IIMK and Jangal Santhal initiated a violent
IIMK Submitted by, GROUP 8, Section D PGP/14/202 Arik Das PGP/14/207 Chaitra Jagannath PGP/14/209 Chandramohan Nayak PGP/14/214 Kumari Sonia PGP/14/243 Sravya Shakuntala B The Naxalite Revolt – Why is it the Biggest Internal Threat to India’s Progress? Contents Contents2 1 Introduction3 2 The Red Corridor4 3 Causes of Naxalism5 3. 1 Structural violence5 3. 2 Poverty5 3. 3 Food insecurity5 3. 4 Literacy5 3. 5 Health6 3. 6 Drinking water, Sanitation and Housing6 3.
7 Disparities in Infrastructure6 4 Sources of finance and arms7 5 Demands of Naxalites7 Naxals: An Obstacle to growth8 7 Government’s response to Naxalism8 7. 1 Salwa Judum8 7. 2 Operation Green Hunt9 7. 3 Other Initiatives by State and Central Government9 8 Recommendations10 8. 1 Central Government10 8. 2 State Government10 8. 3 Communist Party of India (M)11 REFERENCES12 1 Introduction The Naxalite flag inspired by Maoism Naxals being trained at a camp Naxal origin can be traced to the split in 1967 of the Communist Party of India (Marxist), leading to the formation of the Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist).
Initially the movement had its centre in West Bengal. In later years, it spread into less developed areas of rural central and eastern India, such as Chhattisgarh, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh through the activities of underground groups like the Communist Party of India (Maoist). The term Naxalites comes from Naxalbari, a small village in West Bengal, where a section of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPM) led by Charu Majumdar, Kanu Sanyal and Jangal Santhal initiated a violent uprising in 1967.Charu Majumdar, inspired by the doctrines of Mao Zedong, provided ideological leadership for the Naxalbari movement, advocating that Indian peasants and lower class tribals overthrow the government and upper classes by force. A large number of urban elites were also attracted to the ideology, which spread through Majumdar’s writings, particularly the ‘Historic Eight Documents’ which formed the basis of Naxalite ideology.So, the Naxalites mobilized the poor to fight against the existing state, even armed fight if possible, as they consider the existing state to be a set of agents acting for the big multinational corporations, rich landlords and the wealthy in general.
There is a pause in the timeline of the whole Naxalite movement between 1980 and 2000. This is because in 1970s, the major Maoist leaders were caught and shot dead by the government and most of the cadres were imprisoned. So the movement came to a halt.
But, again in the new century, they gathered strength and came back and attacked in a stronger way.The movement has a a very long history of development. The present party, CPI (Maoist), came into being in 2004 by the merger of a number of fraternal organizations including the People’s War Group (PWG). 2 The Red Corridor The map of India showing the red corridor is a region in India which is a cause of the major political unrest and internal threats to our country. The red corridor basically comprises of portion of West Bengal, Jharkhand, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and parts of Madhya Pradesh.
This region lies in the Eastern Ghats area and is extreme inaccessible due to excessive rain and dense tracts of forests.This makes it difficult for the government to maintain law and order in these areas. The locales of this region are the tribes and Dalits who have been subjected to the most oppressive conditions since ages. Also this region is full of minerals in the forms of iron ore, coal, bauxite, dolomite, copper, manganese etc.
The Indian Map demarcating the Red Corridor areas Therefore, red corridor is described as one of the most impoverished region in the east of India that experiences considerable Naxalite communist terrorism activity. These areas suffer from the greatest illiteracy, poverty and economic inequality in modern India. Causes of Naxalism 3. 1 Structural violence Structural violence basically refers to the form of violence based on the systematic ways in which a given social structure or social institution harms people by preventing them from meeting the basic needs. Dalits constitute the largest percentage of landless people in the country. In the absence of wage employment, they are dependent upon their landowners for providing them avenues of livelihood in these rural areas.
The condition generated by this relationship is that of extreme exploitation. They are subjected to low wages, long working hours, debt bondage and even physical assault.On the other hand, the tribes were one time privileged to own some land, but have now recorded the fastest pace of landlessness among different social groups in recent times.
This agrarian system is further worsened by the caste based system leading to social exclusion and imposition of degrading occupations. When Dalits and tribes approached the state functionaries for seeking justice they faced indifferent, unresponsive and hostile machinery in collusion with their tormentors. 3. 2 Poverty Dalits and the tribal people are among the poorest sections of the society.
