Assignment 1 Presentation Notes Introduction: (Slide 1) * Introduction to the team This assignment will be presented by the assignment team who you will shortly be introduced to. During the presentation the following topics will be covered: * What is meant by the term ‘Scientific management’ * Advantages and disadvantages of adopting Scientific management * An explanation and example of Marlow’s hierarchy * The use of Locke’s goal-setting theory and Herzerg’s 2 factor theory to motivate employees at work * Summary Where did Scientific management come from? Slide 3) * Scientific Management is largely attributed to Frederick Winslow Taylor. (1856-1915) Frederick Winslow Taylor was an American mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. He is regarded as the father of Scientific Management. As a result; * Scientific Management is often referred to as Taylorism The term Taylorism became popularly used to describe scientific management, and the use of Taylors approaches became increasingly widespread, Henry Ford most famously adopted and developed his principles.

What is scientific management? (Slide 4) * To place management in control of production by using scientific logic to identify and individualise tasks undertaken to produce a product Previous to the introduction of scientific management it was often found that workers were in control of the production of products in so much that workers decided the best way or the way that the process would be conducted. If mangers are to perform efficiently then they need to understand and control the production. To provide workers with detail specification for the task and with financial reward based on the volume of work Taylor believed that workers would perform to financial rewards and managers should be responsible for providing detailed instruction/specification on how they should carry out the tasks Taylors Principles (Slide 5) Taylor laid out 5 principles of scientific management; * A clear division of tasks and responsibilities between management and workers. Tasks and responsibilities were divided between workers and management.

Managers were responsible for how the work is done, planning, scheduling, methods and training. While the workers, were responsible for the execution of the tasks. * Use of Scientific methods to determine the best way of doing a job. In order to scientifically determine the optimal way to complete a job Taylor performed experiments that he called time studies. These studies were characterized by the use of a stopwatch to time a workers sequence of motions with the goal of determining the one best way to perform a job. * Scientific selection of the person to do the newly designed job.

Workers that possessed skills and abilities that matched the needs of the task were carefully chosen for each job, by the management. * The training of the selected worker to perform the job in the way specified. Workers were to be developed and trained. It was managements task to not only engineer a job that can be performed efficiently but also to train the workers as to how the work is to be performed and for updating practices as better methods were developed. * Surveillance of workers through the use of hierarchies of authority and close supervision.

Taylor advocated functional foremanship for achieving ultimate specification. This technique was developed to improve the quality of the work as a single supervisor may not be an expert in all aspects of work, therefore workmen were supervised by a specialist foreman. (Organizational Behaviour, David A. Buchanan & Andrzej A. Huczynski, seventh edition 2010, Published by Pearson Education Limited) What did Taylor do? (Slide 6) * Taylor deskilled tradesman by dividing tasks into smaller processes Some people believed this to be dehumanising, comparing human workers to hat of machines * Each process was treated as an individual entity He believed that it was not a requirement for workers to think for themselves and was not necessary if a worker had only one simple task to perform for which management would provide detailed instructions * Taylor transferred knowledge from trades- men to management Knowledge belonged in the hands of management and by carrying out scientific studies managers would u understand the task and be able write a rule or process * Selection of employees suited to the task

Physical selection which was appropriate to the tasks would allow the selected employee to produce maximum output * Taylor told employees “do it my way and you will be given a fair days pay for a fair days work” Taylor ideas were unpopular through the introduction of finical reward for increased level of work Taylor would rely on the human instinct for safety to carry out his policies Advantages to Scientific management (Slide 7) There are many advantages to scientific management, not only for the management but also for the worker. Increased productivity Scientific management introduces new and improved methods of production and removal of inefficiency. One of its main advantages is to affect a considerable increase in the level of production. Taylor carried out experiments on Pig Iron handlers and saw his principles improve productivity from 12. 5 tons per man to 47-48 tons. * Increased company profits This increase in productivity inevitably led to increased company profit. * A fair days pay for a fair days work Taylor had a simple view about what motivated people at work – money.

