MCDONALD’S IN VIETNAM By Ayodeji Akin Abiri Table of Contents Abstract 1. 0 Introduction3 1. 1 Background note4 1. 2 Global Strategy5 2. 0 McDonald’s In Vietnam8 2. 1 Entry Strategy9 2. 2 PESTEL analysis of Vietnam9 2. 3 SWOT analysis of HCM city11 2. 4 Expansion strategy12 2. 5 Franchising in Vietnam13 2. 6 Drive-thru restaurants13 2. 7 Localization strategy13 3. 0 Competition & challenges14 3. 1 Recommendations15 3. 2 Conclusion15 Exhibit I16 Exhibit II18 Exhibit III29 References32 McDonald Enters Vietnam Abstract
This paper analyzes the globalization options for McDonald’s by going into Vietnam. The paper explores McDonald’s global strategy as well as its expansion strategy. Aside from the globalization evaluation, this study also examines the entry mode in Vietnam. In the concluding sections, I was able to outline the challenges and recommendations for McDonald’s. Key words: globalization, strategy, fast food, expansion 1. 0 Introduction McDonald’s Corporation is the world’s largest hamburger fast food chains which serves up to 64 million customers daily.
McDonald’s annual report in 2007 revealed that it served one billion more customers globally in the previous year because of its reasonably priced menus such as Ein Mal Eins in Germany, the value Menu in China and the Dollar Menu in the US. These menus normally included up to 10 items with desserts, side dishes, entrees and drinks which could be mixed by customers to make a meal or a fast snack. According to McDonald’s 2010 report, global comparable sales growth was 5%, earnings per share is 11%, average number of customers served per day was 64 Million.
The Asia/Pacific, Middle East, and Africa (APMEA) contributed to 21 percent of its total revenues, driven by comparable sales increases in China, Australia and most other markets. Asia is one of the vital markets for McDonald’s as it added significantly to the company’s revenue and operational earnings in the past 30 years. McDonald’s entered Asia in 1971 with the first restaurant in Tokyo, Japan. Since then it began to expand steadily in Japan and other Asian countries.
Honk Kong in 1975, Singapore in 1998, Malaysia in 2001 Taiwan in 2003, South Korea in 1988, China in 1990, and India in 1996. Apart from McDonald’s home market-the US, China was the major growth market with 1000 restaurants and over 60,000 employees as of 2010. In Asia, McDonald’s became the symbol of modern lifestyle in countries like China, Thailand, India and Indonesia. However it remained American in its services, menu, and administration. McDonald’s brought in difference in its ingredients and products to fit the Asian palate and culture.
McDonald’s entry into Vietnam is certain to bring a new style of fast food service to local people and will no doubt provide strong competition to similar names like KFC (US), Jollibee (the Philippines), Lotteria (Japan), which have been in Vietnam for more than 10 years and Subway (US) which just entered. 1. 1 Background Note The early stages of McDonald’s date back to the 1930s, when the McDonald brothers (Mac and Dick) opened a fast-food restaurant called Airdrome in Arcadia, California, that sold coffee, tea and hot dogs.
Stimulated by the decent response to their first eatery, they decided to increase their business. In 1940, they opened a grill restaurant in San Bernadino, California. The grill restaurant had up to 25 items on its menu like pork sandwiches and barbecue beefs. McDonald’s hired 20 carhops to provide fast food service to customers. The McDonald’s brothers ran the restaurant for eight years until they found it difficult to cope with the large scale of the business with many staff, broad menus huge crowds that packed the restaurant.
In 1948, they reduced the menu in order to scale down operations and develop a method to attend to customers rapidly with fewer resources. The process helped McDonald’s to introduce self-service, serve more customers, increase speed, eliminated carhops and reduced the price of hamburger by half. The McDonald’s brothers in 1953 decided to go into franchising as a mandate to expand their business. A franchisee needed a thousand dollars to receive the McDonald’s name, one week training from Art Bender, and a basic description of McDonald’s service system.
The role of Bender is to train staff at the franchisee’s restaurant, make contact with bakeries and butchers for supplies, supervise equipment installation, etc. The first McDonald’s franchise was Neil Fox, who started a drive-in restaurant in Phoenix, Arizona. It became an example for the McDonald’s chain. The franchise business grew from strength to strength the following years. Ray Kroc in 1954, a salesman for a company that supplies milkshake mixers to McDonald’s found out that they used a method similar to an assembly line system.
