Kubrick with Beethovens Ninth Symphony, which is
Kubrick LivesThe theory of authorship as applied to film directors is a subject that is argued extensively throughout the film world. The auteur theory was first introduced in the French film journal Cahiers du Cinema.
Andrew Sarris who suggested that there are a group of filmmakers who fit into this category brought the theory to America. It states that in order for a director to be considered an auteur, there must be a consistency of style and theme across a number of films. Very few contemporary filmmakers fit into this category. One filmmaker, however, expanded his filmography over four and a half decades, and created a consistent theme and style. That director was Stanley Kubrick.
Kubrick was known as a very stylistic filmmaker, so a lot can be said about his film style. His use of music, however, remains the most prominent aspect of Kubricks film style, especially as his career progressed. He was a master at using music to evoke feelings and create tension and confusion. The two most prominent examples of the power of music occur in A Clockwork Orange, and 2001: A Space Odyssey. The first of these two films, 2001, was created like a symphony. It had an overture at the beginning, a musical intermission, and an epilogue at the end. The classical work of Richard Strauss, Also Spach Zarathustra, supplies the most recognizable and moving main title theme of the film.
The use of this music as well as other classical works including the frolicky Blue Danube by Johann Strauss gives the film a flowing quality that it wouldnt normally have. Most of the music is light in nature, which contradicts the mystery that is unfolding in space. The beautiful imagery is matched well with the images and the editing to provide an incredible viewing experience.
In A Clockwork Orange, Kubrick does virtually the same thing with music, only in a darker way. In the film, Alex is given a treatment that will make him ill when confronted with violence or sex. Unfortunately for him, the films he is forced to watch are scored with Beethovens Ninth Symphony, which is Alexs favorite music.
A sense of irony and empathy is created in that by Alex trying to take the easy way out, he is forced to give up the three things he loves most: sex, violence, and Beethoven. His love of music backfires on him once again with his crooning of the song Singin in the Rain. In one of his violent attacks he sings that song throughout the scene. Ironically, this same victim brings him in later in a time of need. He gives himself away by singing in the bathtub. Both of these films use popular music in unconventional ways, and this can be traced to other Kubrick films as well.
Lolita and Dr. Strangelove are the most noteworthy.Along with a distinctive style, Kubrick films tend to have some very definitive themes going on within them. One of the most prominent themes is his treatment of the protagonist. In conventional filmmaking, the protagonist tends to be the good guy. In Kubricks films, however, the main characters (always male) tend to be not very likeable.
This theme can be seen in virtually every Kubrick film. In The Killing, the ensemble cast of characters is planning a heist, each with their own agenda. In Lolita, Humbert Humbert is an English gentleman, oh and also a pedophile. A Clockwork Oranges Alex is a young, violent, uncaring product of society. The thing that Kubrick does, however, is play with the audiences morals and emotions. He attempts, sometimes successfully, to get you to empathize and sympathize with these miscreants of society. We feel sorry at some point for poor Humbert as his Lolita, the love of his life, is taken away from him.
And Alex, poor Alex, he is a victim of the system and is ruined by the unorthodox treatment. We eventually come to our senses, but for a brief moment or longer, we become victims of Kubricks manipulative filmmaking power.Another theme that creates a thread throughout his body of work is the duality of self.
Often, Kubricks protagonists are faced with incredible conflicts within themselves. They encounter ethical, moral, and personality dilemmas. Along with conflicts within themselves, Kubrick creates parallels with these same protagonists.
In Lolita, Humbert Humbert faces moral discord in his love for Lolita. Deep down he knows that it is wrong, but he cannot help himself for feeling this way and he is too weak to fight it. Humbert is also given an opposite force that parallels him. The character of Quilty becomes a shadow of Humbert and follows our hero throughout. Only by killing Quilty can Humbert come to terms with this duality. Another film that strongly reinforces this theme is The Shining.
Jack Torrance is haunted by the past occurrences within the hotel and struggles to fight the oncoming urges within him to kill his family. There are many parallels throughout the narrative as well. There is an underlying psychic connection between Jack and his son Danny. Danny feels some of the same things that Jack does.
Also, there is a parallel between Jack and the former groundskeeper, Grady, who butchered his family. Gradys family also included two twin daughters who appear to Danny a few times within the film.Kubrick creates these dualities through narrative structure, but also reinforces them visually as well. If you look closely (and in most of his films you dont have to look that close) virtually every film has a scene where mirrors are involved. This solidifies the theme of duality by blatantly showing us the symbols.Style and theme in filmmaking go hand in hand.
Stanley Kubrick was a master of using his own personal style to create a series of works, all with very similar themes. He believed strongly in the way music can affect the development of conflict. Every film that he has directed (excluding Spartacus) has a strong music and sound design that makes it undeniably Kubrick.
(He didnt have his usual control over Spartacus). From the lush soundtrack of 2001 to the minimal soundtrack of Dr. Strangelove, we can see that every piece of music has its place and its reason for being there. Even in the trailer for the upcoming Eyes Wide Shut, you can see that music will be an important part of it. Also, because Kubrick deals with the same underlying themes from film to film to film, we can come to understand his thoughts and emotions. The troubled protagonist and the duality of self remained consistent fixtures throughout his career.
By seeing these styles and themes surface in Stanley Kubricks work, we can justify designating him a film auteur. It is a shame that we will not be able to watch him grow any further.