The presided over thegods on Mount Olympus
The ancient statues and pottery of the Golden Stone Age of Greece were muchadvanced in spectacular ways. The true facts of Zeus’s main reason for his statue. Thegreat styles of the Kouros and the Kore.The story of The Blinding of Polphemus,along with the story of Cyclops. The Dori and Ionic column stone temples that werebuilt in Greece that had an distinctive look.
The true colors of the vase, Aryballos. Thevase that carried liquids from one place to another. The Lyric Poetry that was originallya song to be sung to the accompaniment of the lyre.
Zeus was considered, according to Homer, the father of the gods and of mortals.He did not create either gods or mortals; he was their father in the sense of being theprotector and ruler both of the Olympian family and of the human race. He was lord ofthe sky, the rain god, and the cloud gatherer, who wielded the terrible thunderbolt. Hisbreastplate was the aegis, his bird the eagle, his tree the oak.
Zeus presided over thegods on Mount Olympus in Thessaly. His principal shrines were at Dodona, in Epirus,the land of the oak trees and the most ancient shrine, famous for its oracle, and atOlympia, where the Olympian Games were celebrated in his honor every fourth year.The Nemean games, held at Nemea, northwest of Argos, were also dedicated to Zeus.
Zeus was the youngest son of the Titans Cronus and Rhea and the brother of the deitiesPoseidon, Hades, Hestia, Demeter, and Hera. According to one of the ancient myths ofthe birth of Zeus, Cronus, fearing that he might be dethroned by one of his children,swallowed them as they were born. Upon the birth of Zeus, Rhea wrapped a stone inswaddling clothes for Cronus to swallow and concealed the infant god in Crete, wherehe was fed on the milk of the goat Amalthaea and reared by nymphs. When Zeus grewto maturity, he forced Cronus to disgorge the other children, who were eager to takevengeance on their father.
Zeus henceforth ruled over the sky, and his brothers Poseidonand Hades were given power over the sea and the underworld, respectively. The earthwas to be ruled in common by all three. Beginning with the writings of the Greek poetHomer, Zeus is pictured in two very different ways. He is represented as the god ofjustice and mercy, the protector of the weak, and the punisher of the wicked. Ashusband to his sister Hera, he is the father of Ares, the god of war; Hebe, the goddess ofyouth; Hephaestus, the god of fire; and Eileithyia, the goddess of childbirth.
At the sametime, Zeus is described as falling in love with one woman after another and resorting toall kinds of tricks to hide his infidelity from his wife. Stories of his escapades werenumerous in ancient mythology, and many of his offspring were a result of his loveaffairs with both goddesses and mortal women. It is believed that, with the developmentof a sense of ethics in Greek life, the idea of a lecherous, sometimes ridiculous fathergod became distasteful, so later legends tended to present Zeus in a more exalted light.His many affairs with mortals are sometimes explained as the wish of the early Greeks totrace their lineage to the father of the gods. Zeus’s image was represented in sculpturalworks as a kingly, bearded figure. The most celebrated of all statues of Zeus wasPhidias’s gold and ivory colossus at Olympia.
The standing nude youth (kouros), the standing draped girl (kore), and the seatedwoman. All emphasize and generalize the essential features of the human figure andshow an increasingly accurate comprehension of human anatomy. The youths wereeither sepulchral or votive statues. Examples are Apollo (Metropolitan Museum), anearly work; Strangford Apollo from Limnos (British Museum, London), a much laterwork; and the Anavyssos Kouros (National Museum, Athens). More of the musculatureand skeletal structure is visible in this statue than in earlier works. The standing, drapedgirls have a wide range of expression, as in the sculptures in the Acropolis Museum,Athens.
Their drapery is carved and painted with the delicacy and meticulousnesscommon to the details of sculpture of this period.The Blinding of Polyphemus. Polyphemus, a Cyclops, the son of Poseidon, godof the sea, and of the nymph Thoosa. During his wanderings after the Trojan War, theGreek hero Odysseus and his men were cast ashore on Polyphemus’s island home, Sicily.The enormous giant penned the Greeks in his cave and began to devour them. Odysseusthen gave Polyphemus some strong wine and when the giant had fallen into a drunkenstupor, bored out his one eye with a burning stake. The Greeks then escaped by clingingto the bellies of his sheep.