He sensed an opportunity to sell the milk shake mixers to all the McDonald’s restaurants that opened and he persuaded the McDonald’s brothers to open more outlets. But the McDonald’s brothers were content with the present operations and were not interested in expanding the business. Kroc applied for a McDonald’s franchise and he applied his experience as a salesman to create an effective franchising business. He retained McDonald’s formula and shaped the operating principles of quality, cleanliness, service and value. Under Ray Kroc’s supervision, McDonald’s developed to be the largest fast food chains in the US. Refer to Exhibit 1 for a brief note on McDonald’s growth) 1. 2 Global Strategy After attaining success in the US, McDonald’s on June 1, 1967 opened its first international restaurant in Canada. More restaurants followed in the early seventies with presence in Germany, France, Australia and England. McDonald’s entered Asia in 1971 by opening a restaurant in Japan through a joint venture with a local partner (Den Fujita) who is a successful business man. In 1990, McDonald’s opened a restaurant that was the biggest joint venture between a food company and the Soviet Union.
McDonald’s built a $45 million modern food processing facility in Moscow to meet the increasing demand in the Soviet Union which attends to 50,000 customers daily. In the mid-1990s, McDonald’s was already in 58 countries by operating more than 3,600 outlets outside the United States through joint ventures, franchises and wholly-owned subsidiaries. McDonald’s had strong presence in Canada, UK, Japan, France and Australia. These countries accounted for 37 percent of McDonald’s revenue in 1991. McDonald’s in 1992 opened its first African restaurant in Morocco.
It entered the Middle East in 1993 with the first restaurant in Tel Aviv, Israel. More restaurants followed in Oman, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and UAE. India got its first McDonald’s in 1996. Afterwards, it opened more outlets in countries like Hungary, Slovenia and Czech Republic. In 1995, the company had 7,030 outlets in 110 countries with sales of US$14 billion. A further increase to 11,000 outlets in 114 countries was recorded in 1998. McDonald’s recorded a fourth-quarter loss of US$343. 8 million in 2002 which was the first quarterly loss the company will witness as a public company in 38 years.
This made McDonald’s to change its strategy by stopping its plan to open new stores and focus on developing its current restaurants. McDonald’s closed underperforming outlets, cut jobs, withdrew from three countries in Latin America and Middle East. This resulted in opening 600 restaurants in 2001 compared to 2000 in 1996. As at August 2011, there were a total of 32, 737 McDonald’s outlets of which about 80 percent were franchised. (Refer to Exhibit 2) The key to McDonald’s international success is franchising. Franchising to local people helped the company’s operations in foreign countries easy in terms of product and service.
McDonald’s generated US$4. 9 billion in 2007 due to growth in global operations. The company’s entry into new markets showed its flexibility with respect to customs and local food preferences. McDonald’s adopted a similar strategy used in US for its international markets, but with some slight variations in the menus offered to suit local tastes. An operations procedure which focused on quality, service, cleanliness, and value coupled with a solid local partner with customary McDonald’s menu were the roots for the company’s international success.
The global strategy that was adopted was called “Plan to win” which focused on the five P’s of marketing- People, Place, Products, Promotion and Price. The key to McDonald’s international success was the ‘think global, act local’ initiative which helped the company to excel in every region it opened its restaurants. It adapted its operations based on the home country in which it is operating. An example is keeping in mind the local sentiments in the Arab countries, Singapore and Malaysia. McDonald’s did not serve pork, maintained the ‘Halal’ menus and they observed the Islamic laws for preparing food.
In Japan, McDonald’s brand name was changed to Makudonaldo to make the pronunciation easy for the Japanese consumers. In Israel, McDonald’s were closed on Saturdays to observe the Jewish Sabbath Day; restaurants did not serve dairy products; Big Macs were served without cheese in most outlets. McDonald’s catered for the vegetarians in India by serving the McNuggets; it also served Maharaja Mac to some religious communities in that are against beef. In Ireland, the local strategy was a promotion that stated, “Our name may be American, but we are all Irish”
McDonald’s had to alter its traditional menu to suit the needs of the customers in different nations. It changed its product offerings to adapt to the tastes of the local people. Some instances are beer in Germany, guava juices in tropical countries, chilled yogurt drinks in Turkey, vegetarian burgers in Netherlands, cold pasta and espresso in Italy, Teriyaki Mac and McGriddles in Japan, McSpagetti in Norway, McHuevo in Uruguay, Samurai burger in Thailand, and Filet-O-Fish in China. The additions and variations did not change the basic structure of McDonald’s menu.
