“Reasons Causing the Information Communication and Technology Students to Drop out of School in Saint John and Paul Colleges” CHAPTER 1 Introduction Dropout is a student who leaves a specific level of education system without achieving first qualification

“Reasons Causing the Information Communication and Technology Students to Drop out of School in Saint John and Paul Colleges” CHAPTER 1 Introduction Dropout is a student who leaves a specific level of education system without achieving first qualification

“Reasons Causing the Information Communication and Technology Students to Drop out of School in Saint John and Paul Colleges”
Dropout is a student who leaves a specific level of education system without achieving first qualification. A number of dropout students are increasing high school dropouts has risen, reaching 4.8 million or an 11 percent increase since 2012, according to a senior administration lawmaker.(QC. Rep. Alfred Vargas. 2017). Vargas’ House Bill 1825 cited DepEd statistics showing the “rising dropout rate” among high school students.

School dropouts have a serious negative impact on the societies. Early dropout from the education system leading into low qualification and most often to unemployment and other social problems is the cause for an increasing education divide in many countries. Often this divide further distances various social, cultural or ethnic groups within a society. Children who are from poor families, live in rural areas, or are from ethnic and linguistic minorities are less likely to attend school. Girls’ education is strongly associated with better welfare at the individual, family, and society level. Educated mothers are more likely to send their children to school, thus breaking the cycle of poverty. The quality of learning is and must beat the heart of Education for All. Many young people make decisions in their early years that can affect not only their personal welfare, but also their societies as a whole. Some students fail to complete school and may become marginalized, unemployed, or otherwise underprivileged instead of becoming productive members of society. High school dropouts are both an individual (and family) problem as well as a national one. It is individual problem because most (not all) do make considerably less money than graduates. It is a national problem not so much because of lost tax revenue but because we have had a tremendous waste of human resources. Why do students drop out of high school? Their reasons are many. Some are personal, such as pregnancy or the need to help support their families.
The dreams of these young dropouts are said to be postponed, because more and more jobs today require a high level of skill and education. By dropping out of high school, teens are “locking themselves out of mainstream society and are barred from good- paying jobs”. In addition, dropouts comprise half of all heads of households on welfare and more than half of all people in jail. But teens will continue to drop out of school unless ways can be found to help them realize that education is the key to achieving a successful life. Working together, teens and educators can explore who drops out and why and then look for ways to help all young people stay in school and receive the education they need.

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This view was reaffirmed in the study by Hunt, (2008) who also found that dropping out is often a process rather than the result of one single event, and therefore has more than one proximate cause.

Statement of the Problem
School is the focal point of the education process. UNESCO, (2005) states that the role of the school is not merely to get children into school but to ensure their continued stay in school to completion. This perspective suggests the need for schools to provide an environment conducive to ensure learners do not dropout. Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:
1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of:1.1 name (optional)
1.3 gender;
1.4 year level;
2. What are the problems encountered by the respondents?
2.1 personal factors;
2.2 family factors; and
2.3 school factors?
3. Is there a significant relationship between the demographic profile and the problems encountered by the respondents?
Theoretical Framework
According to UNICEF & UNESCO, (2011), school dropouts refers to children who were enrolled in school but have left school before completion. Dropping out of school is related to a variety of factors that can be classified in four categories, namely: individual, family, school, and community factors. This study focused on school factors though recognizing that there is no single risk factor that can be used to 2 accurately predict who is at risk of dropping out. However, the accuracy of dropout predictions increases when combinations of multiple risk factors are involved. The study by Hammond, Linton, Smink, and Drew, (2007) found that pupils who drop out often cite factors across multiple categories. There are complex interactions among risk factors leading up to dropping out. Dropping out of school is often the result of a long process of disengagement that may begin in some cases even before a child enters school, and is often described as a process, with factors building and compounding overtime. School dropout is a complex, multifaceted problem and the decision to drop out of school is a process, not an event. It is for this reason this study focuses on identifying school related factors leading to school dropping out of senior high school or the K-12 system. School is the focal point in the education process of students it is not expected to contribute to their dropping out of it. It is important to clearly recognize that the final goal is not only to get children in school but also to ensure their continued stay in school so that schooling results in good learning outcomes (UNESCO, 2005).