The states of Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh account for 58% of the Dalits out of which 70% are below poverty line as well as 49% of tribal population out of which 63% are under poverty line. This can be linked to the lack of productive assets available which can be used to generate income and engage them in sustainable employment. As for the tribal people, the main source of their livelihood was the land available with them but after the government took over their land to be given to the big corporate, these tribes have been led to extreme poverty. 3. Food insecurity Both the tribal population and the Dalits suffer from acute food deficiency. Nearly 71% of the tribal households face conditions of food deficit for 2-3 months and 5% for six months and above.
The incidence of starvation deaths, characteristics of extreme impoverishment is the highest in these classes and they even are forced to sell their children for survival. Hunger is also one of the greatest causes of indebtness among the Dalits and the tribes who actually borrow at a very high rate of interest for food consumption during lean periods when there is no employment. .
4 Literacy The Dalits as well as the tribal population have been deprived of education for centuries under the existing social order. They have remained cut off from the mainstream educational facilities through ages. Despite the universalization of education, the literacy rates in the states affected by naxalite movement are extremely low. It is about 28% in Bihar, 41% in Jharkhand and Madhya Pradesh, 52% in Chhattisgarh and 37% in Orissa. The low enrolment rate and higher dropout rate of students indicate the high incidence of child labour prevalent in these classes of society.
3. Health The situation in respect of health status is the worst amongst these classes. The infant mortality rates, indicative of the reach of primary health care is as high as 84. 2 per thousand in the case of tribals and 83 per thousand in the case of dalits. The disparity is also reflected in the high morbidity, low level of immunization, high level of malnutrition among women in these communities. The nutritional levels in these groups are truly disturbing.
The crude death rate is also higher among the tribals. The incidence of stunting, wasting, underweight in children is the highest mongst these groups. 3. 6 Drinking water, Sanitation and Housing The situation in respect of access to drinking water reveals wide disparities in case of the Dalits and the tribal population.
Only 15. 2% of the tribal households and 27% of Dalit households have drinking water facility in their premises. The position in respect of sanitation is even more dismal. Only 24. 4% of the tribal households have a pucca house while this percentage is 42. 8% for the Dalit households and 57. 7 %.
The access to electricity is enjoyed only by 36. 5% of the tribal households and 44. % of the Dalit household.
3. 7 Disparities in Infrastructure The wide disparities in human development are also accompanied by a huge gap in the availability of development infrastructure in the form of roads, bridges, transport networks and telecommunication facilities as well as social infrastructure in the form of schools, health centers, piped water supply schemes and power distribution lines. Besides, even the meager infrastructure that exists in the region is deteriorating due to poor maintenance and, therefore, becomes increasingly non-functional due to lack of funds. Sources of finance and arms The area inhabitated by these tribes is richly endowed with resources in the form of forests, minerals and wild life. It has been found that these groups have themselves started exploiting these resources, for e. g.
they have started poaching tigers and elephants for their skin and tusks which they then sell at high prices in the international markets. Also China, which more or less supports the basic idea that these naxal groups disseminate, has become a main source of arms for these groups.All the guns and ammunitions recovered by the CPRF were found to be smuggled from China.
Also, different intelligence and security agencies have also stated that these naxals get arms from other neighbouring countries of Bangladesh, Myanmar and even Pakistan’s outlawed militant group, the Laskhar-e-Taiba. Some political parties also help out these groups and in return get an access to these resources at a low cost. Some of the other means include resorting to kidnapping and extortion, drugs, narcotics etc.
5 Demands of NaxalitesThe major demands of the naxalites are as follows: * Redistribution of land to the landless * Equal rights to the women in ownership of land * Agricultural development with guaranteed remunerative price for the produce * Fixed wages and hours of work for male and female workers * Abolition of contract and child labour * Guaranteed employment and social insurance * Elimination of regional inequalities * Liberation from the trader-contractor-money lender nexus * Self-identity, dignity and autonomy 6 Naxals: An Obstacle to growthPresently, Naxalites have become a major obstacle to growth and development of the country. At least 15 states in India are presently under the Naxalite network and this area includes 17 National parks, 35 Wildlife Sanctuaries and 18 Reserve forests. Also these lands have the richest ores of bauxite, iron, limestone and 28 other precious minerals. Not only do they create problems for companies who are allocated land to put up industries but also they have resorted to unsustainable depletion of natural resources themselves in order to fund their operations.The Naxalite outfits have deployed land mines and barbwires in and around the forest area to control the entry of the people not supporting their cause and security forces. These barbwires entrap the wild animals in the protected area and landmines blow out heavy animals.
