Henry to work in the cotton mills near
Henry Morton Stanley is most famous for saying the words Dr. Livingstone I presume? when in 1871 he finally found Dr. David Livingstone in western Tanzania.
Stanley was born John Rowlands in 1840 in Wales. His childhood was poor and deprived with both parents deserting him and leaving him to grow up in relativeshomes or institutions. He was constantly rejected and beaten which toughened him up but also made him look for admiration and affection. At the age of sixteen he went to New Orleans on a ship which he considered a nightmare to live on. He eventually met a man named Henry Morton Stanley who helped him get a job and took care of John and was practically like a father to John. After a few years he served in the Civil War. By now John Rowlands had changed his name to Henry Morton Stanley.
He took a job with the New York Herald and was sent to Africa as a correspondent. He was then sent around the Mediterranean and then to Great Britain. In Britain he was given the orders to find the missionary Dr. Livingstone in Africa.
David Livingstone showed his perseverance and resilience from the start where as a ten-year old he was put to work in the cotton mills near Glasgow, Scotland. Unlike the other children who often died or grew up illiterate, he taught himself by reading books until he reached medical school in 1838 where he trained to become a doctor around the age of 25. He was also fairly religious and after he became a doctor he volunteered to be a missionary in China but instead was sent to South Africa. He wasnt a very successful missionary and only had one convert who lapsed. After two years he decided to send his wife and children to Britain and he continued to explore Africa in hope of spreading the Christian message to other people. He was slowly becoming less interested in his missionary work and really wanted to just explore. He went on to be the first European to cross Africa and when he arrived back in Great Britain everyone congratulated him, but he longed to return to Africa.
He started another expedition of the Zambesi River. When Dr. Livingstone had first traveled the Zambesi and made his trans-continental journey he had missed Kebrasa Rapids, which made the river impassable beyond this point.
The Zambesi was too shallow for the main boat of the expedition and once they reached the Rapids the river was completely impassable without going round them to travel unless by land. The mission was a failure from the start and very disappointing. The last mission Livingstone went on was an attempt to find out whether the Lualuba River flowed to the Nile or to Congo. Unfortunately Livingstone became sick and eventually died near Lake Bangweolo.Stanley went to Africa in December of 1870 and spent about a year looking for Livingstone when he found him in Ujiji, Tanzania.
They became good friends and circumnavigated Lake Tanganyika looking for an outlet, which was Stanleys first real exploration. After this mission Stanley asked Livingstone to come back to Britain with him but Livingstone refused saying that he would rather stay in Africa and explore. When Stanley reached Great Britain he wasnt congratulated and instead was insulted and accused of being a fraud.Stanley eventually went back to Africa in hope of finishing what Dr.
Livingstone had tried to do up until his death, which was find the source of the Nile River. He tried to find it and even followed the river Livingstone believed to be the source of the Nile. He was able to explore Lake Victoria and navigated the whole Congo River all the way to the Atlantic.Both Stanley and Livingstone were considered heroes and were known around the world for their hard work in Africa. When Livingstone died, Britain had a day of mourning for him. Stanley was elected into the British Parliament and received two medals of honor from Belgium who had financed his transcontinental mission. His former critics also finally appreciated him.
When Stanley crossed Africa he went back to Belgium and gave King Leopold a whole report on the Congo River and its surroundings. King Leopold decided to start colonies in the Congo and he was ruthless. The natives were treated brutally by the government and had no rights.Stanley tried to convince Britain to make an effort to stop the slave trade in Africa by encouraging more profitable commerce. Unfortunately, these actions resulted in Britain completely controlling the area of Africa north of Zanzibar.France controlled parts of West Africa and Germany controlled the land on the East Coast of Africa between South Africa and Zanzibar.