Poseidon punished Odysseus for blinding Polyphemus bycausing him many troubles in his subsequent wanderings by sea. In another legend,Polyphemus was depicted as a huge, one-eyed shepherd, unhappily in love with the seanymph Galatea. Cyclops, giants with one enormous eye in the middle of the forehead. InHesiod, the three sonsArges, Brontes, and Steropesof Uranus and Gaea, thepersonifications of heaven and earth, were Cyclopes. The Greek hero Odysseus wastrapped with his men in the cave of the Cyclops Polyphemus, a son of Poseidon, god ofthe sea. In order to escape from the cave after the giant devoured several men, Odysseusblinded him.Dori and Ionic Columns.
Aware of Egyptian temples in stone, Greeks in the 7thcentury began to build their own stone temples in a distinctive style. They usedlimestone in Italy and Sicily, marble in the Greek islands and Asia Minor, and limestonecovered with marble on the Greek mainland. Later they built chiefly in marble. Thetemples were rectangular and stood on a low, stepped terrace in an enclosure whererituals were performed. Small temples had a two-columned front porch, sometimes witha portico before it. Larger temples, with front and back porches, might have a six-columned portico before each porch or be entirely surrounded by a colonnade. Thecolonnade supported an entablature, or lintel, under the gabled, tiled roof.
Architects developed two orders, or styles of columns, the Doric and the Ionic(see Column). Doric columns, which had no bases and whose capitals consisted of asquare slab over a round cushion shape, were heavy and closely spaced to support theweight of the masonry. Their heaviness was relieved by the tapered and fluted shaft. Onthe entablature, vertical triglyphs were carved over every column, leaving between themoblonglater squaremetopes, which were at first painted and later filled with paintedreliefs. The Doric style originated on the mainland and became widespread. The Dorictemples at Syracuse, Paestum, Selinus, Acragas, Pompeii, Tarentum (Taranto),Metapontum, and Corcyra (Kerkira) still exist.
Especially notable is the Temple ofPoseidon at Paestum (450 BC).Columns in the Ionic style, which began in Ionia (Asia Minor) and the Greekislands, are more slender, more narrowly fluted, and spaced farther apart than Doriccolumns. Each rests on a horizontally fluted round base and terminates in a capitalshaped like a flat cushion rolled into volutes at the sides. The entablature, lighter than inthe Doric style, might have a frieze.
Examples of Ionic temples are in Ephesus nearmodern Izmir, Turkey, in Athens (the Erechtheum), and (some traces) in Naucratis,Egypt. There are three standard types of columns in Greek classical architecture. Theoldest is the Doric, which is the widest, has no base, and is topped by a simple abacuswith an echinus directly underneath it. The Ionic column has a base and a capital madeof scroll-shaped volutes directly beneath the abacus.
The most elaborate column is theCorinthian. It has the most complex base, and the capital is made of layers of carvedacanthus leaves ending in volutes. All three columns have fluted shafts.The Aryballos was a very colorful vase.
The black figure technique and the veryEastern-looking panther are characteristic of the Orientalizing style. Also characteristicare the flower like decorations, which are blobs of paint scored with lines. Themusculature and features of the panther are also the result of scoring.
The mostcharacteristic shape was that of the aryballos, a polychromed container for carryingliquids. The Corinthian artist developed a miniature style that made use of a widevariety of eastern motifs-sphinxes, winged human figures, floral designs-all of themarranged in bands covering almost the entire surface of the vase. White, yellow, andpurple were often used to highlight details, produced a bold and striking effect. Thesmall size of the pot mad them ideal for exporting.
The vases are well made, the figureslively, and the style instantly recognizable as Corinthian-an important factor forcommercial success.Lyric Poetry. The lyric was originally a song to be sung to the accompanimentof the lyre. Two main types of lyrics were composed in ancient Greece: the personal andthe choral lyric. The personal lyric was developed on the island of Lesbos (modernLesvos). The poet and musician Terpander, who was born on Lesbos but lived much ofhis life in Sparta, introduced the seven-string lyre and set the poems of Homer to music.Most of his poems were nomes, or liturgical hymns, written in honor of a god, especiallyof Apollo, and sung by a single performer to the accompaniment of the lyre.
