The of the NMR phenomenon to study
The Basics of NMR Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION pic NMR Spectroscopy Units Review pic NMR Nuclear magnetic resonance, or NMR as it is abbreviated by scientists, is a phenomenon which occurs when the nuclei of certain atoms are immersed in a static magnetic field and exposed to a second oscillating magnetic field. Some nuclei experience this phenomenon, and others do not, dependent upon whether they possess a property called spin. You will learn about spin and about the role of the magnetic fields in Chapter 2, but first let’s review where the nucleus is.Most of the matter you can examine with NMR is composed of molecules. Molecules are composed of atoms. Here are a few water molecules. picEach water molecule has one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms.
picIf we zoom into one of the hydrogens picpast the electron cloud we see a nucleus composed of a single proton. The proton possesses a property called spin which: 1. can be thought of as a small magnetic field, picand 2.
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will cause the nucleus to produce an NMR signal. Not all nuclei possess the property called spin. A list of these nuclei will be presented in Chapter 3 on spin physics. SpectroscopySpectroscopy is the study of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is the use of the NMR phenomenon to study physical, chemical, and biological properties of matter.
As a consequence, NMR spectroscopy finds applications in several areas of science. NMR spectroscopy is routinely used by chemists to study chemical structure using simple one-dimensional techniques. Two-dimensional techniques are used to determine the structure of more complicated molecules. These techniques are replacing x-ray crystallography for the determination of protein structure.Time domain NMR spectroscopic techniques are used to probe molecular dynamics in solutions. Solid state NMR spectroscopy is used to determine the molecular structure of solids.
Other scientists have developed NMR methods of measuring diffusion coefficients. The versatility of NMR makes it pervasive in the sciences. Scientists and students are discovering that knowledge of the science and technology of NMR is essential for applying, as well as developing, new applications for it. Unfortunately many of the dynamic concepts of NMR spectroscopy are difficult for the novice to understand when static diagrams in hard copy texts are used.The chapters in this hypertext book on NMR are designed in such a way to incorporate both static and dynamic figures with hypertext. This book presents a comprehensive picture of the basic principles necessary to begin using NMR spectroscopy, and it will provide you with an understanding of the principles of NMR from the microscopic, macroscopic, and system perspectives.
Units Review Before you can begin learning about NMR spectroscopy, you must be versed in the language of NMR. NMR scientists use a set of units when describing temperature, energy, frequency, etc.Please review these units before advancing to subsequent chapters in this text. Units of time are seconds (s). pic Angles are reported in degrees (o) and in radians (rad).
There are 2pic radians in 360o. pic The absolute temperature scale in Kelvin (K) is used in NMR. The Kelvin temperature scale is equal to the Celsius scale reading plus 273.
15. 0 K is characterized by the absence of molecular motion. There are no degrees in the Kelvin temperature unit. pic Magnetic field strength (B) is measured in Tesla (T). picThe earth’s magnetic field in Rochester, New York is approximately 5×10-5 T. pic The unit of energy (E) is the Joule (J).
In NMR one often depicts the relative energy of a particle using an energy level diagram. pic The frequency picof electromagnetic radiation may be reported in cycles per second or radians per second. Frequency in cycles per second (Hz) have units of inverse seconds (s-1) and are given the symbols picor f. Frequencies represented in radians per second (rad/s) are given the symbol pic. Radians tend to be used more to describe periodic circular motions. picThe conversion between Hz and rad/s is easy to remember.There are 2pic radians in a circle or cycle, therefore 2pic rad/s = 1 Hz = 1 s-1.
Power is the energy consumed per time and has units of Watts (W). pic Finally, it is common in science to use prefixes before units to indicate a power of ten. For example, 0. 005 seconds can be written as 5×10-3 s or as 5 ms. The m implies 10-3. The animation window contains a table of prefixes for powers of ten.
pic In the next chapter you will be introduced to the mathematical beckground necessary to begin your study of NMR. pic The Basics of NMR Chapter 2 THE MATHEMATICS OF NMR picExponential Functions Trigonometric Functions Differentials and Integrals Vectors Matrices Coordinate Transformations Convolutions Imaginary Numbers The Fourier Transform pic Exponential Functions The number 2. 71828183 occurs so often in calculations that it is given the symbol e. When e is raised to the power x, it is often written exp(x). ex = exp(x) = 2.
71828183x Logarithms based on powers of e are called natural logarithms. If x = ey then ln(x) = y, Many of the dynamic NMR processes are exponential in nature. For example, signals decay exponentially as a function of time.It is therefore essential to understand the nature of exponential curves. Three common exponential functions are y = e-x/t pic y = (1 – e-x/t) pic y = (1 – 2e-x/t) pic where t is a constant.
Trigonometric Functions The basic trigonometric functions sine picand cosine picdescribe sinusoidal functions which are 90o out of phase. The trigonometric identities are used in geometric calculations. pic Sin(pic) = Opposite / Hypotenuse Cos(pic) = Adjacent / Hypotenuse Tan(pic) = Opposite / Adjacent The function sin(x) / x occurs often and is called sinc(x). pic Differentials and IntegralsA differential can be thought of as the slope of a function at any point.
For the function pic the differential of y with respect to x is picpic An integral is the area under a function between the limits of the integral. picpic An integral can also be considered a sumation; in fact most integration is performed by computers by adding up values of the function between the integral limits. pic Vectors A vector is a quantity having both a magnitude and a direction. picThe magnetization from nuclear spins is represented as a vector emanating from the origin of the coordinate system.Here it is along the +Z axis. pic In this picture picthe vector is in the XY plane between the +X and +Y axes.
The vector has X and Y components and a magnitude equal to ( X2 + Y2 )1/2 Matrices A matrix is a set of numbers arranged in a rectangular array. picThis matrix has 3 rows and 4 columns and is said to be a 3 by 4 matrix. pic To multiply matrices the number of columns in the first must equal the number of rows in the second.
picClick sequentially on the next start buttons to see the individual steps associated with the multiplication. picpicpicpic Coordinate TransformationsA coordinate transformation is used to convert the coordinates of a vector in one coordinate system (XY) to that in another coordinate system (X”Y”). pic Convolution The convolution of two functions is the overlap of the two functions as one function is passed over the second. picThe convolution symbol is pic. The convolution of h(t) and g(t) is defined mathematically as pic The above equation is depicted for rectangular shaped h(t) and g(t) functions in this animation. pic Imaginary Numbers Imaginary numbers picare those which result from calculations involving the square root of -1.
