Preparing of Purdue University is emergency planning for
Preparing for a disaster at American Universities and Colleges has changed dramatically. Prior to September 11th higher education institutions merely planned for natural disasters.
American soil in no longer as safe as it once was. In addition to preparing for tornados, preparing for hurricanes, preparing for earthquakes, and preparing for fires there is need to prepare for a terrorist attack. A natural disaster is an event of nature that takes human lives or destroys property. In contrast, a terrorist attack is a man-made event that takes human lives and destroys property. Terrorist attacks appear in many forms biological terrorism, chemical terrorism, explosive terrorism, nuclear terrorism, and radiation terrorism. Data gathered from FEMA confirmed that the majority of terrorist attacks were explosive.
In 2002 there were a total of 199 international terrorist attacks against buildings. Out the 199, 70% of the attacks were bombings (Brown & Lowe 1-16). Since actions taken to plan for explosive attacks are similar to preparing and planning for other types of attacks, explosive attack recommendations and supplies would be sufficient to handle such emergencies. Knoy Hall on the well-regarded campus of Purdue University is emergency planning for a terrorist attack. There are many variable involved that make emergency planning for an explosive attack difficult, including the number of individuals in or around the targeted structure and the tactics used by terrorists to implement an explosive attack. The different approaches to planning will be discussed in depth later in the report.
Following the implementation of the recommendations in this report Knoy Hall will be prepared for an explosive attack. Brief OverviewResearch by U.S. Home Land Security and FEMA has revealed that it’s possible to implement an effective plan for a terrorist based emergency. Several avenues were researched to better prepare for the emergency. The course of action that is selected must be well thought out.
Instead of preparing the entire campus, the emergency plan is for the school of technology building, Knoy Hall. There are a large number of students, a large number of Purdue faculty members, and a large number of staff that utilize Knoy Hall. Campus police and fire department may not have ample supplies to handle a large scaled attack. Therefore a number of tasks have to be completed to prepare Knoy Hall for a terrorist attack.
Supplies must be purchased and stored. A storage facility for emergency items must be purchased and constructed. Financial support for the emergency plan has to be thought out and sought after thoroughly. Medical needs of persons in or around the structure as to be researched. Take in account of the adjoining structures and structures in close proximity.
;#61607;Michael Golden Engineering Laboratories and Shops;#61607;Nuclear Engineering BuildingEvaluate the structural integrity of existing columns, beams, walls, and roof and floor systems. Renovate Knoy Hall if it’s not up to code. Develop Knoy Emergency and Security Services whose purpose is to secure and prepare Knoy Hall. Approaches for PlanningInsightful information was gathered from the U.S. Home Land Security and FEMA.
We are taking the approach that Knoy Emergency and Security Services and government agencies can work as a team to complete task needed to prevent and respond to a terrorist attack. Based upon information gathered from FEMA’s reference manual, Mitigating Potential Terrorist attacks against buildings we found that its more likely the attack would be a bombing of some kind (Brown ; Lowe 1-66). FEMA stated we must first identify the possible means of bombing to better plan for a terrorist attack (Brown ; Lowe 1-66). The terrorist threat could be a stationary vehicle, moving vehicle, or delivered by way of mail.
In addition the explosive device could be thrown, placed or even strapped to a person’s body. The detonation of the device could be remotely activated, a timed count down or explode instantaneously. Types of terrorist explosive devices:car bombslaser guided missilesinexpensive aircraft armed with explosivesdynamite suicide bombergrenades(rocket and hand propelled) shoulder launched missilescrude pipe bombsplastic explosivescompositeFEMA stated that there is a possibility that terrorist could detonate more than one explosive devise. That is why it’s vital that the police and fire department secure the area to minimize fatalities and injuries.
Occupants of Knoy Hall should evacuate immediately and then head for designated safe zone. The designated safe zone should be Purdue’s Memorial Mall, since it is an area large enough to hold well over 6000 people. If occupants cant reach safe zone, than we suggest heading to an area that is at least 100 feet from Knoy Hall.
Preventive Measures Because there are various numbers of explosives that could be used in an attack; we must strive to prevent the attack from taking place. Prevention is the most logical form of protection. By limiting access to Knoy as well as constructing and placing concrete or steel columns around the perimeter could deter a terrorist attack.
The more easily accessible a building is the more likely it would be a target. It is vital we renovate Knoy to prevent catastrophic outcomes similar to September 11th. The following is a list of ways an attack could be prevented:install surveillance cameras equipped with motion sensorsinstall surveillance cameras on the interior and exterior of the buildingproduce a team of security and emergency services to monitor all activity practice random explosive emergency drills once or twice a monthinstall television monitors oon each floor of Knoy locate monitors in each corner of the buildingolocate monitors at each entrance and exit olocate monitors in each class room or labinstall doors equipped with key card accessevaluate reason why terrorist would want to attack Knoy Hallbe aware of the current homeland security national threat level ored – severe risk of terrorist attacksoorange – high risk of terrorist attacksoyellow – significant risk of terrorist attacks (current)oblue – general risk of terrorist attacksogreen – low risk of terrorist attacksinstall x-ray machines at main entrancepost 24 hour surveillance notification signsKnoy was built in 1984 and it may be time to improve its structural integrity. The structural engineers may have designed the structure to handle a minimal amount of wind loads, live loads, and dead loads. Today new concrete and steel structures include explosive stability in the design process. This means that structures ability to withstanding explosives, without instantaneous collapse.
