Henri human being has the natural urge
Henri Renard – The Philosophy of Man, Chap. 7: The Appetites of Man Every human being has the natural urge to seek a good end, for the reason that is desired and sought by the intellect of the soul alone. However, there is a continuous and necessary order that we are follow to reach the end. Our obligation to reach an end is the fundamentals of Metaphysics. The appetite of man can be divided into three parts; sensitive appetite of men, the nature of intellectual will, and the nature and the need for habits. A former rofessor of philosophy at Creighton University by the name of Henri Renard, expressed this concept in his book The Philosophy of Men, which he dedicates a whole chapter to the appetite of man though St.
Thomas Aquinas’ theory. The Sensitive appetite of men can be distinguished into the natural, the sensual, and the intellectual appetites of man. Which contribute to the order of an ultimate perfect end? The natural appetite of men means that without having the knowledge of an end we can still move towards our end. This is possible because every form has thought of a natural inclination towards an end. All beings in act, because they have a form, have imprinted in them a natural appetite to their end” (Renard 155). As human beings we tend to know the truth and the love of God. So to know an end is natural because God is the author of nature which includes human beings.
The sensual appetite is another of our appetites as human beings, which is a desire for the good. Helps distinguish between what is pleasurable and what’s not. An additional sense is the intellect of man in which he seeks what is primarily both good and useful.
However, there is a distinction between the two types of sensitive appetites, which nclude the concupiscible and the irascible. As a result the natural appetite has two direct ends which are to receive, and to act. Receive is seen to be profitable and favorable and the second is to act since that is to conquer all obstacles that may interfere with the end. These can be categorized as powers given that concupiscible, is when the soul seeks what is suitable though the senses and to avoid whatever is harmful. While irascible avoid what is suitable and inflicts harm.
So it’s clear that concupiscible is a pleasurable sense while irascible is more of a grueling ne. “And so even the passions of the irascible appetite counter-acts the passions of the concupiscible appetite, since concupiscence on being roused very often diminishes concupiscence” (Renard 160). The power of concupiscible is designed to receive and to stuffer, while the irascible is made to react in a violent way against the obstacles that are faced.
Both of these powers are manifested though a passion. St. Thomas Aquinas sees the term passions can be defined as receiving some sort of change that is passive for the loss of a form. The concept of passion can lso be connected to Metaphysics.
Without a doubt passion is an act of the sense appetite. Nevertheless, man posses’ eleven kinds of passions since the concupiscible appetite have six and the irascible appetite has five. The passions of the concupiscible appetite are love, hatred, desire, aversion, joy and sadness. Along with the passions of the irascible appetite is despair, hope, daring, fear and anger. Granted, that the passions of the irascible appetite are the bases of concupiscible passions that denote towards a good or evil. Because concupiscible passions are efined by good and evil so it’s obvious that the irascible passions arise from the concupiscible.
These passions have a direct relation with the will that influence either control or lack of control of the one over the other. St. Thomas notes that there are situations, where the passion is called antecedent, preceding to the act of the will. For example “The passions of the soul may stand in a relation of the judgment of reason by way of choice; when, to wit, a man, by the judgment of his reason chooses to be affected by a passion in order to work more promptly with he co-operation of the sensitive appetite” (Renard 170). Man is capable of reason, and is able to form a judgment, by examining, and contemplating in order to come to a final judgment of things. But, we can’t see this type of judgment in animals because their act “of choice” is not free and this goes for plants as well because they do not decide what to do instead it is necessary to take action or motion. The human will is an operative potency that needs to be actuated both in a efficient and formal way.
Since the will is not always operating and when it does act it performs nly a specific act. Next, is to understand the movement of the will by its character is an inclination of a thing. Yet, there is no power, not even God, could force the will to act. There is a rule that every natural world has one end to which it is ordered necessarily. It’s evident that the use of the will is the intellect appetite. The will is naturally necessitated to its end, but man does enjoy the freedoms of choosing to exercise his will or not too, to specific what he will or will not and of contrariety to will moral good or moral evil. The freedom of man clearly participates in the perations of intellect and will, both in the order of the end and in the order of the means.
The nature and the need for habits is the final appetite of man that should be examined from two points of view, the psychological and the moral. The psychological point of view makes a connection to the metaphysical causes of habits, and their intimate nature. At the same time as moral point of view is the relations of the good and the bad habits or virtues and vices, in the order of man’s nature, and of his ultimate end. Habits are needed for the faculties of an, in order to perform the actions needed for his development and perfection of constantly, easily, and with pleasure. Habit is a disposition to the best, because by the having habit present, man is able to perform a more perfect action according to his nature and end.
Although, the will and the sense of appetites are subjects of habits in regard to reach an end that is good. The will is free and will need good habits, while the sense appetite act from natural instinct because the act at the command of reason. At the same time habit can also cease to exist though act because it can corrupt and destroy.We can also separate habits between the good and the bad habits Good habits can as well be virtues because they are an important means for the development and the perfection of the individual. The appetite of man is necessary simply in order to reach the end that is desired and sought by the intellect of the soul alone. Man, requires a large collection of desires in order to perfect his complex nature and bring it to its ultimate end that is perfect happiness.
Things such as passion are examples of how everything contributes to the appetite of man. The appetite of man are based around St. Thomas Aquinas’ theory.