Imaginary numbers are symbolized by i. A complex number is one which has a real (RE) and an imaginary (IM) part. The real and imaginary parts of a complex number are orthogonal. pic Two useful relations between complex numbers and exponentials are e+ix = cos(x) +isin(x) and e-ix = cos(x) -isin(x). Fourier Transforms The Fourier transform (FT) is a mathematical technique for converting time domain data to frequency domain data, and vice versa. pic The Fourier transform will be explained in detail in Chapter 5. pic The Basics of NMR Chapter 3 SPIN PHYSICS picSpin Properties of Spin Nuclei with Spin Energy Levels Transitions Energy Level Diagrams Continuous Wave NMR Experiment Boltzmann Statistics Spin Packets T1 Processes Precession T2 Processes Rotating Frame of Reference Pulsed Magnetic Fields Spin Relaxation Spin Exchange Bloch Equations pic Spin What is spin? Spin is a fundamental property of nature like electrical charge or mass.
Spin comes in multiples of 1/2 and can be + or -. Protons, electrons, and neutrons possess spin. Individual unpaired electrons, protons, and neutrons each possesses a spin of 1/2.In the deuterium atom ( 2H ), with one unpaired electron, one unpaired proton, and one unpaired neutron, the total electronic spin = 1/2 and the total nuclear spin = 1. pic Two or more particles with spins having opposite signs can pair up to eliminate the observable manifestations of spin. An example is helium. picIn nuclear magnetic resonance, it is unpaired nuclear spins that are of importance.
Properties of Spin When placed in a magnetic field of strength B, a particle with a net spin can absorb a photon, of frequency pic. The frequency picdepends on the gyromagnetic ratio, picof the particle. pic= picB For hydrogen, pic= 42. 58 MHz / T.
Nuclei with Spin The shell model for the nucleus tells us that nucleons, just like electrons, fill orbitals. When the number of protons or neutrons equals 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, and 126, orbitals are filled. Because nucleons have spin, just like electrons do, their spin can pair up when the orbitals are being filled and cancel out.
Almost every element in the periodic table has an isotope with a non zero nuclear spin. picNMR can only be performed on isotopes whose natural abundance is high enough to be detected.Some of the nuclei routinely used in NMR are listed below. |Nuclei |Unpaired Protons |Unpaired Neutrons |Net Spin |pic(MHz/T) | |1H |1 |0 |1/2 |42. 58 | |2H |1 |1 |1 |6. 54 | |31P |1 |0 |1/2 |17. 25 | |23Na |1 |2 |3/2 |11.
7 | |14N |1 |1 |1 |3. 08 | |13C |0 |1 |1/2 |10. 71 | |19F |1 |0 |1/2 |40. 08 | Energy Levels To understand how particles with spin behave in a magnetic field, consider a proton. picThis proton has the property called spin. Think of the spin of this proton as a magnetic moment vector, causing the proton to behave like a tiny magnet with a north and south pole.
pic When the proton is placed in an external magnetic field, the spin vector of the particle aligns itself with the external field, just like a magnet would. There is a low energy configuration or state where the poles are aligned N-S-N-S picand a high energy state N-N-S-S. pic Transitions This particle can undergo a transition between the two energy states by the absorption of a photon. A particle in the lower energy state absorbs a photon and ends up in the upper energy state. The energy of this photon must exactly match the energy difference between the two states.
The energy, E, of a photon is related to its frequency, pic, by Planck’s constant (h = 6. 626×10-34 J s). E = h picpic In NMR and MRI, the quantity picis called the resonance frequency and the Larmor frequency. Energy Level Diagrams The energy of the two spin states can be represented by an energy level diagram. picWe have seen that pic= picB and E = h pic, therefore the energy of the photon needed to cause a transition between the two spin states is E = h picB pic When the energy of the photon matches the energy difference between the two spin states an absorption of energy occurs.
pic In the NMR experiment, the frequency of the photon is in the radio frequency (RF) range. In NMR spectroscopy, picis between 60 and 800 MHz for hydrogen nuclei. In clinical MRI, picis typically between 15 and 80 MHz for hydrogen imaging. CW NMR Experiment The simplest NMR experiment is the continuous wave (CW) experiment. There are two ways of performing this experiment.
In the first, a constant frequency, which is continuously on, probes the energy levels while the magnetic field is varied. The energy of this frequency is represented by the blue line in the energy level diagram. pic The CW experiment can also be performed with a constant magnetic field and a frequency which is varied. The magnitude of the constant magnetic field is represented by the position of the vertical blue line in the energy level diagram. pic Boltzmann Statistics When a group of spins is placed in a magnetic field, each spin aligns in one of the two possible orientations.
pic At room temperature, the number of spins in the lower energy level, N+, slightly outnumbers the number in the upper level, N-. Boltzmann statistics tells us that N-/N+ = e-E/kT.E is the energy difference between the spin states; k is Boltzmann’s constant, 1. 3805×10-23 J/Kelvin; and T is the temperature in Kelvin.
As the temperature decreases, so does the ratio N- /N+. As the temperature increases, the ratio approaches one. The signal in NMR spectroscopy results from the difference between the energy absorbed by the spins which make a transition from the lower energy state to the higher energy state, and the energy emitted by the spins which simultaneously make a transition from the higher energy state to the lower energy state.The signal is thus proportional to the population difference between the states. NMR is a rather sensitive spectroscopy since it is capable of detecting these very small population differences. It is the resonance, or exchange of energy at a specific frequency between the spins and the spectrometer, which gives NMR its sensitivity. Spin Packets It is cumbersome to describe NMR on a microscopic scale.
A macroscopic picture is more convenient. The first step in developing the macroscopic picture is to define the spin packet. A spin packet is a group of spins experiencing the same magnetic field strength.
In this example, the spins within each grid section represent a spin packet. pic At any instant in time, the magnetic field due to the spins in each spin packet can be represented by a magnetization vector. pic The size of each vector is proportional to (N+ – N-). The vector sum of the magnetization vectors from all of the spin packets is the net magnetization. In order to describe pulsed NMR is necessary from here on to talk in terms of the net magnetization.
pic Adapting the conventional NMR coordinate system, the external magnetic field and the net agnetization vector at equilibrium are both along the Z axis. pic T1 Processes At equilibrium, the net magnetization vector lies along the direction of the applied magnetic field Bo and is called the equilibrium magnetization Mo. In this configuration, the Z component of magnetization MZ equals Mo. MZ is referred to as the longitudinal magnetization. There is no transverse (MX or MY) magnetization here. pic It is possible to change the net magnetization by exposing the nuclear spin system to energy of a frequency equal to the energy difference between the spin states.If enough energy is put into the system, it is possible to saturate the spin system and make MZ=0.
pic The time constant which describes how MZ returns to its equilibrium value is called the spin lattice relaxation time (T1). The equation governing this behavior as a function of the time t after its displacement is: Mz = Mo ( 1 – e-t/T1 ) pic T1 is therefore defined as the time required to change the Z component of magnetization by a factor of e. pic If the net magnetization is placed along the -Z axis, it will gradually return to its equilibrium position along the +Z axis at a rate governed by T1. picThe equation governing this behavior as a function of the time t after its displacement is: Mz = Mo ( 1 – 2e-t/T1 ) pic The spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) is the time to reduce the difference between the longitudinal magnetization (MZ) and its equilibrium value by a factor of e. Precession If the net magnetization is placed in the XY plane picit will rotate about the Z axis at a frequency equal to the frequency of the photon which would cause a transition between the two energy levels of the spin.