Its menu remained the same globally consisting of burger or sandwich, fries and a Soda drink. Although the main course was slight different in some countries, the main product of the company ‘the fries ‘were always present in its entire menu globally. As per prices, the demand in each country determined the price for McDonald’s services. A Big Mac with fries will cost more in other countries that in the US because fries are a common food item in the US than some other countries that sees it as a luxury. By offering variety and locally related menu extensions, McDonald’s has always been delivering value to its customers. . 0McDonald’s in Vietnam Vietnam is a huge potential to McDonald’s global expansion. Over the years, Vietnam has enjoyed strong economic growth, a change in spending habits, increasing demand for western brands, growth in urban population and a major tourist destination. Vietnam now has a more prosperous population with disposable earnings and a cultural tendency to expend it on fast food in the large urban centers of Ho Chi Minh (HCM) City, Danag, Hai Phong, Hanoi, and Can Tho. Vietnam’s two main cities are Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City.
In the middle of these two cities is the famous shoreline where local and international tourists visit to adore the remarkable scenery of the beaches and islands on the South China Sea. These cities are rapidly gaining attractiveness and the associated fast food service industry is facing increasing demand. According to the results of a study on fast food consumption among Vietnamese people conducted by AC Nielson in 2009, there is robust demand and fast food is welcomed as a model. Seventy percent of persons interviewed said that they liked eating at fast food outlets because they liked the atmosphere and the service standard.
Steady fast food customers tend to be those earning high incomes, with 27 percent responding that they eat fast food at least once in a week. Sixty percent of people interviewed said that they chose fast food because they like the swift service, while 26 percent said that they considered fast food as a right meal. Vietnam has a young, dynamic and educated population of over 89 million consumers, the largest in the South East Asia. The country has a literacy rate of 94 percent and a population growth of 6% which is expected to reach 100 million by 2024.
Vietnam is currently enjoying one of the highest GDP growths in Asia, a 6 percent per year which is second only to China. In 1986, there was a significant change in business when the government introduced a policy called “doi moi” (‘renovation’) to allow limited private enterprise. The policy allowed family business to become popular and skilled entrepreneurs from South Vietnam started to change the country from a dominant government control to a free market economy. 2. 1Entry Strategy McDonald’s is going to adopt the ‘Green Field ‘approach in Vietnam.
The wholly owned subsidiary will be the best option for McDonald’s to introduce quality, service and innovation. A PESTEL analysis of the 8 sub regions shows that the Ho Chi Minh City has the best conditions to open the first restaurant. HCM city is an area with a growing middle class who will be the most likely to visit McDonald’s restaurants. The city is also suitable as a start up due adequate infrastructure, government support, low tax and convenience. McDonald’s will take cue from the joint venture success in China by partnering with the Vietnamese Ministry of Agriculture and its associations to facilitate smooth business operations.
This type of venture will give McDonald’s the ease of receiving agricultural supplies, buy supplies and build up distribution channels. It will also establish a good network of local farmers, manufacturers, and other suppliers needed for McDonald’s business. 2. 2PESTEL Analysis of Vietnam Political • Government is paying more attention to the benefits and interests of customers. • Many laws have been passed to define the responsibilities of business firms. • Business firms must meet the requirements on product safety, labor laws, truth in adverts, environmental issues, customer’s interest and so on.
