The article for critique f Carney
The article for critique f Carney, D. R., Cuddy, A.J.C., & Yap. A.J. (2010) Power Posing: Brief Nonverbal Displays Affect Neuroendocrine Levels and Risk Tolerance. Carney et al (2010) conducted a study based on the premise that the adoption of a nonverbal ‘high power’ pose would create physiological and mental changes within both males and females, and that with the increase in power perception within the individual there would be a higher rate of risk taking behaviours.
The paper sets out the intentions of the study with clear questions being asked within the introduction. “But is power embodied? What happens when these displays are posed? Can posed displays cause one to feel more powerful? Does one’s mental and physiological systems prepare one to be more powerful? The goal of this research was to test whether high-power (vs. low-power) poses produce power, by looking at their effects on some fundamental features of having power: feeling powerful, elevation of the dominance hormone testosterone, lowering of the stress hormone cortisol, and an increased tolerance for risk.” (Cuddy et al, 2010, p 1363).
iDenfity three outcome measures
The measure of risk taking, and powerful feelings has limitations in that there is no indication of consideration to personal attributes of each of the test subjects prior to
During the study there is reference to one other additional study with a sample size N=49 which relates to power poses
It is felt the experimental design was lacking in some areas in terms of the research question
Testing of the measure of risk taking appears to lack a solid base to provide significant results. There appears to be a limited amount of consideration for any pre-existing thought pattern, behaviours or personality traits in relation to risk taking behaviour.
Extraneous variables overlooked
Confounding variables have not been considered in the measure of risk-taking behaviours,
Also the fact that the money was not theirs in the first place may have played a role.
Further confounding factors within the risk taking measure is the failure to include consideration of demographic factors including age- reswarch has show that adolesecnts are more likely to engage in risk taking behaviours (REFR) psychosocial maturity
Carney et al (2010) state there is no previous research conducted upon the generation of power using poses and so have no way of validating their claim at the time of publication.
Whilst the report has been cited over 800 times (REFER) there has been further attempts to replicate the study, in particular Ranehil, Dreber, Johannesson, Leiberg, sul & Weber (2015) conducted a study that had a significantly large sample size (N=200 98=women 102=men)in comparison to Carney et al, (2010) sample size of N= 42 that failed to produce or support any of the findings or claims in the original study.
Investigator was blind to the experimental conditions and so eliminated potential experimenter effects.