Thesis nervous and the hormonal systems, there

Thesis nervous and the hormonal systems, there

Thesis Statement: Anorexia Nervosa, a disturbing disease of denial, consisting of self-imposed starvation and the intense fear of gaining weight, is becoming an epidemicamong many teenage girls due to the environment, biochemistry, and personality of the individual. I.

The immediate environment, friends and family, directly influence the development of anorexia. A. Anorexics tend to come from families placing strong emphasis on food and the family may have used food for purposes other than nourishment such as a sign of love for the providers or used when family members face unpleasant situations. B.

There is a greater risk of a person developing anorexia when a member of their family has had the disorder or when a parent is either very thin or obese. C. Overly critical brothers and fathers of the girls weight and attractiveness have a forceful impact on the development of anorexia. D.

Special dietary needs of a family member, emphasis on nutrition, and power struggles over eating assist in the self-imposed starvation. E. Nutritional labeling on the foods and mothers stocking their refrigerators with low fat and no-fat foods may actually lead to eating problems. 1.

The mothers eating habits greatly influence the daughters and it is recommended that the daughters favorite foods are in the house. 2. The mother should invite her daughter to the grocery store to choose some of her favorite fruits, vegetables, meats, and cereals. 3. Making this a routine can help provide a positive aspect on the importance of nutrition. F.

It is important for family members to promote self-esteem in intellectual, athletic, and social endeavors. 1. The parents should examine their own attitudes toward weight to discover how they could be affecting the children. 2. Discussing the dangers of dieting, the value of moderate exercise, and the importance of eating a variety of foods can help minimize the chances of developing anorexia.

II. Biochemistry also contributes to the development of anorexia. B. In the neuroendocrine system, a combination of the central nervous and the hormonal systems, there are seriously disturbed mechanisms in people with eating disorders. 1.

The neuroendocrine system regulates sexual function, physical growth and development, appetite and digestion, kidney functions and emotions. 2. The common symptoms of anorexia directly relate to the disturbed mechanisms in the neuroendocrine system. 3.

Common symptoms such as serious depression, bingeing and consuming large amounts of food and showing no noticeable weight gain, and loss of menstrual periods are directly associated with the disturbed neuroendocrine system that normally regulates these functions. B. There have been several chemicals found that can be directly related to symptoms of anorexia. 1. The neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine, key chemical messengers in the central nervous system, are significantly decreased in ill anorexic patients. 2.

The decrease of the chemicals serotnin and norepinephrine cause severe depression, one symptom of anorexia. 3. Another brain chemical found to be abnormal in people with anorexia is the hormone vasopressin. 4.

Vasopressin is what contributes to the obsessive-compulsive behavior of the patients. 5. There have also been higher than normal levels of cortisol found in anorexic patients, a brain hormone released in response to stress. 6. The high levels of cortisol are caused by a problem that occurs in or near the hypothalamus.

7. The hypothalamus is the part of the brain that regulates menstruation, eating, metabolism, body temperature and sleep. 8. It has not been established if anorexia causes the hypothalamus disturbance or if the hypothalamus directly influences the occurrence of anorexia. 9. By exploring the roles of chemicals played in the brain, the findings are making it possible to explain why and how this disease is occurring.

III. Personality traits are a source of psychological symptoms of anorexia nervosa patients. A.

Anorexics tend to have self-critical and obsessional personality traits. 1. They are known for their compliant behavior and attainment of good grades, and are often perfectionists.

2. There is often repugnance at sexual development. 3. Associated with the perfectionistic personality is an all-or-none kind of reasoning and the setting of unattainable goals.

B. Family personality traits that encourage anorexia are enmeshment, rigidity, overprotectiveness and inability to resolve conflict within the family. 1. Thirty-six of 39 young female patients refer to their fathers as emotionally distant. 2. Mothers of anorexics frequently suffer from depression, are domineering, and intrude in the anorexics hour-to-hour-life. IV.

Antidepressant drugs, behavioral techniques, and psychotherapy are the most frequently used treatments. A. One successful medication used is the antidepressant fluoxetine, because it affects serotonin function in the body which is significant in the biochemistry of anorexics. B.

One behavioral technique used is a token system for food eaten, consisting of reinforcements contingent on weight gain. 1. Behavioral techniques work especially well for social phobic behavior.

2. Obsessive-compulsive disorder has also been successfully treated with behavioral techniques. C.

Psychotherapy is needed for the underlying emotional issues of the anorexic and to help the patient begin to understand and cope with their illness. D. The combination of psychotherapy and medication has been found as an effective treatment, and it prevents relapse after the medication is discontinued. E. When excessive and rapid weight loss, serious metabolic disturbances, clinical depression or risk of suicide, or psychosis take place, hospitalization may be necessary. F.

