Iraq: desert, with mild to cool winters
Iraq: A Country on the RiseLauterbach, KevinHistory, Period 4January 7, 1996Iraq is a country that is on the rise. After being crushed by alliedtroops for their invasion of Kuwait, they have begun the slow rebuilding process.In this report, I will discuss the basic geographic features of Iraq, and othervarious important features such as mineral wealth, vegetation, ect.Iraq’s total area is 271,128 square miles (just slightly more than twicethe size of Idaho). It’s capital, Baghdad, is located at 33.20 north longitude,44.
24 east latitude. It’s boundaries are 2,222 miles long. With 906 milesbordering Iran, 83 miles bordering Jordan, 149 miles bordering Kuwait, 502 milesbordering Saudi Arabia, 376 miles bordering Turkey, and a coastline 36 mileslong. The terrain in Iraq is mostly broad plains, with reedy marshes in thesoutheast, mountains along toe borders with Iran and Turkey.
The Climate in Iraq is most desert, with mild to cool winters and dry,hot cloudless summers. The northernmost regions along Iranian and Turkishborders experience cold winters and occasional heavy snows. Iraq has fewnatural resources, consisting of Crude oil, natural gas, various phosphates, andsulfur. Their maritime (ocean) clams are just the continental shelf on theircoastline, and twelve nautical miles beyond that.Iraq and Iran have just recently restored diplomatic relations in theyear 1990, but are still trying to work out written agreements settling theirdisputes from their eight-year war concerning definite borders, prisoners-of-war,and freedom of navigation and sovereignty over the Shatt-al-Arab waterway. InApril of 1991, Iraq officially accepted the UN Security Council’s Resolution 687,which states that Iraq accepts the boundaries that were set in it’s 1963agreement with Kuwait, and ending all claims to the Bubiyan and Warbah Islands,and all claims to Kuwait.
On June 17, 1992, the UN Security council reaffirmedthe finality of the Boundary Demarcation Commission’s decisions. Disputes alsooccur with Syria about water rights on the Euphrates, and a potential disputewith Turkey for the Tigris and Euphrates river.Iraq has some environmental problems, consisting of air and waterpollution, soil degradation (caused by salinization), land erosion, anddeserification. Iraq has 12% of it’s land still arable, with 1% permanent crops,9% meadows and pastures, 3% forest and wood land, 4% irrigated farm land, and75% is used for other various things (housing, ect.
)Iraq does not produce very many industrial products. On the averageyear, Iraq produces 13,000 metric tons of paper and paperboard, 3,000 metrictons of particle board, 8,000 sawnwood, 207,000 metric tons of phosphatefertilizer, and 409,000 metric tons of nitrogen fertilizer.Iraq currently has 1,300,000 televisions in use (about 69 per 1,000people). It also has 3,880,000 radios in use (about 205 per 1,000 people).Iraq has 6 newspaper publications, with a circulation of 650,000 a day (about 34per 1,000 people). This causes a 1,797 kilograms of newsprint to be consumedper 1,000 people. Iraq has one FM station and 16 AM broadcast stations, and 13TV stations.
Reconstruction of Iraq’s telecommunication system began afterDesert Storm was over. It includes of many coaxial cables and microwave links,632,000 telephones (with an operational network), satellite earth stations, 1INTELSAT satellite and 1 GORIZONT satellite over the Atlantic Ocean, 1 INTELSATsatellite over the Indian Ocean, and 1 ARABSAT in the Intersputnik system.Their country telephone code is 964.In Iraq, travel can be very shaky.
International flight schedules canchange without prior notice. The Al-Basrah and Umm Qasar Seaports are closedbecause of their proximity to the war zone. A railroad connects At-Basrah toBaghdad, but the Syrian segment of the railroad linking Iraq to Turkey andEurope has been closed since 1982. Border crossing points between and Iraq andSyria and Iraq and Iran have been closed. Iraq has paved highways connectingmajor cites and neighboring countries.
