Ancient also known as the Great Pyramid of
Ancient World Wonders The Ancient Seven Wonders of the World reflected the ability of the men to change the nature in order to build wonderful and beautiful structures which amaze and inspire people. It is believed that these constructions of classical antiquity were constructed since 2700 B. C.
but, unfortunately, only one of the wonders mentioned by Herodotus has survived until today: The Pyramids of Giza. However, the Ancient Seven Wonders list included: The Great Pyramid of Giza, Hanging Gardens of Babylon, Statue of Zeus at Olympia, The Colossus of Rhodes, The Lighthouse of Alexandria, The Mausoleum of Maussollos, The Temple of Artemis.Great Pyramid of Giza, Egypt It is also known as the Great Pyramid of Khufu or the Great Pyramid of the pharaoh Cheops. It is the only one of the seven ancient wonders still remaining to our days and one of the most famous tourist attractions in the modern world. The Pyramid is located in the Giza Necropolis very near Cairo, the capital of Egypt. The total mass of the great pyramid is estimated around 5.
9 million tons and its volume is approximately 2. 6 million cubic meters.The great pyramid was surfaced by white casing stones and blocks of highly polished white limestone; therefore the original monument shine brightly with the sun as a jewel. It is a great testimony of perfection in design and construction that ancient Egyptian reached. Many people consider still Giza as a spiritual and energetic place; therefore tourists visit Giza all the time attracted by the mystical aspect of the Great Pyramid. Hanging Gardens of Babylon The first of the seven wonders being constructed after The Great Pyramids of Giza were the Hanging gardens of Babylon in present day Iraq.
Babylon was a great city famed for its imposing city walls and the monument known as the tower of Babel. Under the conquering of the king Nebuchadnezzar Babylon attained the peak of its power. This biblical king has become legendary not only as a great general but also as a builder. It`s said that Gardens were built by Nebuchadnezzar to please his wife Amytis, who had been longing for the trees and exotic plants of her homeland in Persia.
Greek historian named Diodorus Siculus tells that the gardens were around 400 feet wide by 400 feet long and almost 80 feet high.Garden? s height is very controversial, since Herodotus said it was 320 feet high, but this point seems too exaggerated. Other source described the hanging gardens as follows: “The Hanging Garden has plants cultivated above ground level, and the roots of the trees are embedded in an upper terrace rather than in the earth. The whole mass is supported on stone columns…
Streams of water emerging from elevated sources flow down sloping channels… These waters irrigate the whole garden saturating the roots of plants and keeping the whole area moist.Hence the grass is permanently green and the leaves of trees grow firmly attached to supple branches..
. This is a work of art of royal luxury and its most striking feature is that the labor of cultivation is suspended above the heads of the spectators”. So according to this information, we can see that the approach to the Gardens sloped like a hillside and several parts of structure rose from one tier on another. It was thickly planted with trees of every kind, pleasure to every spectator. The water machines raised the water, in great abundance from the river, although no one outside could see it.Fruits and Flowers, waterfalls, gardens hanging from the palace terraces… exotic animals – this is the picture of The Hanging gardens of Babylon in most people minds.
It may be surprising to know that they might have never existed. Some scholars argue that the reason that there`s no record of them is precisely because they were gardens – plants and flowers are living creatures that eventually die. Earthquakes and time destroyed the Gardens, that`s why we can`t see it now, but the ruins can be found today in present-day Iraq. The Colossus of RhodesThis wonder of the ancient World was located in the Greek Island of Rhodes. It was a giant statue of Bronze represented to the god Helios, which was constructed in the III century BC.
According to the legend, the Island of Rhodes was famous for its technology advances, mainly war machines. One of the examples of this technology was the Colossus of Rhodes. It`s believed that this statue was approximately as large as the Statue of Liberty in New York, whose creator the French sculptor Auguste Bartholdi. It is considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
It was constructed to celebrate Rhodes’ victory over the ruler of Cyprus, Antigonus I Monophthalmus, who unsuccessfully besieged(????????) Rhodes in 305 BC. Before its destruction, the Colossus of Rhodes stood over 30 meters (107 ft) high, making it one of the tallest statues of the ancient world. The Lighthouse of Alexandria Of the seven wonders of Ancient world only one had a practical use in addition to its architectural elegance: The lighthouse of Alexandria. For sailors, it ensured a safe return to the Great harbor.For architects, it meant even more: it was the tallest building on Earth.
And for scientists, it was the mysterious mirror that fascinated them most…The mirror, which reflection could be seen more than 56 km off-shore. Lighthouse of Alexandria, also known as the Pharos of Alexandria was a tower built between 280 and 247 BCE on the island of Pharos at Alexandria, Egypt . With a height variously estimated at somewhere in-between 393 and 450 ft (120 and 140 m), it was for many centuries among the tallest manmade structures on Earth.The lighthouse was designed differently than modern lighthouses. It was more like a 20th century sky scraper.