For emotional and psysiological treatment, there is a variety of experts needed such as a nutritionist, an individual psychotherapist, a group/ family psychotherapist, and a psychopharmacologist- someone who is knowledgeable about psychoactive medications useful in treating the disorder. V. Symptoms of anorexia are widespread and can sometimes be difficult to pinpoint. A. Excessive weight loss in a relatively short period of time and the continuation of dieting although bone thin is one of the very common symptoms. B.

There is usually an extreme dissatisfaction with body appearance and the belief the body is fat, even though severely underweight. C. Anorexics often show an unusual interest in food and the development of strange eating rituals. D. They are always collecting new recipes and preparing gourmet meals for family and friends, but not eating the meals themselves. E.

Many anorexics abuse drugs and alcohol, suffer from serious depression, eat in secret, and obsess over exercise. F. Some use drugs particularly to stimulate vomiting bowel movements and urination.

G. Following these symptoms are usually severe medical problems such as premature osteoporosis, abdominal pain, lethargy, intolerance to cold, impaired kidney functions, and impeded reproductive development. H. Bradycardia, a slower than normal heartbeat, is also a common medical problem of young girls suffering from anorexia nervosa. Concluding Statement: Dealing with the anorexics uncompromising environment, complications in biochemistry, and intolerable personality traits is anapproach to diminishing the horrifying epidemic of anorexia nervosa. Rogers 1 The Anorexic Nervosa and Related Eating Disorders Organization (ANRED) estimatesthat approximately one in every 100 white females between the ages of 12 and 18 suffersfrom anorexia (Anorexia Nervosa 12). The mortality rate of 6 to 18 percent makesanorexia the most lethal psychiatric illness (Anorexia Nervosa).

Anorexia is diagnosedwhen a patient weighs at 15 percent less than expected (Barker 3). This usually begins inyoung people around the time of puberty, and it appears to these precocious girls as away to take control of their bodies and gain approval from others (Eating Disorders 286). Anorexics suffer from a seriously distorted body image and the refusal to maintain anormal body weight (Boodman 4). Anorexia nervosa, a disturbing disease of denial, consisting of self-imposed starvation and the intense fear of gaining weight, is becoming anepidemic among many teenage girls due to the environment , biochemistry, andpersonality of the individual.

Fear and ambivalence are characteristics of every meal to an anorexic woman(MacSween 224). Anorexics become immensely anxious about situations where they have toeat with other people or eat a meal someone else has prepared(Mac Sween 223). Theimmediate environment, friends and family, directly influence the development ofanorexia.

Anorexics tend to come from families placing strong emphasis on food and thefamily may have used food for purposes other than nourishment such as a sign of love forthe providers or used when family members face unpleasant situations (Anorexia nervosa15). There is a greater risk of a person developing anorexia when a Rogers 2 person of the family has had the disorder or when a family member is either very thin orobese(Anorexia Nervosa 15). Overly critical brothers and fathers of the girls weight andattractiveness have a forceful impact on the development of anorexia (Eating Disorders286). Special dietary needs of a family member, emphasis on nutrition, and powerstruggles over eating assist in the self-induced starvation (Anorexia Nervosa 13). Nutritional labeling on the foods and mothers stocking their refrigerators with low fat andno-fat foods may actually lead to eating problems (Fitzsimmons 2). The mothers eatinghabits greatly influence the daughters and it is recommended that favorite foods are in thehouse (Fitzsimmons 3).

The mother should invite the daughter to accompany her to thegrocery store to choose some of her favorite fruits, vegetables, meats and cereals(Fitzsimmons 4). Making this a routine can help provide a positive aspect on theimportance of nutrition (Fitzsimmons 4). It is important for family members to promoteself-esteem in intellectual, athletic, and social endeavors (Fitzsimmons 5).

The parentsshould examine their own attitudes toward weight to discover how they could be affectingthe children (Fitzsimmons 4). Discussing the dangers of dieting, the value of moderateexercise, and the importance of eating a variety of foods can help minimize the chances ofdeveloping anorexia (Fitzsimmons 4). Biochemistry also contributes to the development of anorexia nervosa. In theneuroendocrine system, a combination of the central nervous and hormonal Rogers 3 systems, there are seriously disturbed mechanisms in people with eating disorders (EatingDisorders 286).

The neuroendocrine system regulates sexual function, physical growthand development, appetite and digestion, kidney functions and emotions. The commonsymptoms of anorexia directly relate to the disturbed mechanisms in the neuroendocrinesystem (Eating Disorders 286). Common symptoms such as serious depression, bingeing and consuming large amounts of food but showing no noticeable weight gain, and loss of menstrual periods are directly associated with the disturbed neuroendocrinesystem that normally controls these functions (Barker 3). There have been several chemicals found that can be directly related to symptoms ofanorexia. The neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine, key chemical messengersin the central nervous system, are significantly decreased in ill anorexic patients (EatingDisorders 287). The decrease of the chemicals serotonin and norepinephrine causesevere depression, one symptom of anorexia (Eating Disorders 287). Another brainchemical found to be abnormal in people with anorexia is the hormone vasopressin.