Based on the theory, the main topic of the study is to aim to determine the Reasons Causing information and communication technology students to drop out of Senior High School in Saints John and Paul Collages 2017-2018.
Research Paradigm
Input Process Output
Profile of the respondents:
-Name (optional)
Reference from past studies and literature
(Survey) Questionnaire
Data Presentation
“Reasons Causing the Information Communication and Technology Students to Drop out of School in Saint John and Paul Colleges”


Research Objectives
General objective
This study was conducted to know the cause of dropout students in Saints John and Paul Collages.

To raise awareness about the issue of school dropouts.

Specific objective
With the use/ help of this research, you will find out how teachers and students react and how they respond to this given topic. What are there views about dropouts. What are the causes and effects. Aimed at getting to the roots of the drop out problem and the reasons behind its occurrence, the drop out study situated the drop out incidence along the current policies.

 To develop recommendations based on the findings
Significance of the Study
This study will be conducted to determine the Reasons Causing the Information Communication and Technology Students to Drop out of School in Saint John and Paul Colleges 2017-2018.

At the end of this study, the following are the individuals and institution that will benefit the study:
Students- to give them advance knowledge the important of education and its benefits in their daily life. Specially that they are the one
Teachers- they will be aware to what happens to their pupils every time that students didn’t attend there class.

Government Agencies- agency that fulfills the dreams of everyone who wants to study but does not have enough resources to study
Future Researchers- They may use this study as a reference or a guide in their study. It can be used as one of their related studies and can be used to get more information.

Dropout. This refers to the one who leaves school or an educational program prematurely.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This study will be conducted at the Saint John and Paul Collages School on 2017-2018. The study will covered all ICT Senior High School students of the Saint John and Paul Collages on 2017-2018. Reasons Causing the of information and communication technology students to Drop out of school. The possible benefits of this study was also determined by conducting this research.

This is done for the purpose of what are their views about drop out students. The scope of the study is likewise limited to the possible responses of the respondents.

Definition of Terms
Government Agencies – A government or state agency, often an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government that is responsible for the oversight and administration of specific functions, such as an intelligence agency.

ICT (Information and Communication Technology) – Is a term used to define rapidly emerging, evolving and converging computer, software and networking, telecommunication, internet, programming and information system technologies.

Balik-aral – In the study, this refers to the students who goes back to school after a year or more of vacationing and decided to continue his/her studies. It can also be referred to as “back to schooling.”
This chapter presents the review of related literatures and studies that could further enrich the background of the study.

A review of various literatures and documents related to the problem and the studies conducted by the several researchers, which have significant bearing on the subject under study brought out some enlightening facts and interesting observations which enabled the researchers to gain deeper insight into the objective of the study.

Foreign Literatures
School failure is a process where a student slips farther and farther behind his peers and gradually disconnects from the educational system. The end result of school failure is dropping out before graduation. Students can begin the slide into failing patterns at any time during their school career, but school failure is more likely to occur at transitional stages. Failing grades typically are symptoms of emotional, behavioral, or learning problems
There are four major causes of students dropping out of school: The child him/herself, the family situation, the community they live in and the school environment, and in order to prevent the students in dropping out of school, the causes listed above must be attacked (Schargel, 2012).