Economic • Member of WTO. • Steady economic growth. • More jobs with better salaries. • High purchasing power. • Changes in purchasing pattern. Social • Vietnamese like to buy at a cheap price. • Careful in buying decisions. • Not loyal to one product, but some are likely to choose the products they trust. • Vietnamese prefer to try products by themselves than to believe salespersons. Technology • HCM city has evolved from a traditional agricultural city to a technological society. • Modern and high-tech equipment are in use. Standard of living has improved due to people living in more convenient conditions and is offered various products and services on demand. Environmental • Monsoon climate with four distinct season with high humidity. • Environmental problems include water, air and solid waste pollution. • Slow progress in achieving environmental sustainability due to low awareness in local departments, weak commitment by sectarian agencies and capacity challenges at all levels. • Environmental sustainability is part of Vietnam’s Comprehensive Poverty reduction and Growth Strategy. Legal • Weak and evolving legal system. Judiciary is controlled by the ruling party (CPV). • Vietnam is constantly passing progressive laws that are making it more open for foreign investors to do business. • Potential government interference to satisfy their own agenda. 2. 3McDonald’s SWOT Analysis of HCM City Strengths • Largest metropolitan city in Vietnam with 9 million people. Majority of the population is young and literate. • Economic center of Vietnam- GDP per capital is $2800 compared to Country’s average of $1042. Fast growing economy that has reduced poverty rate to the barest minimum. • Good transport and communication systems. Tourism haven • Huge pool of skilled labor force • McDonald’s will be able to implement its QSCV Principle • McDonald’s Quality assurance and good customer service are better than competitors • Aggressive competitive strategy • Low price of products • Ability to learn from competitors’ mistakes Weakness • Late Entry • Limited Menus than competitors • Contribution to obesity Opportunities • Increase in demand for fast food in Vietnam • Innovation in product and services • Fast food penetration still low which is an opportunity for growth Threats • More local and foreign competitors rising quickly. Government policies on fast food and healthy meal. • Outbreak of bird flu. 2. 4Expansion Strategies McDonald’s success in HCM city will act as an impetus to expand to other regions in Vietnam. The focus of expansion in other regions will be in busy locations like shopping malls or organized markets. Through the proposed agreement with the Vietnamese Ministry of agriculture and local farmers, McDonald’s will be able to open 50 outlets yearly. A food processing plant will also be built at different locations in the country. This will be an advantage to McDonald’s because Vietnam is country developed in agriculture.
McDonald’s will ready get raw materials like milk, vegetables and potatoes while the company can export the excess supplies to other countries. McDonald’s will focus on strategies related to quality breakfast, convenience, menu additions, value for money, extended hours of service, drive through restaurants and delivery services. 2. 5Franchising in Vietnam In the long-term, McDonald’s will franchise some of its restaurants in Vietnam. This is to reduce the business expansion cost and create more jobs opportunities for the local people. McDonald’s as a franchising company has three fourth of its stores worldwide as franchises.
Franchising in Vietnam will take place after the McDonald’s business in Vietnam is refined. 2. 6Drive-Thru Restaurants During the 2000s, Vietnam witnessed remarkable economic development that generated a huge market for fast food, consumer goods and cars. The automobile industry in Vietnam was stimulated by the government’s resolution to reduce tariffs on imported cars starting January 1, 2006. This resulted in an increase in people’s income, change in lifestyle, and improved standard of living. According to Vietnam Automobile Manufacturers Association, in 2010 over 110, 000 manufactured or assembled cars were sold in Vietnam.
Due to the continuous rise in the ownership of cars, McDonald’s will introduce the drive-thru model in Vietnam. The drive-thru model has always been an integral part of McDonald’s which has given a brand advantage. The model will thrive in a residential and business area in the city. 2. 7Localization strategy Vietnamese customers are loyal to their Vietnamese cuisine with a rich eat out tradition. Vietnamese food depends deeply on rice grown in water paddies throughout the country, with cuisines varying from simple everyday meals to complex cuisines designed for the Monarch.
Attaining a balance between meat and fresh herbs; as well as a careful use of spices to get a fine taste, Vietnamese is said to be one of the healthiest yet most divine cuisines globally. Peanuts are also used commonly in Vietnamese cuisine. To be profitable in Vietnam, McDonald’s will need to localize its products like its competitor KFC which added some local products on its menu. A balance between local cuisines and McDonald’s traditional products will be very important in the Vietnamese market. McDonald’s will introduce dishes like ‘McThai’ that will combine a variety of herbs, vegetables and meats. . 0Competition and Challenges McDonald’s will face intense competition in Vietnam local and foreign competitors. Its biggest rival is KFC (Yum Brands) which has 77 outlets and has operated for 14 years in Vietnam. Vietnamese customers are already familiar with their brand and they have been expanding by the year. KFC has a well-developed distribution system that permitted it to gain access to places other than the main city locations. KFC marketing policies focus on the young population and children with special marketing programs.
