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The effect of education on the development of different countries As the increasing demand for skilled workers, more attention has been paid to education. Education has been developing follow the step of humanity which affects knowledge, skills and attitude from one generation to the other (Compayre and Payne,1899) and interacts on the progress of civilization.
The impact of the rapid growth of education is felt at institutional, national and international levels, and these are inter-related.This essay will examine how education influences economic growth, social advancement and environmental improvement. Education plays an essential role in economic growth in less-developed countries. On one hand, Bloom, Canning and Chan claimes (2006) that it helps these countries make obvious progress towards national income. For example, Mauritius, a small island, has grown up from a poor nation in the 1960s to a middle-income country in the 1970s, which means the economy has dramatically been developed, and it is the consequence of universal education (Bloom et al. 006).
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The per capita GDP in Mauritius has added up to $12,800 in Prospective Pravastatin Pooling (PPP terms) Project and it dues to economic growth since 1970s (Bloom et al. 2006). On the other hand, education can also make an indirect difference in the economic-growth activities through advancing broader aspects such as gender relations, and connections.
Some institutions have taken affirmative actions to raise female enrolment with encouraging results, which allowed women to acquire equal educational rights with men (Bloom et al. 2006).According to (1999)an rapid increase in women’s access to education creates a better environment for economic growth, the study for the World Bank also suggested that, increasing the share of women with secondary education by one percentage point increases a country’s annual per capita income growth by an average 0.
3 percentage points. Education is not only vital to low-developed countries but also to developing countries. It results in higher individual income and it is a necessary precondition for long-term economic growth (_Lutz W, 2008).Education can offer the job seekers more chances to get approach to world famous enterprises which will pay them more money. In addition, GDP per capita increase owes to education (Dahlman and Aubert, 2001) . educational level distributes on annul GDP growth rates and education is the necessary (although not always sufficient) precondition for long- term economic growth (_Lutz W, 2008).
For instance, Chinese government wants to create an environment which can encourage life-long learning that people can improve their ability to adapt themselves to becoming the demand of the knowledge economy (Dahlman and Aubert, 2001).China is the biggest developing countries in the world who has participated in WTO in 2001 and there is no doubt that business is one of aspects the government wants to focus on. In terms of this, managers in China need more training and exposure, and the economic transformation has forced Chinese tertiary education institutions to develop a range of management training program (Dahlman and Aubert, 2001). While the economies of developed countries have achieved a certain level, however, further education can be more conducive to economic prosperity.National Centre Education Statistics (1997) states that education remains an important contributor to productivity growth. Education emphasis on improving the skills to the advanced technology, and it will cause an accretion of trained workers, which is beneficial to the growth of economy.
In addition, education also focuses on building the responsibilities of families, societies and even countries, which will inspire workers to improve the productivity and the economies can be increased.Education can improve workers’ employment stability and enable more educated workers to maintain their jobs or to quickly find new jobs in the face of changing economic conditions (National Centre Education Statistics, 1997) . Take Singapore as an example, the aftermath of the World War ? in the Pacific caused dislocations in economy in 1945 ,and people all clamored for economic opportunities. However, since Singapore separated from Malaysia (Gopinathan, 2008), the government took a large amount of measures on education which greatly increased the enthusiasm of skilled workers and productivity.Science and technology became the key elements that dictated a country’s level of competitiveness the overriding priority (Gopinathan, 2008). Education gradually became important in economic growth. Over the past 40 years, Singapore has perfectly transformed from a country similar to developing countries to a level of developed countries of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (Gopinathan, 2008).
Aside from economy, education also benefits the society, which influences the development of a country substantially. In less-development countries, the most outstanding issue is poverty, inherited largely with time.Brown (2008) points out that an enormous amount of people living in poverty is the children of those living in poverty in the past. To improve this, policy towards universal education, especially for girls, has been conducted to solve the problem, such as culture of poverty in these undeveloped countries (Brown, 2008). As we all know, Africa is the poorest area of the world,(LDCs,2010)needing to break away from poverty. According to Lutz (2008),more sustainable development in Africa has been achieved by efficient education which focus on the education of women.As a result, these higher-educated women tend to have fewer children than those lower levels and fewer population means that scarcity of society can be allocated efficiently, for example the teacher resources(Goujon,2008).
This will lead to a higher standard of education and more successful individuals will be produced to pull these underdeveloped areas, like Africa, out of poverty. Although a table from UNESCO(2007) illustrates that great achievements have been reached in poor countries, Plan(2008) argues that more access and efforts are needed to gain a brighter future prospects.Education also has influence on the society of developing countries. In these countries, the instability of society has negative effects on the development of them. One good example of instability is the gap between urban and rural areas, however, which can be improved by efficient education.