This frequency is called the Larmor frequency. pic T2 ProcessesIn addition to the rotation, the net magnetization starts to dephase because each of the spin packets making it up is experiencing a slightly different magnetic field and rotates at its own Larmor frequency. The longer the elapsed time, the greater the phase difference.
Here the net magnetization vector is initially along +Y. For this and all dephasing examples think of this vector as the overlap of several thinner vectors from the individual spin packets. pic The time constant which describes the return to equilibrium of the transverse magnetization, MXY, is called the spin-spin relaxation time, T2.MXY =MXYo e-t/T2 pic T2 is always less than or equal to T1. The net magnetization in the XY plane goes to zero and then the longitudinal magnetization grows in until we have Mo along Z. pic Any transverse magnetization behaves the same way.
picThe transverse component rotates about the direction of applied magnetization and dephases. T1 governs the rate of recovery of the longitudinal magnetization. In summary, the spin-spin relaxation time, T2, is the time to reduce the transverse magnetization by a factor of e. In the previous sequence, T2 and T1 processes are shown separately for clarity.That is, the magnetization vectors are shown filling the XY plane completely before growing back up along the Z axis. Actually, both processes occur simultaneously with the only restriction being that T2 is less than or equal to T1.
Two factors contribute to the decay of transverse magnetization. 1) molecular interactions (said to lead to a pure pure T2 molecular effect) 2) variations in Bo (said to lead to an inhomogeneous T2 effect The combination of these two factors is what actually results in the decay of transverse magnetization. The combined time constant is called T2 star and is given the symbol T2*.The relationship between the T2 from molecular processes and that from inhomogeneities in the magnetic field is as follows.
1/T2* = 1/T2 + 1/T2inhomo. Rotating Frame of Reference We have just looked at the behavior of spins in the laboratory frame of reference. It is convenient to define a rotating frame of reference which rotates about the Z axis at the Larmor frequency.
We distinguish this rotating coordinate system from the laboratory system by primes on the X and Y axes, X’Y’. pic A magnetization vector rotating at the Larmor frequency in the laboratory frame appears stationary in a frame of reference rotating about the Z axis.In the rotating frame, relaxation of MZ magnetization to its equilibrium value looks the same as it did in the laboratory frame. pic A transverse magnetization vector rotating about the Z axis at the same velocity as the rotating frame will appear stationary in the rotating frame. picA magnetization vector traveling faster than the rotating frame rotates clockwise about the Z axis. picA magnetization vector traveling slower than the rotating frame rotates counter-clockwise about the Z axis .
pic In a sample there are spin packets traveling faster and slower than the rotating frame.As a consequence, when the mean frequency of the sample is equal to the rotating frame, the dephasing of MX’Y’ looks like this. pic Pulsed Magnetic Fields A coil of wire placed around the X axis will provide a magnetic field along the X axis when a direct current is passed through the coil. picAn alternating current will produce a magnetic field which alternates in direction. pic In a frame of reference rotating about the Z axis at a frequency equal to that of the alternating current, the magnetic field along the X’ axis will be constant, just as in the direct current case in the laboratory frame.
picpic This is the same as moving the coil about the rotating frame coordinate system at the Larmor Frequency. In magnetic resonance, the magnetic field created by the coil passing an alternating current at the Larmor frequency is called the B1 magnetic field. When the alternating current through the coil is turned on and off, it creates a pulsed B1 magnetic field along the X’ axis. The spins respond to this pulse in such a way as to cause the net magnetization vector to rotate about the direction of the applied B1 field. The rotation angle depends on the length of time the field is on, pic, and its magnitude B1. pic= 2pic picpicB1. In our examples, picwill be assumed to be much smaller than T1 and T2.
A 90o pulse is one which rotates the magnetization vector clockwise by 90 degrees about the X’ axis. A 90o pulse rotates the equilibrium magnetization down to the Y’ axis. picIn the laboratory frame the equilibrium magnetization spirals down around the Z axis to the XY plane. picYou can see why the rotating frame of reference is helpful in describing the behavior of magnetization in response to a pulsed magnetic field. A 180o pulse will rotate the magnetization vector by 180 degrees.A 180o pulse rotates the equilibrium magnetization down to along the -Z axis.
pic The net magnetization at any orientation will behave according to the rotation equation. For example, a net magnetization vector along the Y’ axis will end up along the -Y’ axis when acted upon by a 180o pulse of B1 along the X’ axis. pic A net magnetization vector between X’ and Y’ will end up between X’ and Y’ after the application of a 180o pulse of B1 applied along the X’ axis. pic A rotation matrix (described as a coordinate transformation in #2. 6 Chapter 2) can also be used to predict the result of a rotation.Here picis the rotation angle about the X’ axis, X’, Y’, Z is the initial location of the vector, and X”, Y”, Z” the location of the vector after the rotation. pic Spin Relaxation Motions in solution which result in time varying magnetic fields cause spin relaxation.
picpic Time varying fields at the Larmor frequency cause transitions between the spin states and hence a change in MZ. This screen depicts the field at the green hydrogen on the water molecule as it rotates about the external field Bo and a magnetic field from the blue hydrogen. picNote that the field experienced at the green hydrogen is sinusoidal.There is a distribution of rotation frequencies in a sample of molecules. Only frequencies at the Larmor frequency affect T1. Since the Larmor frequency is proportional to Bo, T1 will therefore vary as a function of magnetic field strength. picIn general, T1 is inversely proportional to the density of molecular motions at the Larmor frequency.