KFC is also planning to launch their drive-thru restaurants. Lotteria is one of the most successful restaurant chains in Vietnam, with 67 restaurants. Lotteria offers a range of promotions such as discounts of fifteen percent to twenty percent to make their restaurants more attractive to Vietnamese customers. With a steady expansion strategy, Lotterria has vowed to continue to conduct research and develop products and services to make them suitable with Vietnamese customers. Jollibee with 30 restaurants has seen Vietnam as a key market to its growth
Subway with one restaurant is planning to open 25 restaurants in 5 years. Its entry into the Vietnamese market will make it more vibrant and create more choices for the Vietnamese customers There is also a risk of new small scale competitors in the fast food market because of minimal capital requirements, lack of managerial complexity, and low entry barriers. McDonald’s can also face products imitation from Vietnam’s local restaurants. However, the biggest threats can come from food safety and disease outbreak such as bird flu 3. 1Recommendations McDonald’s should use a scheme that will satisfy their Vietnamese employees through a benefits program that will energize, attract, retain and reward talented staff who will be able to generate superior results and boost the corporations leadership position in the fast food industry. • McDonald’s should conduct a comprehensive market survey of competitors’ store locations in Vietnam combined with demographic data that will help McDonald’s management discern market gaps, improving profitability and overall efficiency. • McDonald’s should continue to have the right products at the right price.
Consumer taste inclinations are changing daily and McDonald’s must respond by providing a variety of taste and price preferences in order to maintain their competitive advantage alongside other fast food companies • McDonald’s should ensure their outlets are showplaces. The “green field” entry strategy should be used to build restaurants that will always look fresh and contemporary. • McDonald’s must keep promoting their brand in Vietnam. This should include motivating the employees to work for the brand, taking the lead on environmental issues and promoting consumer health matters. 3. 2Conclusion
McDonald’s will encounter some tough challenges as it grows to new markets. Fundamental to its prospective success will be maintaining its core strengths—a persistent emphasis on consistency and quality—while prudently testing with innovative options. These new initiatives could include identifying more with the local market and introducing sophisticated restaurants under novel brands that wouldn’t be burdened with McDonald’s fast-food image. McDonald’s could also look into growing more aggressively in other Asian and African countries where the prospects for substantial growth are greater. Exhibit I: McDonalds International Expansion YEAR |COUNTRY |YEAR |COUNTRY | | 1940 |USA | 1988 |South Korea | |1967 |Canada |1988 |Hungary | |1967 |Puerto Rico |1990 |Russia | |1971 |Japan |1990 |China | |1971 |West Germany |1991 |Greece | |1971 |Australia |1992 |Poland | |1972 |France |1993 |Israel | |1974 |UK |1993 |Saudi Arabia | |1975 |Hong Kong |1994 |UAE | |1976 |New Zealand |1995 |South Africa | |1976 |Switzerland |1996 |India | |1978 |Belgium |1998 |Pakistan | |1979 |Brazil |1998 |Sri Lanka | |1979 |Singapore |1999 |Georgia | |1981 |Malaysia |2001 |Mauritius | |1984 |Taiwan |2003 |Kazakhstan | |1985 |Italy |2008 |Algeria | |1986 |Argentina |2011 |Bosnia and Herzegovina | *The list is not exhaustive and compiled from various sources Exhibit 2: Countries with McDonald’s Franchises |# | |Increasingly famous worldwide with restaurants sprawled over the globe, yet no Vietnamese food | |abroad can equal in flavor or quality to that made in Vietnam itself. In brief, Vietnamese cuisine| |depends heavily on rice grown in water paddies throughout the country, with dishes varying from | |simple everyday meals to most complex dishes designed for the King.
Reaching a balance between | |fresh herbs and meats; as well as a selective use of spices to reach a fine taste, Vietnamese food| |can be considered one of the healthiest yet most divine cuisines worldwide. | |Spices and ingredients | |Vietnam’s ingredients reflect its geography and climate. Rice (grown in water paddies throughout | |the country) is the main starch used in everyday meals, and is also made into different kind of | |cakes and noodles. Besides a number of Buddhist vegetarian dishes, most Vietnamese dishes or meals| |are a combination of a variety of vegetables, herbs and meats. | |Common herbs may include lemon grass, lime or kaffir.
