He also believed that even though children learn a new behaviour doesn’t mean they will carry it out. e also said that children learn through socialising with others. Bandura’s theory has influenced current practice by encouraging and influencing good behaviour and building self esteem. HUMANIST Abraham Maslow’s theory was that children’s growth was due to their drive and their individuality.
He studied Watson’s and Freud’s theories and understood to a degree what their work was but believed that children are their own person and have their own free will in which they choose to behave in a certain way. Maslow set his theory in a pyramid whch was in five parts.The five parts consisted of physiological needs (basic needs), security needs (need for safety and security), social needs (need for love), esteem needs (need for personal worth) and self actualizing needs (self awareness).
This is what Maslow called a “hierachy of needs”. Maslow’s theory influences current practice by encouraging children to evaluate on their own experiences and reflect on them. SOCIAL PEDAGOGY Social pedagogy is used in frameworks to promote child development. It works within the holistic approach to children and how they develop as a whole through their health, family life, social life, school and religious beliefs.
It helps children to feel that they as they grow they are responsible for themselves and to take responsibility for their selves in society. Social pedagogy varies depending on their culture and when it happens such as if something significant happens in their life or they have additional needs such as medical needs, emotional, social, or physcological changes. It influences current practice through social work care and by bringing social factors into learning and also working within the range of the child’s needs.