The rotation frequency distribution depends on the temperature and viscosity of the solution. Therefore T1 will vary as a function of temperature. picAt the Larmor frequency indicated by pico, T1 (280 K ) < T1 (340 K).The temperature of the human body does not vary by enough to cause a significant influence on T1. The viscosity does however vary significantly from tissue to tissue and influences T1 as is seen in the following molecular motion plot.
pic Fluctuating fields which perturb the energy levels of the spin states cause the transverse magnetization to dephase. This can be seen by examining the plot of Bo experienced by the red hydrogens on the following water molecule. picThe number of molecular motions less than and equal to the Larmor frequency is inversely proportional to T2.In general, relaxation times get longer as Bo increases because there are fewer relaxation-causing frequency components present in the random motions of the molecules. Spin Exchange Spin exchange is the exchange of spin state between two spins.
For example, if we have two spins, A and B, and A is spin up and B is spin down, spin exchange between A and B can be represented with the following equation. A(pic) + B(pic) picA(pic) + B(pic) The bidirectional arrow indicates that the exchange reaction is reversible. The energy difference between the upper and lower energy states of A and of B must be the same for spin exchange to occur.On a microscopic scale, the spin in the upper energy state (B) is emitting a photon which is being absorbed by the spin in the lower energy state (A).
Therefore, B ends up in the lower energy state and A in the upper state. pic Spin exchange will not affect T1 but will affect T2. T1 is not effected because the distribution of spins between the upper and lower states is not changed. T2 will be affected because phase coherence of the transverse magnetization is lost during exchange. Another form of exchange is called chemical exchange. In chemical exchange, the A and B nuclei are from different molecules.Consider the chemical exchange between water and ethanol.
CH3CH2OHA + HOHB picCH3CH2OHB + HOHA Here the B hydrogen of water ends up on ethanol, and the A hydrogen on ethanol ends up on water in the forward reaction. There are four senarios for the nuclear spin, represented by the four equations. pic Chemical exchange will affect both T1 and T2. T1 is now affected because energy is transferred from one nucleus to another. For example, if there are more nuclei in the upper state of A, and a normal Boltzmann distribution in B, exchange will force the excess energy from A into B.The effect will make T1 appear smaller.
T2 is effected because phase coherence of the transverse magnetization is not preserved during chemical exchange. Bloch Equations The Bloch equations are a set of coupled differential equations which can be used to describe the behavior of a magnetizatiion vector under any conditions. picWhen properly integrated, the Bloch equations will yield the X’, Y’, and Z components of magnetization as a function of time. pic The Basics of NMR Chapter 4 NMR SPECTROSCOPY pic Chemical Shift Spin-Spin Coupling The Time Domain NMR Signal The +/- Frequency Convention pic Chemical Shift When an atom is placed in a magnetic field, its electrons circulate about the direction of the applied magnetic field.
This circulation causes a small magnetic field at the nucleus which opposes the externally applied field. picpic The magnetic field at the nucleus (the effective field) is therefore generally less than the applied field by a fraction pic. B = Bo (1-? ) In some cases, such as the benzene molecule, the circulation of the electrons in the aromatic picorbitals creates a magnetic field at the hydrogen nuclei which enhances the Bo field.This phenomenon is called deshielding. picIn this example, the Bo field is applied perpendicular to the plane of the molecule. The ring current is traveling clockwise if you look down at the plane.
The electron density around each nucleus in a molecule varies according to the types of nuclei and bonds in the molecule. The opposing field and therefore the effective field at each nucleus will vary. This is called the chemical shift phenomenon. Consider the methanol molecule. picThe resonance frequency of two types of nuclei in this example differ.
This difference will depend on the strength of the magnetic field, Bo, used to perform the NMR spectroscopy. The greater the value of Bo, the greater the frequency difference. This relationship could make it difficult to compare NMR spectra taken on spectrometers operating at different field strengths. The term chemical shift was developed to avoid this problem. The chemical shift of a nucleus is the difference between the resonance frequency of the nucleus and a standard, relative to the standard. This quantity is reported in ppm and given the symbol delta, pic.
? = (? – ? REF) x106 / ?REF In NMR spectroscopy, this standard is often tetramethylsilane, Si(CH3)4, abbreviated TMS. The chemical shift is a very precise metric of the chemical environment around a nucleus. For example, the hydrogen chemical shift of a CH2 hydrogen next to a Cl will be different than that of a CH3 next to the same Cl. It is therefore difficult to give a detailed list of chemical shifts in a limited space.
The animation window displays a chart of selected hydrogen chemical shifts of pure liquids and some gasses. picpic The magnitude of the screening depends on the atom. For example, carbon-13 hemical shifts are much greater than hydrogen-1 chemical shifts.
The following tables present a few selected chemical shifts of fluorine-19 containing compounds, picpiccarbon-13 containing compounds, picpicnitrogen-14 containing compounds, picpicand phosphorous-31 containing compounds. picpicThese shifts are all relative to the bare nucleus. The reader is directed to a more comprehensive list of chemical shifts for use in spectral interpretation. picpicpic Spin-Spin Coupling Nuclei experiencing the same chemical environment or chemical shift are called equivalent.Those nuclei experiencing different environment or having different chemical shifts are nonequivalent. Nuclei which are close to one another exert an influence on each other’s effective magnetic field. This effect shows up in the NMR spectrum when the nuclei are nonequivalent.
If the distance between non-equivalent nuclei is less than or equal to three bond lengths, this effect is observable. This effect is called spin-spin coupling or J coupling. Consider the following example.
There are two nuclei, A and B, three bonds away from one another in a molecule. picThe spin of each nucleus can be either aligned with the external field such that the fields are N-S-N-S, called spin up pic, or opposed to the external field such that the fields are N-N-S-S, called spin down pic. The magnetic field at nucleus A will be either greater than Bo or less than Bo by a constant amount due to the influence of nucleus B. pic There are a total of four possible configurations for the two nuclei in a magnetic field. Arranging these configurations in order of increasing energy gives the following arrangement. picThe vertical lines in this diagram represent the allowed transitions between energy levels. In NMR, an allowed transition is one where the spin of one nucleus changes from spin up picto spin down pic, or spin down picto spin up pic.
Absorptions of energy where two or more nuclei change spin at the same time are not allowed. There are two absorption frequencies for the A nucleus and two for the B nucleus represented by the vertical lines between the energy levels in this diagram. The NMR spectrum for nuclei A and B reflects the splittings observed in the energy level diagram.The A absorption line is split into 2 absorption lines centered on picA, and the B absorption line is split into 2 lines centered on picB. The distance between two split absorption lines is called the J coupling constant or the spin-spin splitting constant and is a measure of the magnetic interaction between two nuclei.
pic For the next example, consider a molecule with three spin 1/2 nuclei, one type A and two type B. picThe type B nuclei are both three bonds away from the type A nucleus. The magnetic field at the A nucleus has three possible values due to four possible spin configurations of the two B nuclei. picThe magnetic field at a B nucleus has two possible values. pic The energy level diagram for this molecule has six states or levels because there are two sets of levels with the same energy.
picEnergy levels with the same energy are said to be degenerate. The vertical lines represent the allowed transitions or absorptions of energy. Note that there are two lines drawn between some levels because of the degeneracy of those levels.
