Introduction by shifting public moods and opinion
Introduction It is widely acknowledge that the scope and nature of public policy problems play increasingly active roles in times of rapid changes. Public policies have always and will continue to influence if not affect our selves and lives, families, communities, societies. By nature and all intent and purpose public policies influence our daily interactions to such a profound extent that with a closer look, we realize that we need to be active in all aspects of public policies including their analysis. Gambia 2008). Public policies are generally aimed at one or more of the following, reconciling or fostering cooperation that would probably not occur without government influence or encouragement and protecting the right of individuals.
The local policy process appears to be most influenced by consensus and coalition building, unlike that national policy process which is largely influenced by shifting public moods and opinion as well as changes in electoral leadership).We also have to look on local power structures democratic accountabilities, business government relations and policy impacts and distribution effects (Baumgartner / Jones 1993: Cobb / Elder, 1983: Jones 1994). The nature of public policy is changing. Evaluation today has many more purposes not only accountability and learning, but also better policy planning ,improved implementation, empowerment of those without voice.
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Since evolution is so big in the policy system of one government or one set of policies and encompass partners, including civil society, the private sector and professional group.Consequences are surrounded by the quality of interactions. When we look at evaluation of public policy it is embedded in a changing and more complex and multi-partner public policy system. The system in which policy making, policy content and public management has been transformed in many countries and this is likely to continue. The evaluation in public policy has a role to play. The reason this is so, this is partly in response to the changing nature of public policy and makes it especially important that we analyses and understand the policy context in which evaluation operates (Elliot Stern 2009).We can define public policy in three ways: as policy making the way public policy is made, public management the way we go about managing ministries and agencies operating in the public sphere and the policy content what public action tries to achieve they are all closely connected.
Over the last 20 years policy making has changed. Due to the fact that policy is making is a political activity depending on different interest and values. Citizens make demands which policy makers respond to by mobilizing support and building coalitions.The framework political assumes that the policy system is full of compromise information is often lacking many things cannot be decide on objectives are conflicted and implementation is indeed part of policy making. When we look at intergovernmental structure and political concerns it requires attention.
The problem did not arise overnight and there is plenty of blame to go around. Intergovernmental relations in the U. S. have always been contentious and difficult (Bill Barnes) Tim Conlan stated relationships have grown denser, more opportunistic and less cooperative.If these weaknesses persist he predicated they will be magnified by impending major challenges. He got that one right.
We also can look at the recession and fiscal difficulties have in contrast increased subnational reliance on central government monies and sharpened federal complaints about competing state/ local priorities in the spending of those monies. At this point there’s no need here to politely describe how bad this can get, because it can get ugly.It is forgotten arguments about intergovernmental dysfunction it can produce terrible government performance and it can serve the American people very poorly. In conclusion, public policy is a complex phenomenon consisting of numerous decision made by numerous individuals and organization and often shaped by earlier policies and frequently linked closely with other seemingly unrelated decisions.
This cause difficulty for analyst and it is argued that policies vary according to the nature of the political system and its links with society.Public policies have always and will continue to influence if not affect ourselves and lives, families, communities and societies. Reference 1.
Baumgartner, frank R. , and Bryan D. Jones, 1993 Agender and Instability in American Politics: in American Politics: University of Chicago 2. Bill Barnes Emerging Issues: The Intergovernmental System Requires Attention 2011 3.
Elliot Stern, Lancaster University, UK Evaluation of Eu Structural Funds: Reinforcing Quality and Utitisation Vilnius, Lithuania March 2009 4. Gambia, the Big Read Public Policy Analysis Apr 28, 2008