The colossal building was constructed with large blocks of light colored stone and it was composed by 3 basic structural elements: a rectangular base, an octagonal midsection and a cylindrical upper section where the beacons were. Access to the entrance was up a long vaulted ramp, from which a spiral staircase led up to many chambers which were used probably by beasts of burden to carry fuel for the fire of the beacons.According to ancient stories the lighthouse could be seen from up 35 miles (56 Km) away and according other legends, the light of the beacons could burn enemy ships, but this legend is very difficult to believe.
I think you are wondering what happened to the world`s first lighthouse. Unfortunately two earthquakes in 1303 and 1323 seriously damaged the tower. The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus In 377 B. C. , the city of Halicarnassus was the capitol of a small kingdom along the Mediterranean coast of Asia Minor.
It was in that year the ruler of this land, Hecatomnus of Mylasa, died and left control of the kingdom to his son, Mausolus. Hecatomnus, a local satrap to the Persians, had been ambitious and had taken control of several of the neighboring cities and districts. Mausolus in his time, extended the territory even further so that it finally included most of southwestern Asia Minor. Mausolus, with his queen Artemisia, ruled over Halicarnassus and the surrounding territory for 24 years. Mausolus, though he was descended from the local people, spoke Greek and admired the Greek way of life and government.
He founded many cities of Greek design along the coast and encouraged Greek democratic traditions. Then in 353 B. C. Mausolus died, leaving his queen Artemisia, who was also his sister (It was the custom in Caria for rulers to marry their own sisters), broken-hearted. As a tribute to him, she decided to build him the most splendid tomb in the known world. The Mausoleum stood approximately 45 m (148 ft) in height, and each of the four sides was adorned with sculptural reliefs created by each one of four Greek sculptors — Leochares, Bryaxis, Scopas of Paros and Timotheus.It became so famous that Mausolus’s name is now associated with all stately tombs through our modern word mausoleum.
The building was also so beautiful and unique it became one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The Temple of Artemis This wonder of the ancient world is also known as the Temple of Diana. The temple was located in Ephesus an ancient Greek city around 50 Km from the actual city of Izmir in the territory that today occupies Turkey. The temple was dedicated to Artemis the Greek goddess, the virginal huntress and twin of Apollo, who occupied the place of Titan Selene as Goddess of the Moon.
And there is no doubt that the temple was indeed magnificent. “I have seen the walls and Hanging Gardens of ancient Babylon,” wrote Philon of Byzantium, “the statue of Olympian Zeus, the Colossus of Rhodes, the mighty work of the high Pyramids and the tomb of Mausolus. But when I saw the temple at Ephesus rising to the clouds, all these other wonders were put in the shade. ” But this temple didn`t last long.
In 550B. C. King Cruesus Of Lydia conquered Ephesus and another Greek cities of Asia Minor. During the battle, the temple was destroyed.Another temple was built in place of the first. But according to the story, then the temple was destroyed on July 21 356 BC by Herostratus who realized this barbarian act finding fame at any cost. The temple also held different works of art: 4 bronze statues of Amazons, who according the legend founded Ephesus and amazing sculptures of famous Greek artists.
Today the site of this temple is a marshy field. A single column has been erected to remind the visitors that there once stood the Wonder of the Ancient World. Statue of Zeus at OlympiaIn ancient times the Greeks held one of their most important festivals, The Olympic Games, in honor to the King of their gods, Zeus. Like our modern Olympics, athletes traveled from distant lands, including Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt and Sicily, to compete in the games. The Olympics were first started in 776 B. C. and held at a shrine to Zeus located on the western coast of Greece in a region called Peloponnesus.
The shrine to Zeus was simple in the early years, but as time went by and the games increased in importance, it became obvious that a new, larger temple, one worthy of the King of the gods, was needed.Between 470 and 460 B. C. , construction on a new temple was started. The designer was Libon of Elis and his masterpiece, The Temple of Zeus, was completed in 456 B. C. Though the temple was considered one of the best examples of the Doric design because of its style and the quality of the workmanship, it was decided the temple alone was too simple to be worthy of the King of the gods.
To remedy this, a statue was commissioned for the interior- a magnificent statue of Zeus that would become one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.The sculptor chosen for this great task was a man named Phidias. He had already rendered a forty-foot high statue of the goddess Athena for the Parthenon in Athens and had also done much of the sculpture on the exterior of that temple. After his work in Athens was done, Phidias traveled to Olympia to start what was considered his best work, the statue of Zeus.
The statue was wreathed with shoots of olive and it rested on a wonderful throne of cedar wood, which was ornamented with ebony, gold, precious stones and ivory. In his right hand a figure of Victory made from ivory and gold.In his left hand, his scepter adorned with precious metals and an eagle perched on the scepter. Besides the statue, there was little inside the temple. The Greeks preferred the interior of their shrines to be simple. Copies of the statue were made, but none survive, though pictures found on coins give researchers clues about its appearance.
Today the stadium at the site has been restored. Little is left of the temple, though, except a few columns. Of the statue, which was perhaps the most wonderful work at Olympia, all is now gone.