In by additional practice or extra stimulation
In the past centuries, there has been an issued over whether heredity or environment plays a greater role in determining or shaping the human development.
Nature is the abilities that are present at birth, as well as any abilities determined by genes, including which we develop as we get older. On the other hand, nurture is the processes caused by environment. Everything is learned through our interactions with our environment and as a result of our experiences. Some people believe that the nature affects our human development, while others believe that it is nurture that affects us, and some believe that both of these influence our behavior.However, it seems that nurture is more strongly influences early human development which caused by environment and experience. This essay will discuss the effects of nature and nurture and provide some evidences of why nurture has a stronger influence on human development. According to Charles Darwin (1859), he emphasizes that human development is inherited and genetically programmed.
The genetic structure of fertilized ovum determines our sex, the colour of our skin, eyes, hair, and general body size (Atkinson, Atkinson, Smith, Bem, & Nolen-Hoeksema, 1999).The motor behavior or the movement of the infants is based on the age of the children. For example, infants are able to roll over, sitting without support, standing while holding on to furniture, crawling, and walking when they reach a certain age.
However, a British philosopher John Locke argued human development is determined entirely by experience. He suggested that the mind of a newborn infant begins as a “blank slate”, which is what the infant sees, hears, tastes, and smells. In addition, some behaviorists such as John B. Watson and B. F.
Skinner believed that newborn babies can be trained into any kind of adult, and the human development can be easily changed or influenced (John B. Watson and B. F. Skinner, 1930). Family, society, and environment also influence early human development. Abnormal uterine environment can affect maturation process.
For instance, if the mother contracts German measles during the period of the organ systems are developed, and if the mother smokes, drinks alcohol too much or taking drugs, as a result, the baby may be born deaf, blind or brain damaged.The latest studies show that the development of motor behavior can be accelerated by additional practice or extra stimulation (McGraw, 1935/1975; Dennis & Dennis, 1940; Gesell & Thompson, 1929. Newborn babies have stepping reflex by moving their legs similar to walking when they are held in upright position. Newborn babies who had stepping practice began walking faster than the one who did not practice (Zelazo, Zelazo & Kolb, 1972). Children also began to speak earlier when they lived in environment where people talk to them and convince them making speech like sounds than the ones who did not (Kagan, 1979).Although genetic structure may raise the prospect that newborn infants will behave in some particular ways, it does not provide them a good performance without extra practice in fine environment.
Practicing and experiencing play crucial role in their early development. In conclusion, I believed that nurture is more strongly influences early human development. It helps newborn babies to adapt quickly to their new world with the functions of all sensory systems.