They have been responsible for destruction of public properties including attacks to railway lines resulting in loss of innumerable lives. The corporates which have been allotted land by the government are targeted, eventually leading them to move out from these areas, thus becoming a hindrance in development. Government’s response to Naxalism 7. 1 Salwa Judum The relief camp provided by the state govt. Villagers being trained as SPO’s Salwa Judum in a dialect of rural India means “Peace March” was an anti-Naxalite movement started in Chhattisgarh supported by the state government as well the opposition members. In this movement local villages were armed with ammunition and were given training so as to drive out the Naxals from those areas which were not accessible by the general police staff.
They were about 4048 such “Special Police Officers” deployed.This was a decentralized approach by the state government of giving power to the localities to wipe out the face of Naxals from their districts. Salwa Judum met with a lot of criticism by the pro-naxals where cases of rapes and murders in the villages were reported. The Naxals resorting to the Salwa Judam camps were ill treated and promises made were never fulfilled. It was a clear denial of basic human rights as people and even children were forced into the movement and literally used as human shields in the fight against the Naxals.
7. 2 Operation Green HuntCRPF Jawans employed for the ‘Operation Greenhunt’ It is a first of its kind operation undertaken at a very large scale against the Maoist and the Naxalites. The operation began at Gadchiroli district in November 2009. Every part of the central paramilitary forces, with 1800 CRPF jawans are involved in the operation. The purpose of this operation is to clear the red corridor areas and to sanitize the locations from the any traces of Naxalism, in the assumption that later the government will start with development initiatives in these areas.
A very huge investment has been made in deploying these commandos, helicopters, ammunition and other transportation facilities which could have been otherwise invested in the development of these downtrodden areas. The counter response by Naxalites was met by several attacks and the more recent one to be mentioned is the Dantewada attack on April 6, 2010, where Maoist rebels killed 75 policemen/CRPF men. 7. 3 Other Initiatives by State and Central Government Unlike the previous attempts, the government is trying to resort to a more robust solution to the Naxalite problem.The following are initiatives taken by Central government.
* 11th Five year plan – Special efforts were to be made to remove the discontent, dispense justice, instill a sense of fairness among the people and give them dignity and hope * Also a 16-member committee was formed to study the causes of Naxalism and suggest remedial measures * Revision of the National Tribal Policy: In this the government wants to include more welfare policies for the tribals which they were denied before. This policy is likely to provide clear land ownership of the people.The initiatives taken by state governments are considered as short term approach when compared to those of the central government policies.
The initiatives are as follows: * The state governments are demanding for more security forces specially air support and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for collecting intelligence inputs from most of these inaccessible areas. * Government plans to raise special anti-Naxalite forces from the Naxalite affected areas. The security forces are promised to be provided with Life insurance cover to all the security forces. Also the government plans to attract the Naxals to join the mainstream population is by introducing “Surrender policy”. Different governments have initiated different policies. The surrender policy includes providing employment, cash and basic training to help them integrate with the society. 8 Recommendations 8.
1 Central Government * A separate Ministry for the development of the Naxalite affected States should be created in line with Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER) to oversee speedy development of the Naxalite affected areas. The central government should intervene with the State governments not to adopt policies and practices which prolong and accentuate the Naxalite conflict. * Stop the Salwa Judum campaign and ensure that civilians are not involved in the conflict with the Naxalites in the future. No counterinsurgency or security measure be taken which directly or indirectly increases the risks of the civilians * Take initiatives for holding dialogues between the State governments and the Communist Party of India (Maoists).
8. 2 State Government * Declare cease-fire to facilitate holding of talks with the Naxalites outfits. Put an immediate end to human rights violations by the security forces and order inquiries to establish accountability for human rights violations. * Stop campaign such as Salwa Judum where civilians are bought into the conflict. 8. 3 Communist Party of India (M) * Declare cease-fire with the concerned State Governments and involve themselves in holding talks for peaceful resolutions of the conflicts. * Facilitate dismantling of all the Salwa Judum relief camps * Stop targeting civilians and unarmed persons and use of explosives and land mines.
Ensure full respect for the Geneva Conventions Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949. * Stop the use and recruitment of children in hostilities and immediately ban Bal Mandal (the child division of the Naxal movement). REFERENCES * The naxalite challenge, PV Ramana * http://www. doccentre.
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