Jayne Spivak Blue Class 4/17/18 Works Cited Anitha
Anitha, Sundari, and Ruth Pearson. “Striking Women.” About | Striking Women, Green Net, 14 Nov. 2014, www.striking-women.org/page/about-0.
This website, developed by Dr. Sundari Anitha and Professor Ruth Pearson, lays out the experiences women during World War II faced. It begins with women’s soul work, and purpose in the war, and then leads into their wages and rights, followed by many other sub categories more specifically including: 19th and early 20th centuries, post-World War II, and from the 1970’s to the present. Dr. Sundari Anitha attended the University of Lincoln. The University of Lincoln is a public research University in the cathedral city of Lincoln, England. Recent updates show that this university was ranked in the top thirty of English universities. Anitha’s background includes managing a Women’s Aid require. Today, she is a senior lecturer at the University of Lincoln, and is active in campaigns on violence against women. Her co-worker, Professor Pearson, came to the University of Lincoln in 2000. Her in-depth research on gender work and global economy, places her a chair in women and development at the institute for Social studies. These two very intelligent, and experienced women, built this website based on a project called, “Striking Women.” “Striking Women” specifically breaks down into pieces the stereotypes of women roles, while highlighting the struggles and successes of women throughout global history. Their website includes many pictures credited to the TUC library Collections (Trade Union Congress), which is now known as the London Metropolitan University (established in 1922 due to the use of the Trades Union Congress and affiliated unions). As a whole, this website is very organized by its headings, subheadings, and other informational links. These two women give a very subjective view and state the straight up facts from the time of their research.
The section labeled, “WWI (1914-1918) lays out women’s work in the war. Large numbers on women took positions that were left behind by men who had left to fight in the war, creating more opportunities for jobs in the field. Railway guards, buses and tram conductors, postal workers, ticket collectors, police, firefighters, and clerks, were all positions women field into. Munitions factories with women primarily working them, produced 80% of the weapons and shells used by the British Army by 1917. Women risked their lives working with such dangerous substances. TNT caused their skin to turn yellow, and other poisonous substances quickly killed many of the women. To many women it was well worth it. They finally had a place to work in society, with women’s employment rates increasing. Although women were still payed less than men were, this did not stop them. Some went on strike demanding the same increase in pay as men. This created a committee set up by the War Cabinet, which questioned women’s wages. Women took a stand during World War II and made many changes and accomplishments affecting how women live today.
Hacker, Barton C. “Women in World War I.” National Museum of American History, Smithsonian, 30 Apr. 2015, americanhistory.si.edu/collections/object-groups/women-in-wwi.
Created by Barton C. Hacker, this website includes many useful facts to women’s history in World War II. Hacker attended the University of Chicago where he earned his Ph.D., bachelor in science degree, and master’s degree. The University of Chicago is a private research university and holds top-ten positions in numerous national and international rankings. Hacker’s specialties include history of military technology, comparative history of military institutions, and women’s military history. With his knowledge on military, in 1966 he won the Richard W. Leopold Price, Organization of American Historians. The Organization of American Historians gives this prize to the author or editor of the best book on many different topics. Some include foreign policy, military affairs, historical activities of the federal government, and documentary on history. Since Hacker’s nomination and win, he has been involved in projects such as co-editing a book on metalizing the military. The publisher of this website, Smithsonian, is one of the world’s largest museums, education, and research complex located in Washington D.C. This website has many substantial facts on women in the military during World War II. Very specific cub-topics such as, women’s uniforms and war posters, help to understand the idea of women in the war.
This website shares that without women in the war, armies could not have functioned as well, or even at all. The service of these women were very important in that they took on many roles and much newer ones. Many dedicated themselves to supporting the war effort. This website goes deep into the uniforms worn by women. The uniforms worn, allowed women to look the part and claim credibility for their services. This granted them to be taken more seriously, changing the face of women during this time. Also focusing on the women, who were not physically in the war, this website shares that women in media and art symbolized freedom. Women were rising up and becoming something that was people had never seen before. They created voices of their owns, work of their own, and a new face for themselves. Hacker’s website includes further sources to expand on these topics and credible images and war posters/propaganda used in the war.
Duffy, Michael. “Bibliograhy.” ww1 History, 20 Nov. 2012, 252320527578819796.weebly.com/bibliograhy.html.
This website was created by Michael Duffy who is currently Deputy Manger as an editor for the Time magazine. Since 1985, Duffy has been with Time as a reporter and editor. He attended Oberlin College in Ohio, were he was later nominated for Goodreads Choice Awards Best History and Biography. More recently, he was a Ferris Professor of journalism at Princeton University. So far, he has had three works published. One of the works he has had published is, marching in Place: The Status Quo Presidency of George Bush. Duffy has won many awards and honors over the past couple of years. To name a few are, the Gerald R. Ford award for distinguished reporting, the Joan Shorenstein Baron Prize for Investigative Journalism, the Goldsmith Prize for investigative Reporting, and the Chautauqua Price, shortlist, The Presidents Club.
Duffy’s research shares the many jobs women had taken over during the war. This includes cooks, nurses, comfort pack distributors, engineers, front line medics, and much more. Without strong women willing to step up, the soldiers in the war would not have had nearly as much of the supplies, ammo, and clerical work they needed. Women played a big role in the war and were often found fighting on the front lines for their countries as well as the men were. Many medics, whom were women, were shot on the front while trying to help wounded soldiers. They risked their lives to help save the brave men in the war, making them just as brave. For example, in the Britain army, over 12,000 women joined to serve as nurses, and 400 of them ended up dying. Overall, 1,600,000 women joined the workforce between the years of 1914-1919.