At the Berlin Conference (1884-1885) Africa was divided up among Great Britain, Germany, France, Italy, Portugal, and Belgium. These decisions were made without any input from the African tribes and countries and were met with much resistance but only Ethiopia was able to defeat Italy.After World War 1 the colonial empires concentrated on keeping the land they had and started many new and stable white settlements in Africa. Railroads were built and other forms of transportation were established. Farmers were forced to grow cash crops and people were made to work as farm hands.Africa served as a battleground for World War 1 and 2 and was constantly an object of conquest for both the allies and the axis powers.
However, after WW2 many of the countries lost their control over Africa and by the 1970s most of Africa was independent.Many of the new countries can support themselves even after twenty years because of the amount of problems they have. Many of the countries are in the middle of bloody civil wars or are recovering from them.
There is an AIDS epidemic and many people are starving or becoming sick from bad water.Western governments have poured millions in aid into Africa to help it grow and prosper but it is very underdeveloped and has a long way to go.Africa was found to be one of the richest places in the world for minerals. Large amounts of diamonds, gold, silver, copper, and other minerals were found all around Africa especially where Stanley and Livingstone had explored.The most notable fact is that after Stanley and Livingstone had explored Africa there was not many great tracts of land left for Westerners to discover. Every continent had been explored and now only a few little places were left to be found and charted.
Their work marked the turning point in history when the world almost stopped exploring. World War 1 was coming up when Stanley brought back his news. Long before WW1 there was disagreement so many countries were too busy building their armies up and didnt have the time or the money to explore.The discoveries Stanley and Livingstone made were incredibly important in the history and development of Africa. Besides pinpointing the source of the Nile and crossing the continent they had a lasting impression on the world. Although Africa has had a rough history especially since Stanley and Livingstone it has become more civilized and advanced in knowledge.
The slave trade has stopped and many other good things have come out of it being settled and built upon. Stanley and Livingstone opened Africa up to the rest of the world and unraveled the mystery of the Dark Continent.BIBLIOGRAPHYPrimary SourcesStanley, Henry. How I Found Livingstone. New York: Charles Scribner’s Son, 1913.Stanley tells about his personal experience in find Livingstone. He gives detailed information about the search.
Stanley, Henry. In Darkest Africa Volume 1. New York: Charles Scribner’s Son, 1891.
Stanley provides us with his personal view of his explorations in Africa. He tells about the things he observed and the way he feels.Stanley, Henry.
In Darkest Africa Volume 2. New York: Charles Scribner’s Son, 1891.Stanley provides more information and observations of his African journey.Secondary SourcesAnstruther, Ian.
Dr. Livinstone, I Presume? New York: E.P. Dutton and Company Inc., 1957A good overall biography with plenty of maps.
Blaikie, William Carden. David Livingstone. Philadelphia: The Keystone Publishing Company, Around 1890A biography based mostly on his journals and letters.
Chamberbin, Ted. “Forbidden Territory.” (22 October 1999).(28 November 1999).This website provides a step by step look into the meeting of Stanley and Livingstone.
It also briefly tells about some of Stanley’s discoveries after Livingstone’s death.Cohen, Daniel. Henry Stanley and the Quest for the Source of the Nile.
New York: M. Evans and Company, 1995.Included in this book is a detailed description about Henry Stanley’s search for the Nile River.Debenham, Frank, O.
B.E. The Way to Ilala. The University Press, Glasgow: Robert Maclehose and Company Limited, 1955A biography of Livingstone.
Includes nice map of Lake Tanganika that Livingstone drew.Dostert, Pierre Etienne, J.D.
and others. Africa 1996. 31st ed. Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Stryker-Post Publications, 1996On p.
32-33 talks about how Stanley was used by King Leopold to get stake in Africa as a colony.”Explorers of the Milleennium.” (31 October 1999).
(1 November 1999).On the website “Explores of the Millennium,” it gave a short description of David Livingstone’s explorations in Africa.Fage, J.D.
, and Roland Oliver. A Short History of Africa. New York: Facts on File. 1988.This provides a brief description of Stanley’s link between Europe and Africa.Forbath, Peter. The River Congo.
New York: Harper & Row. 1977Much of this book gives a detailed description of the Congo River. It also gave a detailed description of Stanley and Livingstone’s explorations in and around the Congo River.”Henry Morton Stanley.” (22 January 1999).(5 December 1999).