An article in humanillness.com (2007), averred that, people who fail in school may feel “stupid,” but emotional or mental health problems and “hidden” learning disorders, not low intelligence, often are the root causes of their inability to meet the standards of a school
There are several factors that can lead to school failure; among them are depression, anxiety, problems in the family, and learning disabilitiesRetained students are 2 to 11 times more likely to drop out of school when compared to underachieving, but promoted, peers. Students often improve during the year following grade retention, particularly if additional instruction is provided. However, these gains are normally lost in two to three years. Moreover, non-academically, an outcome of retention or repeating is associated with poor “social adjustment, attitudes toward school, behavioral outcomes, and attendance.” Retention is a “stronger predictor of delinquency than socioeconomic status, race, or ethnicity,” and is also a strong predictor of drug and alcohol use and teenage pregnancy.

Furthermore, opponents of “no social promotion” policies do not defend social promotion so much as say that retention is even worse. They argue that retention is not a cost-effective response to poor performance when compared to cheaper or more effective interventions, such as additional tutoring and summer school. They point to a wide range of research findings that show no advantage to, or even harm from, retention, and the tendency for gains from retention to wash out. The critics cited harms from retention and that includes:
Low self-esteem of the student and making them feel as if they were mentally inferior and in turn cause them to give up on their academics. It may also cause them to be subject the subject of ridicule and bullying by other students. Increased drop-out rates of retained students over time.

No evidence of long-term academic benefit for retained students.

Increased rates of dangerous behaviors such as drinking, drug abuse, crime, teenage pregnancy, and depression among retained students as compared with similarly performing promoted students.

The possibility of grade retention has been shown to be a significant source of stress for students. In one study of childhood fears performed in the 1980s, the top three fears for US sixth graders were a parent’s death, going blind, and being retained. After two decades of increasing retention practices, a repeat of the study in 2001 found that grade retention was the single greatest fear, higher than loss of a parent or going blind. This change likely reflects the students’ correct perception that they were statistically far more likely to repeat the sixth grade than to suffer the death of a parent or the loss of their vision (Gibson, 2007).

The students who repeated did not only suffer academically, but they also struggled in other ways. Moreover, the students who repeated a grade tended to be less likely to do their homework, they had more days absent from school, they tended to be a bit lower on the academic engagement and motivation scale, they were lower in academic confidence and they were lower in their general self-esteem (Collerton, 2011).

Promoting school completion encompasses more than preventing dropout. For example, it is characterized by school personnel emphasizing development of students’ competencies rather than dwelling on their deficits. Successful programs are comprehensive, interfacing family, school, and community efforts rather than offering a single, narrow intervention in one environment; are implemented over time rather than at a single period in time; and make an effort to tailor interventions to fit individual students rather than adopting a programmatic ”one size fits all” orientation. School-completion programs have a longitudinal focus, aiming to promote a ”good” outcome, not simply prevent a ”bad” outcome for students and society (Christensen and Thurlow, 2007).

As said on an article above that school failure is likely to occur at a transitional stage agrees with Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory on adolescence stage wherein there is a difficult transition between the childhood and adulthood. Moreover, it can be noticed that there are resemblances on the factors that lead to dropping out of school, repeating and failing on their grades and these were; the child him/herself, the problems in the family or the family situation and the environment or the community they lived in.

Foreign Studies
A research carried out by Anderson, Whipple, ; Jimerson (2008), stated that retained students are more likely to display aggressiveness, to have a history of suspension or expulsion, to act out in the classroom, or display behaviors associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Conduct Disorder. Children who are learning disabled are also more likely to be retained – and in fact are likely to be so diagnosed immediately following the retention. In addition to poor academic achievement and low standardized test scores, retained students are likely to have a history of numerous school changes and absenteeism. Large family size, low parental education and low family involvement are also related to retention.

Furthermore, their research had several explanations for the negative effects associated with grade retention, including:
Absence of specific remedial strategies to enhance social or cognitive competence
Failure to address the risk factors associated with retention (short-term gains following retention mask long-term problems associated with ineffective instruction)
Retained children are subsequently overage of grade, which is associated with deleterious outcomes, particularly as retained children approach middle school and puberty *stigmatization by peers and other negative experiences of grade retention may exacerbate behavioral and socio-emotional adjustment problems)
A study made by Lavy, Paserman and Schlosser (2007) explained that the proportion of repeaters in class has a negative and significant effect on the academic achievements of regular middle and high school students.