For instance, wider access to higher education has been provided for households in China by the recent Chinese education policy, focusing on diminishing this gap (Li, 2008).As a result, improvement has achieved. According to Whalley (2008), admission rates of university has a significant increase in rural areas in some developing countries, which is much faster than urban rates. Education also leads to a brighter future for children, especially the rural ones relative to the urban ones who has exposure on modern society. More chances are offered for those growing up in rural area by efficient education policy and resources become available for them(Plan,2008).After accepting education, they will understand more virtuous manners such as increasing the productivity of their land, selling surplus product and managing their household target (Plan, 2008). Despite the positive influences on the less-developed countries and developing countries, education also has a vital effect on the modern step of developed countries.
Gender gap is crucial issue in developed society requiring high attention to solve. Gender inequality has been applied to education system and has intense impact on both men and women in their future life(Chapman,2008).To advance this, inequality patterns, especially gender inequality, are reproduced in school education in several aspects(Pearson, 2007). Another important demonstration of this is course-taking which represents a large gender gap. For instance, women tends to take more liberal course and less mathematical or scientific course, which lead to a shortage in their further careers(Pearson, 2007). In terms of economic discipline, gender gap refers to the wage difference between men and women. A research(2007) shows that in 2004, the wages of women are 76.
5% comparing to men in United States.However, when experience education, women in United States earn 27 cents more than 69 cents previously per year for every dollar a man made 10 years after the graduation of university (AAUW Behind the Pay Gap, 1885). Education is important not only for the stability of the society but also for the sustainability of environment. Environmental problems exist all around the world including less developed countries, developing countries and developed countries.
Education is associated with education, it was a quarter of a century ago that education was described by Schumacher (1973) as a value resource for achieving sustainability.In less developed countries, the condition of environment is worse than developing and developed country because the civilization is backward and the residents receive little education. A illustrate of this is the degradation of natural resources in Somalia.
Due to the imperfect education system and the lack of government’s control, individuals there damage the natural resources without engagement and the environment structure has been disintegrated because of the abuse of resources. As a result, Somalia is faced with the decline of natural resources and the collapse of ecological environment. Haykal,2010). However, education plays a vital part in stopping environmental damage. For example, the local people in South Africa who have received environmental education from environmental educators are devoted to addressing local environmental issues more initiatively (O’Donoghue & Rensburg 1995).
With the widespread of education in South Africa, the condition of environment gets improved and the public pay attention to and take responsibility for the damage of environment. Developing countries are encountering environmental problems as well.The main reason for serious pollution and exhaustion of natural resources is the fast development of industry in these countries. The nations put emphasis on the speed of economic growth whereas neglect the protection of environment. Amazon rainforest deforestation is a case in point, it has been reported by Margulis (2004) that between 1991 and 2000 the rainforest in Amazon has decreased significantly, the total area of forest disappeared from 415,000 km2 to 587,000 km2 with most of the lost forests being used for the growth of productivity of agriculture and industry.
Wildlife habitat and plants species are destroyed by deforestation (West, 2008). As a result, it’s necessary to attach importance to the management of natural resources. Worried about the worsening conditions of Amazon rainforest, organizations include STARO (Save the Amazon Rainforest Organization) encourage providing education for indigenous peoples about sustainable practices, awareness and concern for the deforestation in Amazon rainforest (Jackson, 2009). This has worked successfully in some places in Brazil, the phenomena of deforestation has declined in Brazilian Amazon between 2005 and 2007 (West, 2008).Consequently, environmental education is an essential tool to deal with resource problems in developing countries. Although developed countries has completed industrial revolution and formed perfect education system, environmental problems also exist in these countries.
For instance, during the process of industrial revolution, developed countries emitted a large amount of CO2 into the air which is the main cause of global warming. In addition, the products and business produced by developed countries do not conform to the concept of sustainability.As a result, the countries long to improve the condition by promoting technical education. Education encourages innovation, which means new resources will substitute the non-renewable ones with the development of technology. One example of sustainable business practices is the invention of hybrid cars. According to Hartman (2010), Japan carmakers Toyota and Honda have produced such cars, which use both gasoline and electricity for power based on high technical education.
Hybrid cars are convinced to be cleaner and use less energy than traditional cars which barely use gasoline.As environmental education widely spread, many businesses in developed countries are beginning to respond to environmental concerns and attempting to do sustainable business practices. In conclusion, an enormous amount of evidence proves that education can provide wide access to the promotion in less-developed, developing and developed countries. Despite the level of education in different countries is controversial, the impact on accumulation of economy, prosperity of society, the quality of living standard and long-term development of nations cannot be neglected.In these countries, education makes apparent advancements towards economic growth, accompanying with an essential influence on the growth of individual or national income and improve productivity. Education also influence society actively, which conversely can be enhanced by social achievements as well.
This interaction forms a positive circle effecting on the development of nations eventually. In terms of environment, education provides key solutions for solving environmental problems existing in less developed, developing and developed countries.These countries have been devoted to recovering the ecological environment, treasuring the rare resources and attempting to do sustainable business practices currently. The changes which are contributed to the protection of environment are attributed to the widespread of education.
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