Gregor observed several characteristics of thegarden peas which

Gregor observed several characteristics of thegarden peas which

Gregor Mendel playeda huge role in the underlying principles of genetic inheritance. Gregor wasborn, July 22 1822 in Heinzendorf, Austrian Silesia (now known as Hyncice,Czech Republic), with the name Johann Mendel. He changed his name to Gregorin 1843.

He grew up in an Augustinian brotherhood and he learned agriculturaltraining with basic education. He then went on to the Olmutz PhilosophicalInstitute and later entered the Augustinian Monastery in 1843. After 3 yearsof theological studies, Mendel went to the University of Vienna, where 2 professorsinfluenced him; the physicist Doppler and a botanist named Unger.

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Here he learnedto study science through experimentation and aroused his interest in the causesof variation in plants. He returned to Brunn in 1854 where he was a teacheruntil 1868. Mendel died January 6 1884.In 1857, Mendel began breeding gardenpeas in the abbey garden to study inheritance, which lead to his law of Segregationand independent assortment.

Mendel observed several characteristics of thegarden peas which include: plant height (tallness/shortness), seed color (green/yellow),seed shape (smooth/wrinkled), seed-coat color (gray/white), pod shape (full/constricted),pod color (green/yellow), and flower distribution (along length/ at end ofstem). Mendel keep careful records of his experiments and first reported hisfindings at a meeting of the Brunn Natural History Society. The results ofMendel’s work were published in 1866 as “Experiments with Plant Hybrids” inthe society’s journal. Mendel’s Law of Segregation stated that the membersof a pair of homologous chromosomes segregate during meiosis and is distributedto different gametes. This hypothesis can be divided into four main ideas.

The first idea is that alternative versions of genes account for variationsin inherited characters. Different alleles will create different variationsin inherited characters. The second idea is that for each character, an organisminherits two genes, one for each parent. So that means that a homologouslocimay have matching alleles, as in the true-breeding plants of Mendel’s P generation(parental). If the alleles differ, then there will be F hybrids.

The thirdidea states that if the two alleles differ, the recessive allele will haveno affect on the organism’s appearance. So an F hybrid plant that has purpleflowers, the dominant allele will be the purple-color allele and the recessiveallele would be the white-color allele. The idea is that the two genes foreach character segregate during gamete production. Independent assortment statesthat each member of a pair of homologous chromosome segregates during meiosisindependently of the members of other pairs so that alleles carried on differentchromosomes are different distributed randomly to the gametes. Mendel’swork was not recognized right away as an important scientific breakthrough.In 1868 Mendel was promoted to abbot at the monastery and gave up his experiments.

Aside from his fellow monks and his students his work was ignored. In factthe importance of Mendel’s work was not discovered until 1900, sixteen yearsafter his death. His work was discovered by three European scientists: HugoDe Vries, Carl Correns, and Erich Tschermak, working independently as theypreformed their own similar experiments. They credited Gregor Mendel as thediscoverer of the laws of heredity. In conclusion, Mendel’s work was veryimportant to the science community, and is to this day being studied. Allhis work was done without himself ever receiving credit while he was alive.

His laws of heredity are still used today and he now has received credit asthe discoverer of the laws of heredity.

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