Vasopressin is what contributes to the obsessive-compulsive behavior of the patients(Eating Disorders 287). There have also been higher than normal levels of cortisol foundin anorexic patients, a brain hormone released in response to stress. These biochemicaland genetic factors predispose some people to eating disorders such as anorexia (EatingDisorders 286).

The high levels of cortisol Rogers 4 are caused by a disturbance that occurs in or near the hypothalamus (Eating Disorders287). The hypothalamus is the part of the brain that regulates menstruation, eating, metabolism, body temperature and sleep (Anorexia Nervosa 15). It has not beenestablished if anorexia causes the hypothalamic disturbance or if the hypothalamus directlyinfluences the occurrence of anorexia (Anorexia Nervosa 15). By exploring the roles ofchemicals in the brain, the findings are making it possible to explain why and how thisdisease is occurring (Eating Disorders 287). Personality traits are a source of psychological symptoms of anorexia nervosa (Garner327). Anorexics tend to have self-critical and obsessional personality traits. They areknown for their compliant behavior and attainment of good grades, and they are oftenperfectionists.

There is often repugnance at sexual development (Garner 327). Associated with the perfectionistic personality is an all-or-none kind of reasoning and thesetting of unattainable goals (Garner 327). Certain types of personalities also seem toappear among the parents of anorexics. Family personality traits are enmeshment, rigidity, overprotectiveness, and the inability to resolve conflict within the family(Anorexia Nervosa 15).

Thirty-six of 39 young female patients described their fathers asemotionally distant, says Margo Mame, associated clinical director of the EatingDisorders Service at Newington Childrens Hospital in Conneticut. Rogers 5 Mothers of anorexics frequently suffer from depression, are domineering, and intrude inthe anorexics hour-to-hour-life (Anorexia Nervosa 15). The consequences of anorexia nervosa can be severe, with 1 in 10 cases leading to deathfrom starvation, cardiac arrest, or suicide (Eating Disorders 284). Antidepressant drugs, behavioral techniques, and physcotherapy are the most frequently used treatments. Onesuccessful medication used is the antidepressant fluoxetine, because it affects theserotonin function in the body which is significant in the biochemistry of anorexics (EatingDisorders 287).

One behavioral technique used is a token system for food eaten, consisting of reinforcements contingent on weight gain (Garner 149). Behavioraltechniques work especially well for social phobic behavior and the obsessive-compulsivedisorder (Garner 466). Psychotherapy is needed for the underlying emotional issues ofthe anorexic and to help the patient begin to understand and cope with their illness (EatingDisorders 287). The combination of psychotherapy and medication has been found as aneffective treatment, and it prevents relapse after the medication is discontinued (EatingDisorders 287). When excessive and rapid weight loss, serious metabolic disturbances, clinical depression or risk of suicide, or psychosis take place hospitalization may benecessary (Eating Disorders 287). For emotional and physiological treatment, there is avariety of experts needed such as a nutritionist, an individual psychotherapist, agroup/family psychotherapist, and a psychopharmacologist – someone who is Rogers 6 knowledgeable about psychoactive medications useful in treating the disorder (EatingDisorders 287).

Symptoms of anorexics are widespread and can sometimes be difficult to pinpoint. Excessive weight loss in a relatively short period of time and the continuation ofdieting although bone thin is one of the very common symptoms (Barker 3 ). There isusually an extreme dissatisfaction with body appearance and the belief the body is fat, even though severely underweight (Barker 3). Anorexics often show an unusual interest infood and the development of strange eating rituals (Barker 3).

They are always collectingnew recipes and preparing gourmet meals for friends and family, but not eating the meals themselves (Eating Disorders 284). Many anorexics abuse drugs and alcohol, suffer fromserious depression, eat in secret, and obsess over exercise. Some use drugs particularlyto stimulate bowel movements and urination (Barker 3). Following these symptoms areusually severe medical problems such as premature osteoporosis, abdominal pain, lethargy, intolerance to cold, impaired kidney functions, and impeded reproductivedevelopment (Fitzsimmons 3).

Bradycardia, a slower than normal heartbeat, is also acommon medical problem of young girls suffering from anorexia nervosa (Boodman 4). Anorexia nervosa is a complicated and mysterious disease. Researchers are continuingthe study of anorexics and how to prevent the occurrence of Rogers 7 eating disorders.

The central aim of anorexia is the elimination of physical pleasure andfood becomes symbolic of all desires and their objects (Mac Sween 222). Anorexia is anattempt to resolve at the level of the individual body the irreconcilability of individualityand femininity in a bourgeois patriarchal culture (Mac Sween 252). Dealing with theanorexics uncompromising environments, complications in biochemistry, and intolerablepersonality traits is an approach to diminishing the horrifying epidemic of anorexia nervosa.Health and Beauty

No Comments

Add your comment

x

Hi!
I'm Alfred!

We can help in obtaining an essay which suits your individual requirements. What do you think?

Check it out