Hypercholesterolemia, height low-density lipoprotein (LDL) hypertriglyceridemia and cholesterol concentration were major risk factor for the expansion cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis . continual hypercholesterolemia data an increase in production and secretion of LDL that protract its phase circulation, which increases oxidative stress and leads to the oxidative modification of LDL to oxidized LDL (Vázquez-Castilla et al., 2013).
Synthetic drugs like fibrates and statins, which decrease levels lipid and cholesterol possesses potentially toxic side effects. Viable alternatives to the synthetic drugs were product natural with high lipid lower probability with minimal or no side effect. Earlier studies reveal that the consuming medicinal plant saponins contain will reduce risk from hypercholesterolemia (Marrelli et al., 2016).
Saponin compounds that occur naturally in plants and possess detergent-like properties of (the name saponin is derived from the word “soap”). Saponins chemical structure and a large amount of search has been result in last decade to try to isolate and saponins identify found in plants. Saponins consists of a hydrophobic nucleus (steroidal or triterpenoid) connected hydrophilic group (carbohydrate side chains) (Hostettmann and Marston, 1995). Saponins general classified by the structure chemical of they nucleus (aglycone). So, there are saponins steroidal and triterpenoid. Although however saponins have diverse structures chemical, they possess some common features. Example common traits bitterish (associated with reduced palatability to animals), formation stable foams solutions watery (detergent-like properties), toxicity to mollusks and fish (piscicidal and molluscicidal uses), ability to form complex with bile acids and cholesterol (Sidhu and Oakenfull, 1986), and interactions with membranes cell (red blood cell hemolyses). Within a plant, concentrations saponins tend to be found in the roots and growing shoots. However, these trend variable depend on species plants. For example, saponaria quillaja contains high levels saponins in bark, while alfalfa in root. Saponins have shown to impact digestion nutrient and absorption in ways. Mechanisms action implicated this effect not clearly visible. It has determined that saponins complexe insoluble with cholesterol and availability prevent of bile salts (Oakenfull, 1986). This interaction exert effects on formation micelle, impair absorption off at and compounds fat-soluble (Jenkins and Atwal, 1994). possess Saponins wide range of activities biological, one them being the capacity to inhibit absorption cholesterol , decrease serum and cholesterol liver. The effect has important implications health human, it could help battle hypercholesterolemia and the cardiovascular disease, associated with it (Vinarova et al., 2015).
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) contains seed alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins but out of all this, saponins were found to be concentration in the fenugreek (Jani et al., 2009; Uemura et al., 2011; Kumar et al., 2012). Fenugreek contains seed 3.5% alkaloids, primarily trigonelline, whereas saponin was found to be 4.8% (Rao et al., 1996; Faeste et al., 2009; Jani et al., 2009). Alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins of fenugreek have effects pharmacological. Their act as antilipidemic, agent cholagogic and hypoglycaemic and use should be promoted to diabetes manage, hypercholesterolemia because clinical evidence shows promising results in serum reduced level cholesterol (Izzo et al., 2005; Murlidhar and Goswami, 2012). Fenugreek seeds have lower cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein in suffering patients hypercholesterolemia and models experimental. Fenugreek consuming in diet triglyceride decrease accumulation in liver with insulin or glucose obesity sufferance rats (Basch et al., 2003; Murlidhar and Goswami, 2012).
Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) contains bioactive constituents such fiber, polyphenols, saponins, sterols, oligosaccharides, carotenoids and amino acids, all of which may contribute to the functional properties of this vegetable. Among compounds with antioxidant, asparagus contains a large quantitie from polyphenols, flavonoids. The flavonoid constitutes 60%–80% of the total phenolic asparagus extracts, and rutin could be directly related to the antioxidant characteristics of asparagus (Vázquez-Castilla et al., 2013).
Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root contains extract of triterpenes saponin (glycyrrhizin, acid glycyrrhetinic and acid liquirtic), flavoniods and other constituents such as coumarins, sugar and polysaccharide such starch, amino acids, tannins, phytosterols, salts mineral and different other substance (Fukai et al., 1998). The more important compounds are glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhizic, which are believed to be partly responsible for anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diuretic, anti-epileptic, anti-hepatotoxic, anti-viral activities, anti-allergic and antioxidant property of the plant as well as their ability to fight low blood (Ross, 2001; Arystanova et al., 2001; Al Qarawi et al., 2001). The other important compound is glabridin, it major flavonoid, present specifically in licorice; it has various physiological activities such as cytotoxic, anti-tumor promoting, antimicrobial, estrogenic and anti-proliferative activity against human breast cell cancer. It also affects melanogensis, inflammation, low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and protection of mitochondria functions from oxidative stresses (Khatta and Simpson, 2010).
Soapwort (Saponaria officinalis) extract is obtained by boiling the roots of the soapwort. Saponins (active substance of soapwort extract) are found in the diet, phytochemical saponins have a wide spectrum of activity as antifungal and antibacterial agents, lowering of blood cholesterol and inhibition of cancer cell growth. However, many saponins show haemolytic activity, and have a bitter taste (Ceyhun-Sezgin and Artik, 2010). The cholesterol-lowering activity of saponaria has been demonstrated both in animal studies and in clinical trials with humans. It was proposed that the saponin action must be inside the intestine, because the saponins are not absorbed in the gut. Some saponins (soya, soapwort) inhibit intestinal bile salt (BS) reabsorption via formation of large saponin + BS aggregates, which enhances BS synthesis from cholesterol in the liver and, thus, leads to cholesterol depletion (Vinarova et al., 2015).
Therefore, the study was carried out to evaluate the effects of steroidal extracted from fenugreek and asparagus, and triterpenoidal extracted from soapwort and licorice against hypercholesterolemia induced by feed of rats on cholesterol high diet. The present study was also aimed to compare between the efficacies of both types of saponins (steroidal and triterpenoidal) from these plant extracts hypercholesterolemia in the rats