Some highways have been severelydeteriorated due to increased use by heavy military and commercial vehicles.Iraq has 21,566 total miles of highways, with 10,876 miles of it beingpaved, and the other 11,000 miles being improved earth. It has 2,704 miles ofcrude oil pipelines, 451 miles of petroleum pipelines, and 845 miles of naturalgas pipelines. It has 1,527 miles of railroad.
Iraq has 42 ships registered toit. Including of 1 passenger, 1 passenger/cargo, 16 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo,3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 19 petroleum tankers, and 1 chemical tanker. Butsince January 1, 1992, none of them have been trading internationally. Iraq hasabout 631 miles of inland waterways to trade amongst it self. After the PersianGulf war, Shatt-al-Arab was closed down for trading. Iraq only has onecurrently open port at Khawr az Zubayr. Iraq has 98 usable (but 113 total)airports, 73 of them with permanent-surface runways.
Iraq’s agricultural products include the following:Asses:355,000 headBuffaloes: 130,000 headCamels: 10,000 headCattle: 1,400,000 headGoats: 1,500,000 headHorses: 40,000 headMules: 2,000 headSheep: 9,000,000 headChickens: 35,000,000 headPoultry: 65,000 THen Eggs: 45,000 TFish: 14,000 TAlmonds: 700 TDates: 580,000 TFruits: 1,169,000 TLemons: 13,000 TOranges: 185,000 TSugar Beets: 5,000 TBarley: 100,000 TCorn: 100,000 TDry Beans: 8,000 TOats: 1,000 TTobacco: 3,000 TOlives: 3,000 TPotatoes: 195,000 TRice: 150,000 TSoybeans: 2,000 TSunflower Seeds: 25,000 TVegetables: 2,306,000 TWalnuts: 2,400 TWheat: 260,000 TBeef and Veal: 38,000 TSugar Cane: 13,000 TButter and Cheese: 7,393 TCotton: 5,000 THoney: 2,200 T21.3% of the land in Iraq is reserved for agriculture. Iraq has 1,053,000people working for agriculture (about 19.8% of the economically active part ofthe population). There about 2,300 threshers in use.In Iraq, the Ba’thist regime is in charge of the extensive centralplanning and management of industrial production and foreign trade, whileleaving some small-scale industry and services and most agriculture to privateenterprise. The economy has been dominated by the oil sector, which hastraditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings.
In the 1980s,financial problems caused by massive expenditures in the eight-year war withIran, with the damage to oil export facilities caused by Iran, led thegovernment to implement austerity measures and to borrow heavier and rescheduleforeign debt payments. After 1988, oil exports gradually increased and many newpipelines were made. But Agricultural development remained hampered by laborshortages, the salinization of the land, and dislocations caused by previousland reform programs. Also, the industrial part of the economy was also underfinancial constraints. But after Iraq’s seizure of Kuwait in August 1990, withit’s subsequent international economic embargoes, it’s economic picture changeddrastically. Industrial and transportation facilities suffered severe damage,Oil exports remain at less than 10% of it’s previous level.
Living standardsdeteriorated even further in 1992, and 1993. Consumer prices tripled in 1992.The UN-sponsored economic embargo reduced exports and imports to Iraq. Also,the government’s policies of supporting a large military and internal securityforce have drained the country’s treasury.
Iraq’s GDP (gross domestic product) is about $35 billion dollars, withthe average person making $1,940 a year. It’s labor force is 4,400,000, causinga severe labor shortage. Iraq’s industrial production accounts for about 10% ofits GDP. Iraq spends about $6.6 billion a year importing commodities such asmanufactures and food.
They have trade relations with the US, France, Turkey,and UK. But Iraq’s makes about $10.4 billion a year exporting such commoditiessuch as crude oil and other refined products, fertilizer, and sulfur.