He felt that workers should get a fair day’s pay for a fair day’s work, and that pay should be linked to the amount produced (e. g. piece-rates). Workers who did not deliver a fair day’s work would be paid less (or nothing). Workers who did more than a fair day’s work (e. g. exceeded the target) would be paid more. This type of management not only benefitted the worker who received higher wages the more work he did, but the company’s profits increased as the worker was motivated to produce more. * An end to employees soldiering

His principles also put an end to workers ‘soldiering’. Soldiering is the term used to describe workers who were deliberately operating well below their capacity * Scientific analysis Taylor believed that by scientifically analyzing a task he would not only be able to understand the best way for the work to be done but he would also be able to write a law to explain the process. The work is carried out systematically in accordance with these pre-determined plans. Wastage of time is reduced and the quality of work is enhanced. Micro- division of labor When Taylor broke the job up into smaller tasks it raised output per person as people became proficient through constant repetition of a task. This gain in productivity helps to lower cost per unit and yet again increase company profit. * Quality control Because of this micro division of labour the quality was easily controlled and could be checked at more manageable stages. Workers would take greater care in maintaining a high standard of quality as they would be penalized for substandard quality. * Standardization

Standardization was important not only to ensure all the products were the same quality but also to ensure all workers were treated equally and fairly, This highly systemised approach removed the negative effects and favouritism of gang members which subsequently led to a safer working environment for the employees. . In a nut shell the advantages of Taylorism is that division of labour brings expertise, efficiency, speed and techniques. Each job is specified so that employees know exactly what they are doing, organisational goals and relationships are clearly defined.

The process is easy to control, cost is cheap and quality assured. Disadvantages to scientific management (Slide 8) * Alienation between labor and managers The rift between labour and managers was widened by Taylors work which lead to wide spread industrial dispute * Workers distrust of management As work was deskilled so was part of the workers social profile, skilled engineers were no longer in demand * Resentment from workers to micro-management Micro management can be considered insulting degrading and humiliating. * Fails to understand workers social needs

Social understanding later became the source of many studies, with the sole purpose of increasing manufacturing output, but through managing workers to perform through social harmony as opposed to purely financial reward * Failed to consider motivational incentives other than financial (Extrinsic versus Intrinsic) Linked closely to the point above. * Indispensability of workers Because of the changes workers felt that their jobs were insecure and that they could be easily replaced this tied in with the division between managers and workers.

Disadvantages to scientific management continued (Slide 9) * Dehumanisation of workers Workers often felt like they were either being replaced by machines or they were asked to work like machines * Increase of clerical staff As micro management was implemented there was a greater need for * Boredom * Inability to recognise social needs with productivity * Dehumanisation of workers * Introduction of individual greed, unwelcome competition between workers which may lead to distrust and even bullying amongst peers on all levels * Increased union dispute and union power

Managers/Supervisors in a Traditional Scientific Management/Tayloristic working environment could use Herzberg’s 2 Factor Theory to motivate employees at work by:- Not treating employees has isolated components of manufacturing and treat them has human beings by:- Notes: Herzberg’s two factor theory was based on two factors. Promotion Recognition Responsibility Achievement Factors which could help motivate employees, which could lead to an increase of productivity because the employees are feeling good about themselves and what they have done and have a sense of achievement, responsibility and recognition at the end of the day.

Notes: These factors where called motivators or growth factors , the strength of these factors will affect feelings of satisfaction, but not dissatisfaction, if present, serve to motivate the individual to superior effort and performance. Security Pay Fringe Benefits working Conditions Policies Interpersonal Relationships Factors these could also play a major part in motivating employees, because if not looked after they could lead to disruption/strikes in the work place. Notes: These factors where called hygiene or maintenance factors, they serve to prevent dissatisfaction. Conclusion:

Improvement in the hygiene factors Herzberg concluded might remove dissatisfaction, but would not increase satisfaction and motivation. The redesign of jobs to increase motivation and performance should thus focus on the motivators. Summary (Slide ) * Taylor Marlow Locke Hertzerg * Just some of the industrial management revolutionists responsible for introducing important theories which proved to have a profound impact into modern techniques We have heard today about the work and studies of the above historians. Time restraints have restricted the presentation to merely summarising some of their most revolutionary work.

As often is the case with such profound changes which affect so many, critics emerge to highlight the pitfalls. (Slide ) * This is particularly evident in the work of Taylor. Many authors’ of Observational Management literature are keen to point out the disadvantages of Taylorism , this presentation has attempted to present an unbiased argument. Highlighting his work and the advantages along with the disadvantages (Slide ) * Marlow (Slide ) * Locke’s Goal setting theory (Slide ) * Herzerg’s two factor theory to motivate employees at work