Provided on this website was a description of Stanley’s achievements throughout his lifetime.”Henry Morton Stanley.” (9 August 1999).(5 December 1999).This website simply tells about Stanley before he left for Africa.
It also lists the titles of the books written by Stanley.Huxley, Elspeth. Livingstone and his African Journeys. New York: Saturday Review Press, 1974.The information that I found from this book was very descriptive. It gave a detailed look into all of David Livingstone’s journeys.
Ibazebo, Isimene. Exploration into Africa. New York: New Discovery, 1994.This book is a story of Africa and her visitors, which included Stanley and Livingstone.Jeal, Tim.
Livingstone. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Son, 1973.The author provides information on the life of David Livingstone. He provided a detailed description on his life from the day he was born until May 1873, when he died.Kamn, Josephine.
Explorers into Africa. New York: Collier-Macmillan, 1970. The author provided a look into African explorers who wanted to fill the empty spaces on the African map.Liebowitz, Daniel. The Physician and the Slave Trade. New York W.
H. Freeman and Company, 1999Mostly about John Kirk who worked with Livingstone and how they were both against slavery.Liukkanen, Petri. “Sir Henry Morton Stanley (1841-1904).” (September 1998).(17 October 1999)This website provided me with a brief summary of Henry Stanley’s search for David Livingstone.Manning, Olivia.
The Remarkable Expedition. New York: Doubleday Publishing Company, 1947Book about Emin Pasha Relief Expedition that HM Stanley lead.McLynn, Frank. Hearts of Darkness: The European Exploration of Africa. New York: Carol and Graff Publishers Inc.
, 1992General source on European explorers in Africa. Talks about Stanley and Livingstone extensively. Includes many good sketchs.
McLynn, Frank. Stanley, The Making of an African Explorer. Chelsea, MI: Scarborough House/Publishers, 1989Biography of Henry Stanley. Focuses on time between 1841-1877. Also talks about Stanleys mental problems.Nolting, Mark.
African Safari. Florida: Global Travel, 1987.This book is an African travel guide. It noted the famous quote “Dr. Livingstone, I presume.
“Percefull, Aaron. The Nile. New York: Franklin Watts, 1984.
I found factual information about the places discovered by Stanley and Livingstone in this book.Peterson, R.W. “Disappeared! The Search of David Livingstone.
” National Geographic World. November 1997: pp. 23-27.Using this magazine article, I found a general description about Stanley’s search for Livingstone.Stanfords Dime Novel and Story Paper Collection: Stanley and Livinstone in Africa. Stanford University Department of Preservation. 2 Dec 1999.
http://www-sul.stanford.edu/depts/dp/pennies/1870_africa.htmlShort source but has a nice picture of a newspaper article about a boy magician on Stanleys expedition for Livingstone.Sterling, Thomas.
Exploration of Africa. New York: Harper & Row, 1963.This book is an extensive look into the journeys of David Livingstone.Thompson, Elizabeth. Africa Past and Present. Boston: Houghton Mufflin, 1966.This book is a comprehensive look into the development of Africa.
Twist, Clint. Stanley and Livingstone: Expeditions through Africa. New York: Raintree Steck Vaughn, 1995.Twist discusses Stanley and Livingstone’s explorations throughout his.
It also talks bout the background of European explorers in Africa.Unistead, R.J. People in History.
Great Britain: Adam and Charles Black, 1967.Provided in this book is a brief synopsis of Livingstone and his travels.Warren, Ruth. The Nile. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1963.The book, The Nile, provided me with information about the area Stanley and Livingstone were exploring.
Weaver, Tony. “Stanley and Livingstone.” (17 August 1999).(1 December 1999).
This website provides a concise description of the expeditions of both Stanley and Livingstone.Wellman, Scott. David Livingstone: Missionary and Explorer. Ohio: Barbour, 1995.The author takes you step by step through the life of David Livingstone includinghis explorations into Africa.