Popular meats are pork, beef, chicken, prawn| |and various fish. Lamb, duck, birds, and even dog or other wild animals are also used but not | |widely. Fish sauce and soy sauce are used as both flavorings and dipping sauces for nearly every | |dish. | |Peanuts are also used widely in Vietnamese cuisine. | |Vegetarians and those with allergies should be careful and ask beforehand while enjoying | |Vietnamese cuisine. | |Style of cooking | |The Vietnamese cook their food in a variety of ways: deep fry, stir fry, boil, steam. Unlike the | |Chinese, the Vietnamese use a minimal amount of oil while cooking.
Vietnamese cooks aim to | |preserve the freshness and natural taste of food as much as possible. Hence Vietnamese cuisine is | |often considered as one of the healthiest foods in the world. | |Food of three regions | |Like everything else, Vietnamese food also differs geographically from location to location. North| |Vietnam’s food uses soy sauce, fish sauce and prawn sauce and has many stir fried dishes. | |With harsh weather and less developed agriculture than the South, North Vietnamese tend to use | |less meat, fish and vegetables; and black pepper (instead of chili) to create spice. The taste is | |strict and less sweet, but more salty than in other regions. |Central Vietnam is distinct in its extreme spices and color of food. Hue’s cuisine, affected by | |royal cuisine once created for kings and queens, emphasized on quality and quantity – A meal | |constitutes of many complex dishes served only at small proportions. | |Southern Vietnamese are heavily affected by Cambodia, Thai and Chinese cuisines (due to trade and | |immigrants). Southerners prefer sweet tastes (created by adding sugar or coconut milk) and spicy | |tastes (created by chili peppers). | |A variety of dried fish and sauces originate from the South. Southerners prefer seafood and use | |simple cooking methods with larger and less servings. |Customs | |Influenced by the Chinese, chopsticks and spoons are used in Vietnam. Many foods (such as cakes) | |are wrapped in banana or coconut leaves. When eating with elders, younger Vietnamese always ask | |the elders to eat first. | |A typical family meal | |A typical Vietnamese meal (lunch or dinner) will include steamed rice; a soup dish to eat with | |rice, a meat or fish dish and a vegetarian dish (either stir fried or boiled). | |Vietnamese do not eat in separate servings, but the food is placed in the middle.
Each member of | |the family has a small bowl and chopsticks with which they take food from the table throughout the| |meal. | |Vietnamese noodles and cakes | |Besides the typical meal with rice, Vietnamese cuisine has many different types of noodles and | |cakes (mostly made from rice). To name a few: beef soup noodles (pho), crab noodle (bun rieu), | |spring rolls (nem), sticky rice cake (chung cake) | Source: www. guidevietnam. com References Hill, W. L. (2011). International business: competing in the global marketplace, 8th edn, McGraw-Hill companies Daniels, J. and Radebaugh, L. 1998) International Business: Environments and Operations, 8th edn, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Porter, M. E. (1985) Competitive Advantage, New York: The Free Press. Vignali, C. (2001) ‘McDonald’s: “think global, act local” – the marketing mix’, British Food Journal, Vol. 103, No. 2, pp. 97–111. Porter, M. E. (1980) Competitive Strategy, Techniques for Analysing Industries and Competitors, New York: Free Press. Whalen, J. (1995) ‘McDonald’s cooks worldwide growth’, Advertising Age International, July/August, p. 5. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/List_of_countries_with_McDonald’s_franchises. Accessed Oct. 2, 2011 http://www. doingbusiness. org/data/exploreeconomies/vietnam/. Accessed Sept. 20, 2011. ttp://news. vneconomy. vn/2010041603283251P0C1/for-your-dining-pleasure. htm http://www. guidevietnam. com/travel/vietnamese-food-cuisine. html. Accessed Oct. 3 2011 http://vietnambusiness. asia/112000-cars-sold-in-2010-down-6/ Accessed Sept 30, 2011 http://www. guidevietnam. com/travel/vietnamese-food-cuisine. html. Accessed Sept 30, 2011 http://www. business-in-asia. com/vn_automobile_industry. htm. Accessed Sept 30, 2011 http://www. eoincostello. ie/pdf_doc/Global_Marketing_and_Competitiveness_Assignment. pd0f. Accessed Sept 23, 2011 “McDonald’s Grows with the Country,” www. en. ce. cn, October 2, 2011 Annual Reports, McDonald’s www. mcdonald’s. com