Stid, O’neil and Colby (2009), cited that one third of high school students across the U.S. fail to get a high school diploma on schedule; for minority students, that rate falls to 50 percent; every day 7,000 students drop out of school. They have found the figures staggering; what’s more, they have profound consequences for equity and economic opportunity in the United States. When compared with college graduates, dropouts earn $1 million less over their lifetimes and are three times more likely to be unemployed. A dropout is eight times more likely to be imprisoned during his or her lifetime than someone with a high school diploma.

A study carried out in 2010 to determine the factors that contribute to learners dropping out of the Secondary Education programme provided the following answers as mitigating factors:
1. Alcohol abuse, lack of parental/self motivation;
2. Difficulty to cope with part-time studies; and
3. Lack of financial support to pay for examination/transport;
4. Long distances to the tutorial centers, implying higher transport costs;
5. Pregnancies, lack of family planning
However, Hupfeld (2011) stated that there is no single risk factor that can be used to accurately predict who is at risk of dropping out.

A research by Andrews Martin (2011), have estimated that between five and 15 per cent of Australian students repeat a school year. The students who repeat a school year are more likely to skip school, lose motivation and suffer from low self-esteem. Furthermore, repeating a grade resulted in a decrease in academic engagement and self-confidence among students. It lowered self-esteem and brought no advantages in peer relationships, compared with students who did not repeat.

There are many issues concerning the problems of high school students today, not only in our country, but a concern of all nations. The rapid increase of dropouts, year repeaters, the balik-arals and the students with failed grades and is a matter every nation should be worried about, because it does not only affect the supply of the country’s need for highly educated workers but also the quality of citizens the country may produce.

Local Literatures
Ensuring that students stay in school until they complete their education is a major concern in basic education (National Education and Testing Research Center, 1990). Cohort Survival Rates (CSR) for the past 10 years has fluctuated between 60 % and 80 % in both elementary and secondary levels (Department of Education, 2008). These statistics mean that about between 20 to 40 % of Grade 1 pupils do not reach Grade 6; of the 60 to 75 % who enter secondary school, about one-third of them do not finish high school. If the numbers are added up, they indicate that about half of Grade 1 pupils complete secondary level; the other half are, for one reason or another, lost along the way.

Increasing government funding has not also completely addressed the dropout problem. Despite the general increase in allocation for education through the past years, the dropout problem remains one of the challenges for educators. Contrary to expectation, allotting more funds to public education did not necessarily bring about substantial reduction in dropout rates. This is because increase in budget did not match increase in population and, consequently, in enrollment. The per capita budget has actually decreased through the years. The budget for basic education has increased by 25 per cent from 2000 (PhP80 M) to 2009 (PhP150M). However, the real value of per capita cost has decreased from PhP6, 000 in 2000 to PhP4, 000 in 2009 (Department of Education, 2009). Thus, increase in dropout rates is not surprising despite increase in the budget because there have been more students accommodated by the public schools than could be adequately financed.

The dropout rates among high school students in the country have been significantly reduced, according to the Department of Education (DepEd), (2011). DepEd cited that 56 secondary schools across the country have reported zero incidences of students quitting school. Sec. Armin Luistro attributed the decrease of dropout rates to the department’s Dropout Reduction Program (DORP), which provides alternative delivery programs to keep students in school and finish basic education. Luistro added that, “the end-goal of the department is to retain the poorly schooled and those who are in danger of dropping out because of difficult social and economic situations and provide them quality education.

