ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE CHLORPYRIFOS EFFECTS IN GILL AND LIVER OF SOUTH INDIAN FRESH WATER MURREL
ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE CHLORPYRIFOS EFFECTS IN GILL AND LIVER OF SOUTH INDIAN FRESH WATER MURREL, CHANNA STRIATA (BLOCH-1793)
Suja. S 1 and Sherly Williams. E 2
Environmental sciences, Aquaculture and Fish biotechnology unit,
Department of Zoology
Fatima Mata National College, Kollam, Kerala, India.
Email: [email protected]
Channa striata is a native fresh water carnivorous air breathing fish species, widely distributed in India. This white boneless meaty and tender taste edible fish is selected for the present study. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of organophosphate pesticide, Chlorpyrifos on the gills and liver of C. striata. Acute toxicity test results for pesticides were evaluated by the Probit analysis method and 96 h LC50 values for C. striata exposed to chlorpyrifos was 4.521 ppm. Histology of liver and gills exposed to 96-hour LC50 concentration of chlorpyrifos was studied in a fresh water Channa striata. The histopathological changes observed in the liver tissue included necrosis, degradation of hepatocytes, degeneration of blood vessels, distended sinusoids with pyknotic nuclei and vacuolation of cells. Number of histological changes are clearly visible in gills also. Edema of epithelial cells, partial epithelial lifting, damaged pillar cells, enlargement of primary lamellar epithelium, aneurism of secondary lamellae, congestion of blood spaces, infiltration of the secondary lamellae, cellular hyperplasia, damaged gill rackers, fusion of secondary lamellae, infiltration of erythrocytes, degeneration of lamellar epithelium, Breakage of gill rackers, necrosis of lamellae and totally distortion were detected. The results revealed that the pesticide Chlorpyrifos deteriorate the gills and liver. Those histological changes which deviate from control to experiment.
KEY WORDS: Channa striata, Hepatocytes, Necrosis, Pyknotic nuclei, Edema, Hyperplasia
The use of pesticides has become an integral part of modern agricultural systems. Irrigation water and agricultural runoff are the main sources of contaminating aquatic environment, where they subsequently deteriorate water quality. Alterations in the chemical composition of natural aquatic environments can affect the fresh water fauna, particularly fish. These xenobiotics even at low concentration can interfere with the metabolism of the organism. (Metelev et al., 1983). Prolonged exposure to these contaminants caused a number of alterations in the physiological, and biochemical processes. The literature has been reviewed on pesticide toxicity to fish with emphasis on locomotory behavioural, growth, carcass composition, haematological, biochemical, chromosomal aberrations and genotoxicity in fish. The use of pesticides has become an integral part of modern agricultural systems. Irrigation water and agricultural runoff are the main sources of contaminating aquatic environment, where they subsequently deteriorate. The aquatic environment is continuously being contaminated with toxic chemicals from industrial, agricultural and domestic activities. Pesticides are one of the major classes of toxic substances used in India for management of pest in agricultural lands and control of insect vectors of human disease. The runoff from treated areas enters the river and aquaculture ponds that are supplied by rivers. Such rivers and the adjacent aquaculture ponds are likely to be contaminated by pesticides (Begum, 2004).
Chlorpyrifos (O, O diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate) is one of the earliest developed organophosphate pesticide, introduced in India in 1965(Gayr, 2000). Which is widely used in agriculture and residential pest control. In India, CPF is classified as an extremely hazardous pesticide (ITRC, 1989). It is frequently used on crops and in the warehouses, for the eradication of a wide range of insect-pests. This reaches to the aquatic ecosystem though rain and affecting aquatic organism 1-3. CPF passes via air drift or surface runoff into surrounding waters and gets accumulated in different aquatic organisms, particularly fish, adversely affecting them (Varó,2002). The pesticides enter the food chain and their subsequent bioaccumulation and biotransformation at different trophic levels have disastrous effect to the ecosystem 4.
Acute toxicity caused by a toxicant on freshwater fish can evaluate by quantitative parameters like survival and mortality of test animals and sensitivity of fish species against pesticidal toxicity. Channa striata is commonly called chevron snakehead, striped murrel or striated murrel is one of the most economically important species inhabiting fresh water as well as brackish water 2. It is also a well-known food fish widely used for medicinal and pharmaceutical purpose. The main objective of the present study was to determine the histopathological changes of freshwater murrel Channa striata exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of pesticide chlorpyrifos.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
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