Thesurviving fragments of his work are of doubtful authenticity. Terpander was followedlater in the 7th century BC by the great poets of Lesbos. Alcaeus treated political,religious, and personal themes in his lyrics and invented the Alcaic strophe. Sappho, thegreatest woman poet of ancient Greece, invented the Sapphic strophe and wrote also inother lyric forms. Her poems of love and friendship are among the most finely wroughtand passionate in the Western tradition. The Lesbian poets, as well as a number of laterlyric poets from other Greek cities, composed their poems in the Aeolic dialect. In the6th century BC the playful lyrics of the poet Anacreon on wine and love were written invarious lyric meters.
Subsequent verse similar in tone and theme was known asanacreontic. The choral lyric was first developed in the 7th century BC by poets whowrote in the Dorian dialect. Dominant in the region around Sparta, the Dorian dialectwas used even in later times, when poets in many other parts of Greece were writingchoral lyrics. The Spartan poets first wrote choral lyrics for songs and dances in publicreligious celebrations. Later they wrote choral lyrics also to celebrate private occasions,such as a victory at the Olympian Games. The earliest choral lyric poet is said to havebeen Thaletas, who in the 7th century BC reputedly came from Crete to Sparta in orderto quell an epidemic with paeans, or choral hymns addressed to Apollo. He wasfollowed by Terpander, who wrote both personal and choral lyrics; by Alcman, most ofwhose poems were partheneia, processional choral hymns sung by a chorus of younggirls and partly religious in character and lighter in tone than the paeans; and in the late7th century by Arion.
Arion is said to have invented both the dithyramb, or hymn toDionysus, and the tragic mode, which was used extensively in Greek drama. Later greatwriters of choral lyrics include Sicilian poet Stesichorus, a contemporary of Alcaeus,who introduced the triadic form of choral ode, consisting of a series of groups of threestanzas; Ibycus of Rhegium, author of a large extant fragment of a triadic choral ode andof erotic personal lyrics; Simonides of Ceos, whose choral lyrics included epinicia, orchoral odes in honor of victors at the Olympian Games, encomia, or choral hymns thatcelebrated particular persons, and dirges, as well as personal lyrics, including epigrams;and Bacchylides of Ceos, a nephew of Simonides, who wrote both epinicia, of which 13are extant, and dithyrambs, of which 5 are extant.The ancient statues and pottery of the Golden Stone Age of Greece were muchadvanced in spectacular ways. The statue of Zeus was done for a very good reason.The statue represents being the lord of the sky, the rain god and the cloud gatherer.When I look at this statue, I see a whole bunch of different things, for example, I see astatue that has great muscular shapes which to me it represents that he had power oversome town or group of people. I personally would be afraid of a statue that looks likeZeus.
The Kore and the Kouros both emphasize and generalize the essential features ofthe human figure and show an increasingly accurate comprehension of human anatomy.The youths were either sepulchral or votive statues. The Blinding of Polyphemus, theson of Poseidon, god of the sea, and of the nymph Thoosa.
Odysseus gave Polyphemussome strong wine and when the giant had fallen into a drunken stupor, bored out his oneeye with a burning stake. The Dori and Ionic columns were rectangular and stood on alow, stepped terrace in an enclosure where rituals were performed. These columns werevery much done with a great deal of intelligence. I personally do not understand howthe people of the Golden Age had such intelligence in the columns for where they canbuild one or two to hold up a building, and it now still stands. It’s incredible. TheAryballos are a very colorful vase.
They Golden Age folks had great artistic talent todray out on a vase the beautiful colors and drawings that it has. The Vase has anorganizing style. The vase were used for carrying liquids. Vases like the Aryballos arenow worth a fortune, why? Well, it took a great deal of time and talent to make thesevases. The vases are probably worth about one million a piece.
The height of the vasesare varied, depending on the designs that were put on it. I think that the people of theGolden Age were very talented. The objects that we have from back then is veryremarkable. The objects are had a great deal of time put into each of them.
The potteryfor example was what had really gotten to me because of the art that were drawn on itand the why they used there colors. I think that if It wasn’t people like the Golden Agepeople who had drew these great objects, we would be way behind on the art that wehave today. I like to look at it like our fathers before us that are teaching us what weknow now.
I must say, living in the nineties are much more better, relaxing, stress less,and more of a easy life now than before. I that god that I am here now with theknowledge that I know now. If I was a Nejeh in the Golden Age, I would probablecommit suicide, if I wasn’t killed by someone else. I can not complain. We have itgood, we must thank God for being where we are.