Escudero urged the government to work sharply to reduce, if not eliminate, dropout rates in public elementary and high schools in six years. He cited a UN report in 2000, which showed that in nearly five decades since the 1960s, dropout rates at the public elementary level, had remained high, with 28 to 34 percent failing to complete Grade 6. Furthermore, stating the latest data from a separate study he did not identify, Escudero estimated that of the 100 children who entered Grade 1, only 86 moved on to Grade 2, 76 to Grade 4, 67 to Grade 6, and only 65 finally completed the six years of elementary education. Of the 65, only 58 enroll in high school and 45 are able to graduate (Ubac, 2009).

Moreover, drop-out rates for both elementary and secondary levels, according to the government education agency, went up by above seven percent and nearly 13% in school year 2005-2006, from 6.98% and 7.99%, respectively, in school year 2004-2005.High cost of education coupled by lingering poverty has been cited by pundits’ reasons for these increases (DepEd, 2011).

A Philippines-based foundation named He Cares Foundation, has been provided and supported balik-aral students by rendering programs and financial support to help the balik-arals to pursue their studies.

Based from the reviewed articles, the researchers noticed that the dropout rate in the Philippines in previous years has increased and the budget allocated for education had also increased but it doesn’t have an obvious effect on the rate of dropouts end even repeaters. But the good thing is, as of last year, it was reported that the dropout rate had decreased because of the dropout reduction program rendered by the Department of Education headed by Secretary Armin Luistro.

Local Studies
Studies on dropping out have attributed the phenomenon mainly to poverty. One extensive critical review of about 50 studies on public school education described dropouts as coming from low-income families whose parents had little or no education, and who were unemployed or had jobs that gave them little or irregular income. The study also identified reasons for dropping out such as poor health due to malnutrition, distance between home and school, lack of interest, and teacher factor. It concluded that the education system then was ?socially selective since most dropouts were from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds.

These facts reflect a worrisome reality about the holding power of public schools, which is further elucidated by data on dropouts. The statistics on the national average dropout rate for each school level has remained higher than expected (1 to 2 %), sometimes as much as 2 digits. Moreover, even if dropouts re-enter school at some point many repeaters eventually drop out at a later time. Re-admission seems to have little positive effect on achievement (Nava, 2009).

Moreover, Nava noted that students in various gender groups, school levels, and locations are at-risk of dropping out for various reasons. Some of these factors are common to all dropouts, while others are more keenly associated with specific groups.

Secondary or high school female repeaters in the Philippines (%of female enrolled) was 1.53 as of 2009. Its highest value over the past 11 years was 1.62 in 2006, while its lowest value was 0.85 in 2005. On the other hand, the male repeaters were 4.36 as of 2009. Its highest value over the past 11 years was 4.87 in 2006, while its lowest value was 2.73 in 25 (UNESCO, 2009).

The Repeaters in the secondary schools, in the Philippines (% of total enrollment) was 2.92 in 2009, according to a World Bank report, published in 2010.

An analysis of the Dropout Reduction Plan of the Department of Education (2007) has found out that:
Low family income, unemployed parents, and parents engaging in seasonal jobs are factors which adversely affect the students.

Parents tend to neglect their parental responsibilities towards their children’s education because they are preoccupied with other activities to augment their family income. Some are OFWs, some have poor educational background while others are irresponsible parents who are indulging in vices like alcoholism and gambling.

Broken family and family conflicts affected the students’ school performance.

Health problems such as malnutrition and illness caused students to drop from school.

Peer pressure/barkadahan, playing amusement games during classes and even indulging in different vices are identified causes of absenteeism and tardiness among students.

Poor academic performance of students is brought about by being slow learners, having low self-esteem, having poor study habit, being not ready academically for secondary school, and non- compliance of subject requirements.

A good number of schools have insufficient instructional equipment and learning facilities.

Many teachers still resort to the traditional methods of teaching, inappropriate teaching styles and utilization of traditional assessment of learning outcomes.

Some schools provide inadequate guidance program. Furthermore, some schools do not have full-time guidance counselors.

The students have no access to regular transportation because of the distance and difficult geographic allocation of the school. Students get tired hiking daily causing them to be late or absent in school.