Bourke, Professor Joanna. “History – British History in Depth: Women on the Home Front in World War One.” BBC, BBC, 3 Mar. 2011, www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/britain_wwone/women_employment_01.shtml.
This website was developed by Joanna Bourke. Bourke is currently a professor of history at Birbeck College in London. Her specialty topics is in social and cultural history, violence and emotions, and modern warfare and fender. She has a long list of rewards under her belt, the most important being, the Woldson History Prize, and Fellow of the British Academy award. She dedicated her success to where she formed her educational background, the University of Auckland in New Zealand. The University of Auckland is the highest ranked university in the country. After receiving many degrees, Bourke continued on to become a well-known historian author. The book most useful being, The Second World War: A Peoples History.
Bourke’s research concludes that the world war opened up a much wider range of occupations to female workers. In the Civil Service, the number of total women increased from 33,000 in 1911 to 102,000 by 1921, showing how much of an impact women had during this time. Women’s wagers grew higher, conditions became better, and their independence was enhanced. This website also focuses on how women came together. There was some dispute between married women and single women/widows at the time. For example, Isobel M Pazzey of Woolwich wrote to the Daily Herald in October of 1919, “No decent man would allow his wife to work, and no decent woman would do it if she knew the harm she was doing to the widows and single girls who are looking for work. Put the married women out, send them home to clean their houses and look after the man they married and give a mother’s care to their children. Give the single women and widows the work.” Weather it was right for married women to attend to the war effort was conflicting between women. Bourke’s research is eye opening in showing how the women thought about each other during this time.
Adie, Kate. “The First World War Women behind the Military.” The Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, 1 Nov. 2013, www.telegraph.co.uk/history/world-war-one/inside-first-world-war/part-three/10417361/first-world-war-women.html.
Katie Adie’s research appears in The Telegraph. The Telegraph is a national British daily newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group. Distributed throughout all across the United Kingdom and internationally, The Telegraph is described as, “one of the world’s greatest titles.” Katie Adie’s public research started at Newcastle University. Newcastle is a public research university in the North-East of England. Adie is an English journalist to this day, and was chief news correspondent for BBC News. BBC News is one of the world’s largest broadcast news organizations. During her time of being chief, she became most known for reposting from war zones around the world.
Adie’s research shares that women became an essential part of the war. Millions were making munitions, learning new skills, and taking over jobs that had always been make preserved before. Upper and middle classes devoted their experience to be charity organizers. Many volunteer workers seized the change to get a chance to look after the welfare of millions. Women with first aid skills joined the Voluntary Aid Detachments and saw many horrors on the battlefield. Disturbing injuries and emotional strain was a big part of their jobs. Thousands of men filled hospitals, keeping all the women on their feet at all times. At stations and ports, canteens opened with several thousand women there. Some women endured twelve-hour long shifts, which usually were dirty, dangerous, and noisy. These women helped to keep everything under control and to keep things running smoothly. Their impact was huge in the war.
Adamson, Mike. “Volunteers during the First World War.” Volunteers during the First World War | British Red Cross, British Red Cross, 2017, www.redcross.org.uk/About-us/Who-we-are/History-and-origin/First-World-War/Volunteers-during-WW1.
Mike Adamson is chief executive at the British Red Cross. In his research, he describes the extensive training and processes women undertook as nurses. Adamson created the British Red Cross Society to be an impartial humanitarian organization. The British Red Cross focuses on helping to people in crisis, both in the UK and overseas. They are committed to helping people without discrimination, regardless of their ethnic origin, nationality, political beliefs or religion. This shows there is no bias. Their website includes background on the first Red Cross organization during WWI, focusing on women’s roles.
Adamson’s research starts with VADs (Voluntary Aid Detachments). VADs were branches of the Red Cross who has their own groups of volunteered. Some positions included nursing, transport duties, and the organization or rest stations. The training of these nurses was important. They needed to be taught first aid, home nursing and hygiene by approved medical practitioners, and needed to take classes in cookery. Some talented VADs could take special classes to become a masseuse or learn how to use an x-ray machine. A big part of their job was at rest stations. At these stations, it was vital that they provided food and other supplied to soldiers arriving in ambulances as they waited to be transported to local hospitals. In addition, many auxiliary hospitals opened out throughout Britain, caring for the wounded and very sick soldiers.
Wilde, Robert. “What Role Did Women Play in World War I?” ThoughtCo, 27 Mar. 2017, www.thoughtco.com/women-and-work-world-war-1-1222030.
Robert Wilde graduated from Sheffield University. Sheffield is a public research university in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. Wilde graduated with his Master’s Degree in interdisciplinary Medieval Studies, and his Bachelor’s degree in history. This website includes numerous links that go deeper into facts of WW1. The website was updated very recently, last up to date on March 27th, 2017. It includes various credited pictures and a video to help deeper explain the role on women in WW1.
The post-war effects proved to many that women were capable of much more than they were sought out to be. They could do a much wider range of work than believed. Nevertheless, once the war was over and the men returned, many women found themselves out of work. This meant a direct return to the household life. However, this did not mean it was so easy for the men. There was pressure on the returning men who wanted their previous jobs back. The women had taken so many opportunities while the men were gone. They expanded their careers and changed their lives for new offers. There were many patriot reasons for why the women joined the war, but also they genuinely wanted/needed to help the war effort. Also, higher waged played a part, and a rise in social status. No matter what the reason, women had dominated in the work field for some time. The men were in for a shock when they returned.