The resultant NMR spectrum is depicted in the animation window. picNote that the center absorption line of those centered at picA is twice as high as the either of the outer two.This is because there were twice as many transitions in the energy level diagram for this transition. The peaks at picB are taller because there are twice as many B type spins than A type spins.
The complexity of the splitting pattern in a spectrum increases as the number of B nuclei increases. The following table contains a few examples. |Configuration |Peak Ratios | |A |1 | |AB |1:1 | |AB2 |1:2:1 | |AB3 |1:3:3:1 | AB4 |1:4:6:4:1 | |AB5 |1:5:10:10:5:1 | |AB6 |1:6:15:20:15:6:1 | This series is called Pascal’s triangle and can be calculated from the coefficients of the expansion of the equation (x+1)n where n is the number of B nuclei in the above table.
When there are two different types of nuclei three bonds away picthere will be two values of J, one for each pair of nuclei. By now you get the idea of the number of possible configurations and the energy level diagram for these configurations, so we can skip to the spectrum.In the following example JAB is greater JBC. pic The Time Domain NMR Signal An NMR sample may contain many different magnetization components, each with its own Larmor frequency. These magnetization components are associated with the nuclear spin configurations joined by an allowed transition line in the energy level diagram. Based on the number of allowed absorptions due to chemical shifts and spin-spin couplings of the different nuclei in a molecule, an NMR spectrum may contain many different frequency lines.
In pulsed NMR spectroscopy, signal is detected after these magnetization vectors are rotated into the XY plane.Once a magnetization vector is in the XY plane it rotates about the direction of the Bo field, the +Z axis. As transverse magnetization rotates about the Z axis, it will induce a current in a coil of wire located around the X axis. picPlotting current as a function of time gives a sine wave.
picThis wave will, of course, decay with time constant T2* due to dephasing of the spin packets. This signal is called a free induction decay (FID). picWe will see in Chapter 5 how the FID is converted into a frequency domain spectrum.
picYou will see in Chapter 6 what sequence of events will produce a time domain signal.The +/- Frequency Convention Transverse magnetization vectors rotating faster than the rotating frame of reference are said to be rotating at a positive frequency relatve to the rotating frame (+? ). picVectors rotating slower than the rotating frame are said to be rotating at a negative frequency relative to the rotating frame (-? ). pic It is worthwhile noting here that in most NMR spectra, the resonance frequency of a nucleus, as well as the magnetic field experienced by the nucleus and the chemical shift of a nucleus, increase from right to left.The frequency plots used in this hypertext book to describe Fourier transforms will use the more conventional mathematical axis of frequency increasing from left to right. pic The Basics of NMR Chapter 5 FOURIER TRANSFORMS pic Introduction The + and – Frequency Problem The Fourier Transform Phase Correction Fourier Pairs The Convolution Theorem The Digital FT Sampling Error The Two-Dimensional FT pic Introduction A detailed description of the Fourier transform ( FT ) has waited until now, when you have a better appreciation of why it is needed.A Fourier transform is an operation which converts functions from time to frequency domains.
An inverse Fourier transform ( IFT ) converts from the frequency domain to the time domain. Recall from Chapter 2 that the Fourier transform is a mathematical technique for converting time domain data to frequency domain data, and vice versa. pic The + and – Frequency Problem To begin our detailed description of the FT consider the following.
A magnetization vector, starting at +x, is rotating about the Z axis in a clockwise direction. The plot of Mx as a function of time is a cosine wave. picFourier transforming this gives peaks at both +pic and -pic because the FT can not distinguish between a +pic and a -pic rotation of the vector from the data supplied.
pic A plot of My as a function of time is a -sine function. picFourier transforming this gives peaks at +pic and -pic because the FT can not distinguish between a positive vector rotating at +pic and a negative vector rotating at -pic from the data supplied. pic The solution is to input both the Mx and My into the FT. The FT is designed to handle two orthogonal input functions called the real and imaginary components.
pic Detecting just the Mx or My component for input into the FT is called linear detection. This was the detection scheme on many older NMR spectrometers and some magnetic resonance imagers. It required the computer to discard half of the frequency domain data. pic Detection of both Mx and My is called quadrature detection and is the method of detection on modern spectrometers and imagers.
It is the method of choice since now the FT can distinguish between +pic and -pic, and all of the frequency domain data be used. pic The Fourier Transform An FT is defined by the integral picpic pic Think of f(pic) as the overlap of f(t) with a wave of frequency pic. pic This is easy to picture by looking at the real part of f(pic) only. pic Consider the function of time, f( t ) = cos( 4t ) + cos( 9t ).
pic To understand the FT, examine the product of f(t) with cos(pict) for picvalues between 1 and 10, and then the summation of the values of this product between 1 and 10 seconds. The summation will only be examined for time values between 0 and 10 seconds. |picpic=| |1 | |picpic=| |2 | |picpic=| |3 | |picpic=| |4 | picpic=| |5 | |picpic=| |6 | |picpic=| |7 | |picpic=| |8 | |picpic=| |9 | |picpic=| |10 | |picf(pic| |) | The inverse Fourier transform (IFT) is best depicted as an summation of the time domain spectra of frequencies in f(pic). pic Phase Correction The actual FT will make use of an input consisting of a REAL and an IMAGINARY part. You can think of Mx as the REAL input, and My as the IMAGINARY input. The resultant output of the FT will therefore have a REAL and an IMAGINARY component, too.Consider the following function: f(t) = e-at e-i2picpict pic In FT NMR spectroscopy, the real output of the FT is taken as the frequency domain spectrum.
To see an esthetically pleasing (absorption) frequency domain spectrum, we want to input a cosine function into the real part and a sine function into the imaginary parts of the FT. This is what happens if the cosine part is input as the imaginary and the sine as the real. pic To obtain an absorption spectrum as the real output of the FT, a phase correction must be applied to either the time or frequency domain spectra.
This process is equivalent to the coordinate transformation described in Chapter 2 pic If the above mentioned FID is recorded such that there is a 45o phase shift in the real and imaginary FIDs, picthe coordinate transformation matrix can be used with pic= – 45o. The corrected FIDs look like a cosine function in the real and a sine in the imaginary. pic Fourier transforming the phase corrected FIDs gives an absorption spectrum for the real output of the FT. picThis correction can be done in the frequency domain as well as in the time domain.NMR spectra require both constant and linear corrections to the phasing of the Fourier transformed signal. pic= m pic+ b Constant phase corrections, b, arise from the inability of the spectrometer to detect the exact Mx and My. Linear phase corrections, m, arise from the inability of the spectrometer to detect transverse magnetization starting immediately after the RF pulse.