The presence of amusement and recreation centers such as internet café, video games, billiard halls, video houses, etc. operating in the locality of the school during class hours entice students not to attend classes.

From the reviewed materials, the researchers noticed a worrisome increase in the dropout and repeaters rate in the country. Also, not enough funding from the government contributes to these problems. But the government agencies, particularly the Department of Education is doing the best they can to prevent further increase of the students who repeat and dropped out from school. On the other hand, the balik-arals or the students that are back from schooling after long vacationing were able to continue their studies with the help of programs created for them.
Synthesis of Reviewed Related Literature and Studies
Erik Erikson’s Psycho-Social Development of Personality, particularly the conflict stage of “industry versus inferiority,” that lasts from 6 to 11 years. In our culture, school life begins here. This stage is the beginning of life outside the family; a stage of systematic instruction, a movement from play to a sense of work. This stage describes that a child needs to do well and develop a sense of work completion and satisfaction in a job well done. Otherwise, the child develops a sense of inferiority and inequality. Another is the adolescence stage termed, “identity versus identity confusion” that occurs between 12 to 20 years, it emphasizes the difficult transition between childhood and adulthood that can be strongly affected by social limitations and possibilities. The adolescent is likely to suffer from confused roles. Doubts about one’s sexual attractiveness and sexual identity are common to this stage. The inability to develop a sense of identification with an individual or cultural role model who gives direction to one’s life can lead to a period of floundering and insecurity. Another reaction is over identification with youth-culture heroes or clique leaders leading to a loss of identity.

Because of these crucial stages where most high school students in the country are where at, many problems arises that can affect their functioning in their daily lives.

An additional theory is from Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs, which points out the basic human needs. He believed that exposure to environmental conditions that permit or prohibit gratification of the basic needs prompts movement up or down the hierarchy of needs. Maslow suggests that, without the fulfilment of these needs, an individual may feel discouraged, weak and inferior. In line with this study, if a student feels discouraged and inferior, his motivation may be affected and thus, there will certainly have inhibitions especially with his performance in school.

Moreover, Carl Rogers’ Self-theory that points out that the ultimate goal of each one is to be a fully functioning person. It is a process in which the individual constantly pursues his or her actualizing tendency, and at the same time behaves in a manner that is true to the self. Rogers also described the characteristics of a fully functioning person these are: openness to experiences, existential living, self-trust, sense of freedom and creativity.

Respondent of the Study
The respondents of this study are limited to 50 mixed of male and female Grade 11-12 Senior High School students of Saints John and Paul Collages will be the target respondents of this study. These respondents are the ones who are knowledgeable enough to answer the questions proposed in the study. They will answer the questionnaire that the researcher will provide to them which supplies the information that the researcher needs.

Instrument of the Study
A survey questionnaire was used as the main data-gathering instrument for this study. The questionnaire is divided into two main sections: the demographic profile and the survey-questionnaire. The profile contains demographic characteristics of the respondents such as age, gender, year level. The survey proper explores the problems encountered by the respondents. In this survey questionnaire, two choices were provided for every statement: Yes or No. The choices represent the agreement each respondent has on the given question.

Validation of the Instrument
The survey questionnaire was validated by a research teacher/professor. The corrections and suggestions will be included and be used accordingly for the instrument’s better validation. The instrument was carefully structured to avoid confusions and misunderstanding for the sake and convenience of the respondents. The same instrument used in this research was tested by other researchers and could be seen online for more accurate validation.

Data-Gathering Procedure
Were personally administered the research instrument to the respondents. We conferred and discussed the significance of the study and accomplished the distribution of the instrument properly. The respondents were given 15 minutes to accomplish the forms to prevent them from giving hasty responses. The researchers went from one section to another on collecting the accomplished questionnaires. After the questionnaires have been accomplished, the results were tallied and tabulated. These data became the bases of analysis and interpretation.


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