Theyexport to the US, Brazil, Turkey, Japan, the Netherlands, and Spain. Iraq’sunemployment rate is about 5%.Iraq’s nation debt is $45 billion (excluding a debt of about $35 owed toArab Gulf states). Iraq invests %8.1 of it’s GDP. Iraq produces 3,800,000 kWof electricity a year.
Iraq has received about $650 million in economic aid,most of coming from Western, non-US countries, from 1970-1989. But after theGulf War, they have received none. Iraq’s official currency is Iraqi dinars(ID).
It is 3.1 dinars to the dollar, but the black market rate is 12 to thedollar.Iraq’s government is technically considered a republic, with it’scapital located in Baghdad. Iraq’s formal name is the Republic of Iraq. Iraqreceived it’s independence from the League of Nations (under Britishadministration) on October 3, 1932. Iraq contains of 18 provinces or muhafazah:Al Anabar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna, Al Quadisiyah, An Najaf, Arbil, AsSulaymaniyah, At Ta’im, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Quar, Diyala, Karbala, Maysan,Ninawa, Salah ad din, Wasist. Iraq’s constitution was drafted on September 22,1968, and was ratified on July 16, 1970 (incidentally, a new constitution wasdrafted in 1990, but was not adopted).
Iraq’s government is very similar to theUS’, consisting of a executive, legislative, and judicial branch, with universalsuffrage at the adult age of 18. It’s leaders include the Chief of State,Saddam Husayn, Vice Presidents Taha Muhyi al-Din Ma’ruf, and then Taha Yasin.The Head of Government is Ahmad Husayn Khudayir al-Sammarrai. Iraq has fivebranches of military: Army and Republican Guard, Navy, Air Force, Border GuardForce, and Internal Security Forces.Health conditions in Iraq are very poor.
There are only 9,442 (about 6per every 10,000 people) with about the same number of nurses, and only 1,465dentists (about 1 per every 10,000 people). In a survey only 10% of marriedwomen reported to use any form of birth control. Infant death is extremely highat 79 deaths per 1,000 with a total of 68,121 per year. 83% of the country isimmunized for measles and DPT.Education is also very poor. The literacy rate is only about 60% (49%in females, and 70% in males).
A child is only educated from ages 6-12. Also,there are only 31 museums in Iraq.The population in Iraq in 1993 was 19,162,000 people. It is estimatedthat in 2025, there will be 52,615,000 people living there. The populationdensity is about 110 people per square mile. Only 70% of the total populationof Iraq live in urban areas. The population of Iraq is growing 3.
7% per year,with the population doubling every 18.94 years. The average woman will have 7children. The life expectancy in Iraq is 64.4 years for females, and 63.
2 yearsfor Males. 145,855 people were married last year (about 8.5 people perthousand). 97% of Iraq is Muslim, the other 3% being other various religions.Iraq’s official language is Arabic, but Kurdish, Assyrian, and Armenian are alsospoke frequently.
If you are planning to travel to Iraq in the future, you had better not.The Department of State warns all US citizens against traveling to Iraq.Conditions within the country remain unsettled and dangerous. The US does notmaintain diplomatic relations with Iraq, and cannot provide normal consularprotective services to US citizens.
A passport and visa are required to travel to Iraq (along with an AIDStest if you are planning to stay longer than 5 days). Since 1991, US passportsare not valid for travel in, to, or through Iraq without authorization from theDepartment of state. An adapter is necessary to use Iraqi electrical outlets.Although Iraq does not have an embassy in the US, it does have an interestsection in the Algerian Embassy in Washington, DC. Iraqi nation holidays arethe following: New Years Day-Jan. 1, Iraqi Army Day-Jan.
6, Id al-Fitr-Apr. 16,Id al-Adha-Jun. 21, 1958 Revolution-Jul. 14, 1968 Revolution-Jul. 17,Although Iraq may have it’s problems now, it is a country on the rise.It’s economy is stabilizing. and it’s government is in the process of working itbugs out.
Some day, Iraq may be one of the world’s superpowers, just like theUS.