In magnetic resonance, the Mx or My signals are displayed. A magnitude signal might occasionally be used in some applications. The magnitude signal is equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of Mx and My. Fourier PairsTo better understand FT NMR functions, you need to know some common Fourier pairs. picpicA Fourier pair is two functions, the frequency domain form and the corresponding time domain form. Here are a few Fourier pairs which are useful in NMR.
The amplitude of the Fourier pairs has been neglected since it is not relevant in NMR. picConstant value at all time picReal: cos(2picpict), Imaginary: -sin(2picpict) picComb Function (A series of delta functions separated by T. ) picExponential Decay: e-at for t > 0. picA square pulse starting at 0 that is T seconds long. picGaussian: exp(-at2)Convolution Theorem To the magnetic resonance scientist, the most important theorem concerning Fourier transforms is the convolution theorem. The convolution theorem says that the FT of a convolution of two functions is proportional to the products of the individual Fourier transforms, and vice versa. picpic If f(pic) = FT( f(t) ) and g(pic) = FT( g(t) ) then f(pic) g(pic) = FT( g(t) picf(t) ) and f(pic) picg(pic) = FT( g(t) f(t) ) It will be easier to see this with pictures.
In the animation window we are trying to find the FT of a sine wave which is turned on and off. picThe convolution theorem tells us that this is a sinc function at the frequency of the sine wave. Another application of the convolution theorem is in noise reduction. With the convolution theorem it can be seen that the convolution of an NMR spectrum with a Lorentzian function is the same as the Fourier Transform of multiplying the time domain signal by an exponentially decaying function. pic The Digital FT In a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer, the computer does not see a continuous FID, but rather an FID which is sampled at a constant interval. Each data point making up the FID will have discrete amplitude and time values.Therefore, the computer needs to take the FT of a series of delta functions which vary in intensity.
pic Sampling Error The wrap around problem or artifact in a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum is the appearance of one side of the spectrum on the opposite side. In terms of a one dimensional frequency domain spectrum, wrap around is the occurrence of a low frequency peak which occurs on the high frequency side of the spectrum. The convolution theorem can explain why this problem results from sampling the transverse magnetization at too slow a rate. First, observe what the FT of a correctly sampled FID looks like. picWith quadrature detection, the spectral width is equal to the inverse of the sampling frequency, or the width of the green box in the animation window.
When the sampling frequency is less than the spectral width, wrap around occurs. pic The Two-Dimensional FT The two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-DFT) picis an FT performed on a two dimensional array of data. Consider the two-dimensional array of data depicted in the animation window.
picThis data has a t’ and a t” dimension. A FT is first performed on the data in one dimension and then in the second.The first set of Fourier transforms are performed in the t’ dimension to yield an f’ by t” set of data.
picThe second set of Fourier transforms is performed in the t” dimension to yield an f’ by f” set of data. pic The 2-DFT is required to perform state-of-the-art MRI. In MRI, data is collected in the equivalent of the t’ and t” dimensions, called k-space. This raw data is Fourier transformed to yield the image which is the equivalent of the f’ by f” data described above. pic The Basics of NMR Chapter 6 PULSE SEQUENCES pic Introduction The 90-FID Sequence The Spin-Echo SequenceThe Inversion Recovery Sequence pic Introduction You have seen in Chapter 5 how a time domain signal can be converted into a frequency domain signal. In this chapter you will learn a few of the ways that a time domain signal can be created.
Three methods are presented here, but there are an infinite number of possibilities. These methods are called pulse sequences. A pulse sequence is a set of RF pulses applied to a sample to produce a specific form of NMR signal. The 90-FID Sequence In the 90-FID pulse sequence, net magnetization is rotated down into the X’Y’ plane with a 90o pulse. picThe net magnetization vector begins to precess about the +Z axis. picThe magnitude of the vector also decays with time.
pic A timing diagram is a multiple axis plot of some aspect of a pulse sequence versus time. A timing diagram for a 90-FID pulse sequence has a plot of RF energy versus time and another for signal versus time. picpicpic When this sequence is repeated, for example when signal-to-noise improvement is needed, the amplitude of the signal after being Fourier transformed (S) will depend on T1 and the time between repetitions, called the repetition time (TR), of the sequence.In the signal equation below, k is a proportionality constant and picis the density of spins in the sample. S = k pic( 1 – e-TR/T1 ) The Spin-Echo Sequence Another commonly used pulse sequence is the spin-echo pulse sequence.
picpicHere a 90o pulse is first applied to the spin system. picThe 90o degree pulse rotates the magnetization down into the X’Y’ plane. The transverse magnetization begins to dephase. picAt some point in time after the 90o pulse, a 180o pulse is applied.
This pulse rotates the magnetization by 180o about the X’ axis. picThe 180o pulse causes the magnetization to at least partially rephase and to produce a signal called an echo. pic A timing diagram shows the relative positions of the two radio frequency pulses and the signal.
pic The signal equation for a repeated spin echo sequence as a function of the repetition time, TR, and the echo time (TE) defined as the time between the 90o pulse and the maximum amplitude in the echo is S = k pic( 1 – e-TR/T1 ) e-TE/T2 The Inversion Recovery Sequence An inversion recovery pulse sequence can also be used to record an NMR spectrum. In this sequence, a 180o pulse is first applied.This rotates the net magnetization down to the -Z axis. picThe magnetization undergoes spin-lattice relaxation and returns toward its equilibrium position along the +Z axis. picBefore it reaches equilibrium, a 90o pulse is applied which rotates the longitudinal magnetization into the XY plane. In this example, the 90o pulse is applied shortly after the 180o pulse. picOnce magnetization is present in the XY plane it rotates about the Z axis and dephases giving a FID.
Once again, the timing diagram shows the relative positions of the two radio frequency pulses and the signal. pic The signal as a function of TI when the sequence is not repeated is S = k pic( 1 – 2e-TI/T1 ) pic It should be noted at this time that the zero crossing of this function occurs for TI = T1 ln2. pic The Basics of NMR Chapter 7 NMR HARDWARE pic Hardware Overview Magnet Field Lock Shim Coils Sample Probe RF Coils Gradient Coils Quadrature Detector Digital Filtering Safety pic Hardware Overview The graphics window displays a schematic representation of the major systems of a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer and a few of the major interconnections. This overview briefly states the function of each component.