Structural failure caused the world trade towers to collapse. After a commercial aircraft entered each tower, the fuel from the aircrafts reached extremely high temperatures, causing the structural steel to reach its melting point. To prevent this from happening to Knoy, we suggest coating structural steel with concrete or some other material with a higher melting point than steel.
Additional items are needed to ensure that Knoy Hall is a more secure building, like the following:Barriers need to be placed at the top of stair well leading to basement level to prevent occupant from going to the basement instead of exiting the building.Purchase back-up power generatorsAdd lighting strips along the floor and walls to direct people to the nearest exit. Make certain that exit signs are placed at the end and in middle of each corridor leading to an emergency exit.Strengthen columns, girders, joist, joist girders, beams, roof system as well as floor system.Upgrade the amount of insurance Knoy has.
This should aid in reconstruction expenses of Knoy after terrorist attack. Building Traffic Knoy hall is the home of the school of technology. The school has over 6000 students and over 200 faculty and staff in the building between the hours of 7:00am and 5:30pm Monday through Friday. Computer labs on the second and third floor remain open from 5:30pm to 11:00pm. In that time frame there are six to ten students in each computer lab which is about 100 to 150 people.
The security doors are automatically locked after 11:00 pm. One lab remains open from 11:00pm to 2:00am Monday through Friday. Usually the lab only has about four or five people in it during that time.
Security cameras have been installed to monitor lab activity. Building Emergency Notification and Procedures Occupant NotificationBroadcast a video recording of Purdue University President Martin C. Jischke on TV monitors advising occupants of emergency procedures. Broadcast video before, during and after the attack.Place detailed description of evacuation and emergency procedures at ten locations on each floor. E-mail students, faculty, and staff the evacuation and emergency procedures.
Write an article describing the evacuation and emergency procedures and place it in the Purdue Exponent. The following information was gathered from Quake Kare’s terrorist preparation:If there is an Explosion occupants should?Take shelter against a desk or a sturdy table. Exit the building ASAP. Do not use elevators. Check for fire and other hazards.Take emergency supply kit if time allows.
If there is a Fire occupants should?Exit the building ASAP. Crawl low if there is smoke Use a wet cloth, if possible, to cover their nose and mouth. Use the back of their hand to feel the upper, lower, and middle parts of closed doors.
If the door is not hot, brace their self against it and open slowly. If the door is hot, do not open it. Look for another way out.
Do not use elevators If you catch fire, do not run. Stop-drop-and-roll to put out the fire. If you are at home, go to a previously designated meeting place. Account for their family members and carefully supervise small children. Never go back into a burning building. Medical NeedsThere are a number of ways medical needs could be met for those injured from an explosive terrorist attack.
The county, city, and university fire department and Emergency medical services (EMS) should be designated to treat the injured. If a terrorist attack occurs during the fall and spring semesters Purdue University Student Health Center’s urgent care should be able to assist Monday – Friday; 8:00am – 11:00am & 10:00am – 6:00pm and summer sessions 8:00am – 5:00pm. In addition Knoy Emergency and Security Services will accept qualified volunteers to aid in the process. Qualified individuals include nurses, doctors and medical students.
For individuals interested in volunteering, Knoy Emergency and Security Services will offer training in first aid and CPR for a small fee. Moderately injured persons will be cared for at the designated safe zone. Tents will be erected to provide sufficient cover for such individuals. Severely injured occupants will be sent to a temporary trauma center via ambulance or bus.
The temporary trauma center will be located at the Armory and Loeb Field house if necessary. A portion of the purchased supplies will be transferred to the temporary trauma center. Severely injured individuals will be sent to the hospital via ambulance.
RecommendationThe fire, police, and medical services will have to work together to develop specific protocol for handling an explosive emergency. The cost of man power, new facilities, and supplies must be evaluated. Supplies should be put on order.
The structural integrity of Knoy should be upgraded to withstand a massive explosion. Surveillance cameras need to be installed to monitor all activity. A security checkpoint at the main entrance of Knoy has to be implemented. The check point should have two security guards equipped with x-ray devices to check visitors before entering the building. Students, faculty and staff should be given key cards that would grant prompt access. All other entrances and exits must be put on lockdown.
An additional guard must be hired to monitor surveillance cameras as well as patrol hallways, for suspicious activity. All glass should be covered in Millar to guard against shatter. An emergency fund ought to be added to handle emergency expenses, similar to Purdue University’s technology fee.
The emergency structure should be constructed at the north east corner of State and University streets. This location is suggested since it’s in a central location, easily accessible, and there are open sites to develop. ConclusionThis research suggests that majority terrorist threats are of the explosive variety. In most instances our plan would be more than sufficient to handle an explosive emergency. We believe that government officials and Purdue University Student Medical Services can work as one unit in conjunction with Knoy’s Emergency and Security Services. Ultimately it is the responsibility of the Purdue University to protect their students, faculty, and staff to the best of their ability. Our emergency plan is a step in the right direction for Knoy’s preparedness in case of a terrorist attack.
ReferencesMichel D Brown & Anthony S. Lowe of FEMA (2003). Risk Management Series: Reference Manual to Mitigate Potential Terrorist Attacks Against Buildings, 1-11 – 1-67 Purdue University, Maurice G. Knoy Hall of Technology. Retrieved July 18th, 2004 fromhttps://www.
itap.purdue.edu/map/mapv2/buildings/history/Knoyhist.htmlQuake Kare, Terrorism Preparation.
Retrieved July 14th, 2004 from http://www.quakekare.com/explosivethreat.html