Some will be described in detail later in this chapter. pic At the top of the schematic representation, you will find the superconducting magnet of the NMR spectrometer. The magnet produces the Bo field necessary for the NMR experiments.
Immediately within the bore of the magnet are the shim coils for homogenizing the Bo field. Within the shim coils is the probe. The probe contains the RF coils for producing the B1 magnetic field necessary to rotate the spins by 90o or 180o. The RF coil also detects the signal from the spins within the sample. The sample is positioned within the RF coil of the probe.Some probes also contain a set of gradient coils.
These coils produce a gradient in Bo along the X, Y, or Z axis. Gradient coils are used for for gradient enhanced spectroscopy (See Chapter 11. ), diffusion (See Chapter 11. ), and NMR microscopy (See Chapter 11.
) experiments. The heart of the spectrometer is the computer. It controls all of the components of the spectrometer. The RF components under control of the computer are the RF frequency source and pulse programmer. The source produces a sine wave of the desired frequency.
The pulse programmer sets the width, and in some cases the shape, of the RF pulses.The RF amplifier increases the pulses power from milli Watts to tens or hundreds of Watts. The computer also controls the gradient pulse programmer which sets the shape and amplitude of gradient fields.
The gradient amplifier increases the power of the gradient pulses to a level sufficient to drive the gradient coils. The operator of the spectrometer gives input to the computer through a console terminal with a mouse and keyboard. Some spectrometers also have a separate small interface for carrying out some of the more routine procedures on the spectrometer.A pulse sequence is selected and customized from the console terminal.
The operator can see spectra on a video display located on the console and can make hard copies of spectra using a printer. The next sections of this chapter go into more detail concerning the magnet, lock, shim coils, gradient coils, RF coils, and RF detector of nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Magnet The NMR magnet is one of the most expensive components of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer system. Most magnets are of the superconducting type. This is a picture of a 7. Tesla superconducting magnet from an NMR spectrometer.
picA superconducting magnet has an electromagnet made of superconducting wire. Superconducting wire has a resistance approximately equal to zero when it is cooled to a temperature close to absolute zero (-273. 15o C or 0 K) by emersing it in liquid helium.
Once current is caused to flow in the coil it will continue to flow for as long as the coil is kept at liquid helium temperatures. pic(Some losses do occur over time due to the infinitesimally small resistance of the coil. These losses are on the order of a ppm of the main magnetic field per year. The length of superconducting wire in the magnet is typically several miles. This wire is wound into a multi-turn solenoid or coil. The coil of wire is kept at a temperature of 4.
2K by immersing it in liquid helium. The coil and liquid helium are kept in a large dewar. This dewar is typically surrounded by a liquid nitrogen (77. 4K) dewar, which acts as a thermal buffer between the room temperature air (293K) and the liquid helium. A cross sectional view of the superconducting magnet, depicting the concentric dewars, can be found in the animation window. pic The following image is an actual cut-away view of a superconducting magnet. picThe magnet is supported by three legs, and the concentric nitrogen and helium dewars are supported by stacks coming out of the top of the magnet.
A room temperature bore hole extends through the center of the assembly. The sample probe and shim coils are located within this bore hole. Also depicted in this picture is the liquid nitrogen level sensor, an electronic assembly for monitoring the liquid nitrogen level.
Going from the outside of the magnet to the inside, picwe see a vacuum region followed by a liquid nitrogen reservoir.The vacuum region is filled with several layers of a reflective mylar film. The function of the mylar is to reflect thermal photons, and thus diminish heat from entering the magnet.
Within the inside wall of the liquid nitrogen reservoir, we see another vacuum filled with some reflective mylar. The liquid helium reservoir comes next. This reservoir houses the superconducting solenoid or coil of wire. Taking a closer look at the solenoid it is clear to see the coil and the bore tube extending through the magnet. pic Field Lock In order to produce a high resolution NMR spectrum of a sample, especially ne which requires signal averaging or phase cycling, you need to have a temporally constant and spatially homogeneous magnetic field. Consistency of the Bo field over time will be discussed here; homogeneity will be discussed in the next section of this chapter.
The field strength might vary over time due to aging of the magnet, movement of metal objects near the magnet, and temperature fluctuations. Here is an example of a one line NMR spectrum of cyclohexane recorded while the Bo magnetic field was drifting a very significant amount. picThe field lock can compensate for these variations.
The field lock is a separate NMR spectrometer within your spectrometer. This spectrometer is typically tuned to the deuterium NMR resonance frequency. It constantly monitors the resonance frequency of the deuterium signal and makes minor changes in the Bo magnetic field to keep the resonance frequency constant. The deuterium signal comes from the deuterium solvent used to prepare the sample.
The animation window piccontains plots of the deuterium resonance lock frequency, the small additional magnetic field used to correct the lock frequency, and the resultant Bo field as a function of time while the magnetic field is drifting.The lock frequency plot displays the frequency without correction. In reality, this frequency would be kept constant by the application of the lock field which offsets the drift. On most NMR spectrometers the deuterium lock serves a second function. It provides the pic=0 reference. The resonance frequency of the deuterium signal in many lock solvents is well known.
Therefore the difference in resonance frequency of the lock solvent and TMS is also known. As a consequence, TMS does not need to be added to the sample to set pic=0; the spectrometer can use the lock frequency to calculate pic=0.Shim Coils The purpose of shim coils on a spectrometer is to correct minor spatial inhomogeneities in the Bo magnetic field. These inhomogeneities could be caused by the magnet design, materials in the probe, variations in the thickness of the sample tube, sample permeability, and ferromagnetic materials around the magnet. A shim coil is designed to create a small magnetic field which will oppose and cancel out an inhomogeneity in the Bo magnetic field. picBecause these variations may exist in a variety of functional forms (linear, parabolic, etc.
, shim coils are needed which can create a variety of opposing fields. Some of the functional forms are listed in the table below. Shim Coil Functional Forms |Shim |Function | |Z0 |pic | |Z |pic | |Z2 |pic | |Z3 |pic | |Z4 |pic | |Z5 |pic | |X |pic | |XZ |pic | |XZ2 |pic | |X2Y2 |pic | |XY |pic | |Y |pic | |YZ |pic | YZ2 |pic | |XZ3 |pic | |X2Y2Z |pic | |YZ3 |pic | |XYZ |pic | |X3 |pic | |Y3 |pic | By passing the appropriate amount of current through each coil a homogeneous Bo magnetic field can be achieved. The optimum shim current settings are found by either minimizing the linewidth, maximizing the size of the FID, or maximizing the signal from the field lock. On most spectrometers, the shim coils are controllable by the computer.A computer algorithm has the task of finding the best shim value by maximizing the lock signal.
Sample Probe The sample probe is the name given to that part of the spectrometer which accepts the sample, sends RF energy into the sample, and detects the signal emanating from the sample. It contains the RF coil, sample spinner, temperature controlling circuitry, and gradient coils. The RF coil and gradient coils will be described in the next two sections. The sample spinner and temperature controlling circuitry will be described here.
The purpose of the sample spinner is to rotate the NMR sample tube about its axis. In doing so, each spin in the sample located at a given position along the Z axis and radius from the Z axis, will experience the average magnetic field in the circle defined by this Z and radius. The net effect is a narrower spectral linewidth. To appreciate this phenomenon, consider the following examples. Picture an axial cross section of a cylindrical tube containing sample. In a very homogeneous Bo magnetic field this sample will yield a narrow spectrum. picIn a more inhomogeneous field the sample will yield a broader spectrum due to the presence of lines from the parts of the sample experiencing different Bo magnetic fields.
picWhen the sample is spun about its z-axis, inhomogeneities in the X and Y directions are averaged out and the NMR line width becomes narrower. pic Many scientists need to examine properties of their samples as a function of temperature. As a result many instruments have the ability to maintain the temperature of the sample above and below room temperature. Air or nitrogen which has been warmed or cooled is passed over the sample to heat or cool the sample.
The temperature at the sample is monitored with the aid of a thermocouple and electronic circuitry maintains the temperature by increasing or decreasing the temperature of the gas passing over the sample. More information on this topic will be presented in Chapter 8. RF Coils RF coils piccreate the B1 field which rotates the net magnetization in a pulse sequence. They also detect the transverse magnetization as it precesses in the XY plane.
Most RF coils on NMR spectrometers are of the saddle coil design picand act as the transmitter of the B1 field and receiver of RF energy from the sample.You may find one or more RF coils in a probe. Each of these RF coils must resonate, that is they must efficiently store energy, at the Larmor frequency of the nucleus being examined with the NMR spectrometer. All NMR coils are composed of an inductor, or inductive elements, and a set of capacitive elements. The resonant frequency, pic, of an RF coil is determined by the inductance (L) and capacitance (C) of the inductor capacitor circuit.
pic RF coils used in NMR spectrometers need to be tuned for the specific sample being studied.An RF coil has a bandwidth or specific range of frequencies at which it resonates. When you place a sample in an RF coil, the conductivity and dielectric constant of the sample affect the resonance frequency. If this frequency is different from the resonance frequency of the nucleus you are studying, the coil will not efficiently set up the B1 field nor efficiently detect the signal from the sample. You will be rotating the net magnetization by an angle less than 90 degrees when you think you are rotating by 90 degrees.
This will produce less transverse magnetization and less signal.Furthermore, because the coil will not be efficiently detecting the signal, your signal-to-noise ratio will be poor. The B1 field of an RF coil must be perpendicular to the Bo magnetic field.
Another requirement of an RF coil in an NMR spectrometer is that the B1 field needs to be homogeneous over the volume of your sample. If it is not, you will be rotating spins by a distribution of rotation angles and you will obtain strange spectra. Gradient Coils The gradient coils produce the gradients in the Bo magnetic field needed for performing gradient enhanced spectroscopy, diffusion measurements, and NMR microscopy. picThe gradient coils are located inside the RF probe. Not all probes have gradient coils, and not all NMR spectrometers have the hardware necessary to drive these coils. The gradient coils are room temperature coils (i.
e. do not require cooling with cryogens to operate) which, because of their configuration, create the desired gradient. Since the vertical bore superconducting magnet is most common, the gradient coil system will be described for this magnet. Assuming the standard magnetic resonance coordinate system, a gradient in Bo in the Z direction is achieved with an ntihelmholtz type of coil. Current in the two coils flow in opposite directions creating a magnetic field gradient between the two coils. The B field at the center of one coil adds to the Bo field, while the B field at the center of the other coil subtracts from the Bo field. pic The X and Y gradients in the Bo field are created by a pair of figure-8 coils.
The X axis figure-8 coils create a gradient in Bo in the X direction due to the direction of the current through the coils. picThe Y axis figure-8 coils provides a similar gradient in Bo along the Y axis. picQuadrature Detector The quadrature detector picis a device which separates out the Mx’ and My’ signals from the signal from the RF coil. For this reason it can be thought of as a laboratory to rotating frame of reference converter. The heart of a quadrature detector is a device called a doubly balanced mixer. The doubly balanced mixer has two inputs and one output. If the input signals are Cos(A) and Cos(B), the output will be 1/2 Cos(A+B) and 1/2 Cos(A-B).
For this reason the device is often called a product detector since the product of Cos(A) and Cos(B) is the output. picpic The quadrature detector typically contains two doubly balanced mixers, two filters, two amplifiers, and a 90o phase shifter. picThere are two inputs and two outputs on the device. Frequency picand pico are put in and the MX’ and MY’ components of the transverse magnetization come out.
There are some potential problems which can occur with this device which will cause artifacts in the spectrum. One is called a DC offset artifact and the other is called a quadrature artifact. Digital Filtering Many newer spectrometers employ a combination of oversampling, digital filtering, and decimation to eliminate the wrap around artifact.Oversampling creates a larger spectral or sweep width, but generates too much data to be conveniently stored. Digital filtering eliminates the high frequency components from the data, and decimation reduces the size of the data set.
The following flowchart summarizes the effects of the three steps by showing the result of performing an FT after each step. pic Let’s examine oversampling, digital filtering, and decimation in more detail to see how this combination of steps can be used to reduce the wrap around problem.Oversampling is the digitization of a time domain signal at a frequency much greater than necessary to record the desired spectral width.
For example, if the sampling frequency, fs, is increased by a factor of 10, the sweep width will be 10 times greater, thus eliminating wraparound. Unfortunately digitizing at 10 times the speed also increases the amount of raw data by a factor of 10, thus increasing storage requirements and processing time. Filtering is the removal of a select band of frequencies from a signal. For an example of filtering, consider the following frequency domain signal.
picFrequencies above fo could be removed from this frequency domain signal by multipling the signal by this rectangular function. picIn NMR, this step would be equivalent to taking a large sweep width spectrum and setting to zero intensity those spectral frequencies which are farther than some distance from the center of the spectrum. Digital filtering is the removal of these frequencies using the time domain signal. Recall from Chapter 5 that if two functions are multiplied in one domain (i. e. frequency), we must convolve the FT of the two functions together in the other domain (i.
. time). To filter out frequencies above fo from the time domain signal, the signal must be convolved with the Fourier transform of the rectangular function, a sinc function. (See Chapter 5. ) picThis process eliminates frequencies greater than fo fr